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DNA Fingerprinting

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by

Jessica Yoo

on 9 November 2014

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Transcript of DNA Fingerprinting

DNA and
Proteins

Proteins are organic compounds that contains the elements C, O, H.
Proteins are the most diverse group of biologically important substances and are often considered to be the central compound necessary for life.
Skin and muscles are composed of proteins; as well as antibodies, enzymes, some hormones.
Some proteins are involved with digestion, respiration, reproduction, and even normal vision.
Obviously we all know, there are many types of proteins, but they are all made from amino acids bonded together by the dehydration synthesis.
There are four levels of protein structure. These levels are distinguished from one another by the degree of complexity in the polypeptide chain. The four levels of protein structure are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
The structure of a protein determines its function.
Advantages
DNA
and proteins
Disadvantages
It's much better at proving familial relationships than specific ones. It would take more work if, say, two brothers were being accused of fathering the same child.
DNA evidence can be compromised in criminal cases in a lot of ways, and the evidence only helps prove that an individual was present at a certain location, not exactly when or what they were up.
DNA fingerprinting is expensive and takes a lot of time. Therefore, it is not very useful for everyday identification purposes.
It's not perfect. We accept it as accurate, though, because perhaps the chances of error are 1 in 40 billion. Other times, though, depending on the quality of the sample, it may be something like 1 in 4.
Ethical issues
The shared nature and ownership of genetic information
Limitations of genetic testing
Inappropriate applications of genetic testing
The potential for discrimination
Setting boundaries in applications of the genetic technology
Forensic DNA data banks
Patenting of genes
DNA Fingerprinting
(DNA profiling)

Techniques for DNA fingerprinting
A common process for DNA fingerprinting is restriction fragment length polymorphism. This is when DNA is extracted from a sample and cut into segments using special restriction enzymes. The segments are then separated. The segments are radioactively tagged to produce a visual pattern known as an autoradiograph, or "DNA fingerprint," on X-ray film.
Tools
Special restriction enzymes
Restriction electrophoresis
X-ray film
Polymerase chain reaction
Southern blot
Computer programs
OVERVIEW
DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA typing) is the method of making images of sequences of DNA. It is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information in a cell. It is a way of identifying a specific individual and everyone's fingerprint is unique to themselves.
DNA and proteins cont
A human contains about 3 billion nitrogen bases and about 20,000 genes on 23 pairs of chromosomes.
What does DNA do? DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive, and reproduce.
DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus. However, a small amount of DNA is found in the mitochondria.
DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides; a phosphate group, a sugar group, and one of four types of nitrogen bases.
Complete blood group allows discrimination of one person in several and HLA typing one in several million
Can be used to help determine biological relationship, such as who a child's father is.
Can be used to prove a person was present during criminal activity.
Can be use to determine the likely-hood that an individual will contract certain diseases or cancers.
Can be used to identify dead bodies that can't be recognized.
Bibliography
http://dna-fingerprinting.weebly.com/ethical-issues.html
http://www.dnapaternitytestingcenter.com/dna-profiling.php
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/167155/DNA-fingerprinting
http://www.ehow.com/info_8384558_tools-used-dna-fingerprinting.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_profiling
http://biology.about.com/od/molecularbiology/a/aa101904a.htm
THANK YOU!!
HAVE A POTATO (:
By Chevonne
and Jessica
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