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Empiricism VS Rationalism

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by

Bill Stone

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of Empiricism VS Rationalism

Empiricism VS Rationalism
Genuine Knowledge
= Sense Experience
Empiricism
Aristotle
first
Western Scientist
Epistemological Objectivist = Aristotle
Representational Reality = John Locke
Subjective Idealism = George Berkely
Radical Empiricism = David Hume
Versions of Empiricism
David Hume
Impressions = data = internal subjective experience
No data = external to our experience
All we know is the subjective content our brain.
When we say that event A causes event B,
we are only reporting our own expectations that B will follow A in the future.
This expresses a psychological fact about us, not a fact about the world.
What guarantees that the laws of nature will hold tomorrow?
Terms to Know
Probabilism
A Posteriori
truth or falsity = observation.
probable conclusions rather than absolutes
Reasoning must be grounded in experience
Reason organizes experience
Reality is learned through experience
Many rationalistic assumptions overturned through empirical testing
Experience is a self -correcting process.
Strength
How could we know the world, since we cannot jump outside our experience to compare it with reality?
How can empiricist avoid the extremes of skepticism?
Weakness
We hold these truths to be self-evident that we are created equal.
Rationalism
Knowledge is possible
Reason provides basis for knowledge
Beliefs based on reason represent reality as it truly is.
A Priori
a claim whose truth or falsity can be known independently of observation.
Terms to Know
We have knowledge deep within us
Love, Justice, Truth
We know true opinions from false ones.
Socrates = Midwife of Wisdom
Cogito Ergo Sum
God guarantees that our thinking is foundational
Rene Descartes
World changes, thus senses = relative data
Ultimate knowledge must be objective and universal
We do not learn math truths by sensing.
The Universal of Beauty (or Beauty itself) remains eternally the same.
Plato's Allegory of the Cave
Strengths
Every event must have a cause.
Without reason, experience would be a kaliedescope.
Weaknesess
Rationalists disagree on the nature of reality and the principle of ethics.
Reasoned claims have been proven false.
Examples
A family MD prescribes a medicine because it has enormous research trial data.
An ideal science fair project.
A college educator selects a question for a test because their has been many tests of the wording of that question.
Scientific theories built on rigorous hypothesis testing
Examples
A math student learns geometry
A drawing class student learns to look at light, color, planes and depth in a new ways.
A person thinks "God is Love"
Galileo's inquisitors refuse to look through his telescope, because they know the earth is the center of the universe and no other evidence could contradict it.
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