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Spanish 2 Final Exam Review

A review of the grammar from chapters 12, 13, and 14 in the red Buen Viaje book and 3 and 4 from the green book.
by

Zach Stewart

on 5 June 2015

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Transcript of Spanish 2 Final Exam Review

Repaso para el examen final
Vocabulario


Gramática
Capítulo 12
-la rutina diaria
-ir de camping
-verbos reflexivos
-verbos 'de bota' en el presente y el pretérito
What are reflexive verbs?
reflexive verbs refer to an action that a person does to him or herself. An example verb would be '
mirar
se
'

Example:
I look
at
myself
in the mirror.
How do we conjugate them?
Me
miro
en el espejo.
Reflexive verbs look like this:
mirar
se
,
duchar
se
,
despertar
se
,
lavar
se
,
acostar
se
The
red
part is just like a regular verb
The
blue
part is called the reflexive pronoun
To conjugate, just take off the
reflexive pronoun
, conjugate the
rest of the verb
normally (in whichever tense is appropriate) and then choose the correct
reflexive pronoun
to put in front of the verb.

The reflexive pronouns are
me
(
myself
),
te
(
yourself
),
se
(
himself, herself, themselves, yourself
), and
nos
(
ourselves
)

Here are some examples in the present, preterite, and imperfect tenses:

I shower (myself). Me ducho.

I showered this morning. Me duché esta mañana.

I used to shower at night. Me duchaba por la noche.
for more help with reflexive verbs, follow this link to a Prezi I made earlier in the year to help explain reflexive verbs.

http://prezi.com/yerxjdqx_3bb/reflexive-verbs/
Boot verbs are old news so I'm not gonna spend a lot of time on them. Remember that they have some sort of change in the
stem
of the verb (
despert
arse,
acost
arse) in all the forms except for the nosotros and vosotros.

Typically the letter "
e
" will change to "
ie
" in verbs like desp
e
rtarse, s
e
ntarse, and div
e
rtirse.

The letter "
o
" changes to "
ue
" in verbs like ac
o
starse and d
o
rmirse.

For these verbs,
the changes only take place in the PRESENT TENSE
(Me desp
ie
rto/ Me desp
e
rté).
Oh yeah, one last thing. If a reflexive verb needs to stay in the infinitive (unconjugated form) for some reason (comes after another verb or a phrase like
antes de
or
después de
), you still need to change
the reflexive pronoun
.

Examples:
Yo necesito duchar
me
.

Tenemos que cepillar
nos
los dientes dos veces al día.

Después de duchar
te
, te secas con una toalla.
Vocabulario


Gramática
Capítulo 13
-la estación de ferrocarril
-el tren
-so many irregular verbs...
All of the verbs we learned in this chapter are
super irregular
in the preterit tense. Not only do they have an irregular set of verb endings, but they also have changes in the stem of the verb.
We'll break the verbs up into four different groups according to their change in stem. The first group all have an "i" in the stem.

hacer (to do/ to make) querer (to want) venir (to come)

preterite (to try, to refuse)
yo
hice quise vine

hiciste quisiste viniste
él/ella/Ud.
hizo quiso vino
nosotros
hicimos quisimos vinimos
vosotros
hicisteis quisisteis vinisteis
ellos/ellas/Uds.
hicieron quisieron vinieron
All the following verbs have the stem change "uv" in common.

estar (to be) andar (to walk) tener (to have)

yo
estuve anduve tuve

estuviste anduviste tuviste
él/ella/Ud.
estuvo anduvo tuvo
nosotros
estuvimos anduvimos tuvimos
vosotros
estuvisteis anduvisteis tuvisteis
ellos/ellas/Uds.
estuvieron anduvieron tuvieron
This set of verbs all have a "u" in the stem.

poner (to put) poder (to be able to) saber (to know)

preterit (to find out)
yo
puse pude supe

pusiste pudiste supiste
él/ella/Ud.
puso pudo supo
nosotros
pusimos pudimos supimos
vosotros
pusisteis pudisteis supisteis
ellos/ellas/Uds.
pusieron pudieron supieron

decir (to say/tell) traer (to bring)

yo
dije traje

dijiste trajiste
él/ella/Ud.
dijo trajo
nosotros
dijimos trajimos
vosotros
dijisteis trajisteis
ellos/ellas/Uds.
dijeron trajeron
The last two verbs have the letter "j" in the stem.
Don't forget to study what the verbs actually mean, you'll need to know it for the final!
I would make flash cards like this... but that's just me.
estar
to be
estuv-
e imos
iste isteis
o ieron
Vocabulario


