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Transcript of Cognitive Psychology
Colleen O'shea Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Co-founder of Gestalt Psychology
worked with Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka
Started a graduate school in Berlin
Emigrated to the United States Gestalt Psychology "In perception, the whole may exceed the sum of its parts"
People organize sensations into clusters of gestalts The Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Proximity - Grouping nearby figures together Similarlity - Group similar objects together Continuity - We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones Connectedness - We perceive uniformed and linked objects as a single unit Closure -We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object Figure and Ground - We organize a stimulus into a figure seen against a ground Max Wertheimer (cont.) He wrote a book on problem solving
Defined many visual illusions like the phi phenomenon and the beta movement Jean Piaget (1896-1968) Developmental Psychologist
Studied the development of children
The mind of a child develops through a series of stages
"The driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences"
Genetic epistemology Schemas - Concepts or mental molds into which we categorize our experiences through assimilating and accommodating Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational Sensorimotor Concrete Operational Formal Operational Sensorimotor - From birth to nearly two years of age
- Experiences the world through senses and actions
- Developmental phenomena: object permanence and stranger anxiety Preoperational -From 2 years of age to about 6 or 7
- Representing things with words or images
- Developmental phenomena: Egocentrism and Pretend play Concrete Operational - From about 7 to 11 years old
- Thinking logically about concrete events
- Developmental phenomena: Conservation and Mathetmical transformations Formal Operational - From about 12 years old through adulthood
- Abstract reasoning
- Developmental phenomena: Abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning Evaluation of Piaget's theory Strengths: Weaknesses: - Has been applied for practical uses
- Has changed researcher methods of studying children
- Was in the inspiration of many - Piaget's methods were subject to bias
- Piaget underestimated the abilities of children
- Some believe development is continuous and not in stages - refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating In The Beginning... Edwin Tolman Noam Chomsky _ Gestalt Psychology
- Behavior Psychology
- Humanism Theory of Language Acquisition Language acquisition is an innate structure, or function, of the human brain
The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other beings Optimal Learning Age Between 3 and 10, a child is most likely to learn a language to complete fluency
After this age, it is more difficult for the child to learn the new language entirely Natural Speaking A child will begin attempting to speak the language it is exposed to without prompting of the parents Persisting Errors Even if the child is corrected grammatically, it will still continue to make the same errors because it's perception of the language has not changed. Same Stages No matter where the child is in the world, it will go through the different stages of learning the language at the same developmental time A B C F G H D The dog eated the treat I have two feets There are mouses! Hola Bonjour Guten Tag Ciao Zdravstvujte Ahoj Merhaba Shwmae Basic Areas Of Experimentation Theory of universal grammar Theory of language acquisition Professor in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT
"Father of Modern Linguistics" - Attention
- Language use
- Memory perception
- Problem Solving
- Thinking Attention What is Cognition? Subsections of Cognitive Psychology Neuroscience Noam Chomsky Continued World's most famous Linguist to date
Born in 1928 in Philadelphia
Undergraduate at University of
Wrote a book: "The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory" Experimental Psychology Linguistics Computer Science and artificial intelligence Daniel Kahneman Started his Psychology career as a lecturer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize for Economics Worked with Amos Tversky about human errors Cognitive Bias The "Leaderless Group
They observed which men took leadership roles at the beginning, and which were leaders all throughout the challenge
Their observations would then be used to predict the soldier's success in the military leadership program Results. . . The observations had an extremely low chance of accurately predicting the soldier's performance in the program
The observers knew the low statistics, but were not discouraged at all
They continued to observe despite the low validity of the data they produced.
Kahneman had discovered a cognitive illusion Cognitive Bias A pattern of deviation in judgement where inferences of other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion.
People create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the situation. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate one's behavior in the social world.
Cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgement, illogical interpretation, or irrationality - Cocktail Party Effect
- Attentional spotlight
- Dividing attention
- Simultaneous reading and writing
- Detecting structured sub-lists
- Reading while categorizing words Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) - American German Psychologist
- Helped develop Gestalt Psychology
- Worked with Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka
- Immigrated to the United States from
Germany during WWII WolfGang Kohler: Mentality of Apes The psychologists put a group
of Israeli soldiers in a stressful
situation with a difficult
puzzle to solve. In 1913, Kohler went to the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands to observe how chimpanzees solved problems - Discovery: Chimps solved problems using insight
- Purpose: to gain knowledge of the nature of intelligent acts Language Acquisition - Pioneered by Chomsky
- Universal Grammar Contemporary Research - Conclusion: animals exhibit insight and intelligent behavior just like humans
- Intelligence vs. Brain development - Morphology acquisition Memory Currently, he is professor emeritus of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University - Encoding
- capacity - Retrieval
- association Problem Solving Loftus and Palmer (1984) - Trial and error
- insight Types Obstacles - Confirmation Bias
- Mental set
- Functional fixedness The Heart of Cognitive Psychology: Information Processing 45 American students were asked to participate A simulated video of two cars coming into contact was paired with different verbs of increasing severity from "smashed" to "contacted" Our mind is like a computer, we are information processors The student's estimated speed of the cars increased as the verbs got more and more severe.
A week later, the students were asked if there was broken glass at the sight of the crash.
The "smashed" group had the highest percentage of "yes" answers even though there was no glass Information Processing Their memories appear to have been modified by the questioning technique and information acquired after the event - Top-Down vs Bottom-Up
- Parallel Processing
- Serial Processing Information Processing Theory Assumptions - Series of processing systems
- Processing systems transform or alter information
- Research is oriented towards the processes and structures of cognition
- Information processing is like that of computers Case Study: The Three Mountains Task - Piaget and Inhelder (1956)
- Results were conclusive of age groups 2-7 "The Mentality of Apes" (1917) Perceptions
Insight INSIGHT Animal perceives the Problem
Not dependent on rewards
Once the problem is solved, it's easier to solve another similar problem Cognition "The reorganization of facts into a new and coherent structure" Perception "Learned Relationships among stimuli" Kohler vs. Thorndike Animals DON"T learn "mechanically" through a reward./punishment system
Animals DON'T arrive at insight via trial and error to gain knowledge of the nature of intelligent acts PURPOSE DISCOVERY Chimps solve problems using insight CONCLUSION animals exhibit insight and intelligent behavior just like humansIntelligence vs. Brain development Why Chimps? Chimpanzees have brain structure and brain chemistry similar to humans
Hoped to use the results of his experiment on children in order to test intelligence Edwin Toleman (1886- 1959) Born in Massachusetts
Considered himself a behaviorist
Famous for his experiments with Rats Sign Learning Animal learns by pursuing a goal
Learning is aquired through meaningful behavior Approach Learning Escape Learning Avoidance Learning Latent Learning Principles 1. Learning is always purposive and goal-directed.
2. Learning often involves the use of environmental factors to achieve a goal
3. Organisms will select the shortest or easiest path to achieve a goal Latent Learning learning takes place, but is not displayed until a reward is given for a behavior that would demonstrate that the learning has occurred - Echoic memory
- Iconic memory
- Haptic memory