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AS English Language - Language & Occupation

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Izzy Mehmet

on 13 April 2014

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Transcript of AS English Language - Language & Occupation

Occupational Interactions
Interactions may occur between or among those within an occupation, or between those inside & outside (customers, clients, the “general public”). This distinction will significantly affect language choices.
Some uses are exclusive, because they shut out people who don't know them. This happens when doctors share a common lexicon (things like ECG, CAT-scan, myocardial infarction). It's opaque to outsiders, and meant to be. (Increasingly, outsiders are aware of this medical jargon, thanks to TV.) Some occupations promote neologisms. These may be used for competition or individual advancement within an organization (knowing the latest “buzz words”) rather than for linguistic efficiency.
AS English Language

Language and Occupation
David Crystal's Classification of Illocutionary Acts
Illocutionary acts:
the real actions which are performed by the utterance. Saying = Doing, as in betting, welcoming and warning.
A lot of the theories here can also be applied to Language and Power because of the general hierarchical structure of most workplaces.
Grice's Maxims, for example, can be applied to practically any text.
Language and Occupation relies mostly on tenor, and tenor is present in all the subsections of Presenting Self and it's only aspect which is specific to it is the idea of jargon, so as long as you remember that, you should be fine.
H.P Grice's Maxims
Quality:
Speakers should tell the truth, not say what they think false, or make statements without evidence.
Quantity:
Speakers should be as informative as necessary for conversation to proceed; don't say too little or too much.
Relevance:
Speakers should relate clearly to the purpose of the exchange.
Manner:
Speakers' contributions should be clear, orderly and brief, avoiding obscurity and ambiguity.
Functions of Language in Occupational Contexts:
Communicating information
Requesting help
Confirming arrangements
Instructing colleagues or employees
Making things happen

The language used in occupational contexts tends to be mostly transactional.
Austin&Seale's Terms
Presupposition:

Inference:

Implicature:
What is already known or assumed

What the listener/reader understands or guesses

What the speaker/writer is implying or suggesting
Representatives:
The speaker asserts a proposition to be true, using verbs: affirm, believe, conclude, deny, report.
Directives:
The speaker tries to make the listener do something, with verbs like: ask, beg, challenge, command, dare, invite, insist, request.
Commissives:
The speaker commits themselves to a (future) course of action, with verbs such as: guarantee, pledge, promise, swear, vow, undertake, warrant.
Expressives:
The speaker expresses an attitude to or about a state of affairs, using verbs: apologize, appreciate, congratulate, deplore, detest, regret, thank, welcome.
Declarations:
The speaker alters the external status or condition of an object or situation, solely by making the utterance: I now pronounce you man and wife, I name this ship, I sentence you to be hanged by the neck until you be dead.
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