Gramática
Capítulo 14
-el restaurante
-la comida
-presente- verbos de bota
-pretérito- verbos de sandalia
Verbos de bota
yo
s
i
rvo
nosotros
servimos


s
i
rves
vosotros
servís


él ellos
ella
s
i
rve
ellas
s
i
rven
Ud. Uds
Most of the verbs in this chapter are
(e->i)
boot verbs. Remember that you don't change the "
e
" to an "
i
" outside of the boot (in the nosotros and vosotros forms)

verbs that follow this change are: s
e
rvir, p
e
dir, s
e
guir, rep
e
tir, fr
e
ír
servir
slipper verbs
The slipper verbs are just the boot verbs we just looked at in the preterit tense. Instead of changing "
e
" to "
i
" in the forms inside of the boot, you will now just change to an "
i
" in the él/ella/Ud. and ellos/ellas/Uds. forms.
Oh... and don't forget to use the preterit endings!
yo
serví
nosotros
servimos


serviste
vosotros
servisteis


él ellos
ella
s
i
rvió
ellas
s
i
rvieron
Ud. Uds
Vocabulario


Gramática
Capítulo 3
-la computadora
-el teléfono celular
-el imperfecto
-los usos del imperfecto
yo

él
ella
Ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos
ellas
Uds.
El Imperfecto
Remember that
one of the reasons
we use the imperfect is to express that one has done an action
repeatedly
or
habitually
in the past.

We'll also talk about the other uses of the imperfect later on.
"-ar" verbs in the imperfect are very simple to conjugate. There are no irregulars and the endings are very easy to remember, because they mostly sound ridiculous..
trabajar- to work
trabaj
trabaj
trabaj
trabaj
trabaj
trabaj
aba
abas
aba
ábamos
abais
aban
*OJO*
Trabajaba
can mean either:
I used to work.
I was working.
yo

él
ella
Ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos
ellas
Uds.
tener- to have
ten
ía

ten
ías

ten
ía

ten
íamos

ten
íais

ten
ían

"-er" and "-ir" verbs share the same endings, and with the exception of
ir
,
ser
, and (kind of)
ver
, they are all regular.
iba íbamos
ibas ibais
iba iban
era éramos
eras erais
era eran
ser
ir
ver
veía veíamos
veías veíais
veía veían
Remember that aside from "used to ____" or "was ____-ing" something, the imperfect should also be used to express the following in the past (remember the yellow posters we made in class?):
Age
- Yo tenía diez años cuando fui a la playa por la primera vez.
Appearance
- La muchacha era flaca y morena.
Physical Condition
- Los niños estaban enfermos la semana pasada.
Emotional State
- Nosotros estábamos muy emocionados.
Attitudes and Desires
- Tú querías ser astronauta cuando eras niño.
Location
- Ellos estaban en el andén, esperando el tren.
Date
- Era el 27 de agosto.
Time
- Eran las cuatro de la tarde.
Weather
- Llovía mucho durante la boda.
Vocabulario


Gramática
Capítulo 4
-la ropa
-la comida
-el imperfecto y el pretérito
-la voz pasiva con "se"
The basic difference between the preterit and the imperfect is how often the action being described is done. As a general rule, preterit actions happen once, and imperfect actions happened several times in the past.
Preterit- These phrases are typically used in sentences expressed in the preterit tense because they imply that the action happened once in the past.

Ayer...
Anoche...
Una vez...
Esta_____.... (This...)
El _____ pasado...
Imperfect- These phrases are typically found in imperfect sentences because they imply that the actions happened several times in the past.

Todos los....
Cada...
...mucho
...con frecuencia
Siempre...
Remember that we can also use the preterit and the imperfect in one sentence if there is an interrupting action.
Me lavaba en la ducha cuando...
...describes the continuous action.

(what "was" happening)
i...el jabón explotó!
...describes the interrupting action.
Lastly, don't forget that any verbs that deal with mental processes like
thinking
,
believing
,
wanting
,
feeling
,
knowing
, etc. are typically used in the imperfect as well. Below are some example verbs.
pensar- to think
creer- to believe
querer- to want
desear- to desire
tener ganas de- to feel like (doing something)
saber- to know
iAy! iUn triángulo!
We use the passive voice (la voz pasiva) to talk about things that "are done" (is done, is eaten, are eaten, is bought, are bought, etc).
Se vende
pan en la panadería.
En España
se habla
español.
Se compran
productos congelados en el supermercado.
En El Salvador
se comen
pupusas.
There are only two forms one can use to express something in the passive voice in Spanish, the 'singular' and the 'plural'.

If the thing being
sold / bought / eaten / worn / spoken
is singular you will use "se" with the present tense singular form of the verb (
vende / compra / come / lleva / habla
). If it is plural, then you will use "se" with the present tense plural form of the verb (
venden / compran / comen / llevan / hablan
).
Don't forget to look over all of your vocabulary as well! The test is multiple choice but the more prepared you are the easier it will be!
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