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Chapter 8 - The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe
Transcript of Chapter 8 - The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe
Judaism in the Roman Empire
The Kingdom of Judah was conquered in 63 B.C.E.,becoming a province in 6 C.E.
Social unrest was widespread as the Zealots called for a revolt against Rome
From 66 A.D. to 71 A.D., a large scale Jewish revolt began, that ended with the destruction of the Jewish temple.
The Rise of Christianity
Jesus began to teach and preach salvation, humility, charity, and love towards others, across Judea and Galilee years before the Jewish Revolt.
Many saw him and his followers as a threat, but after his death, his followers preached that he had been resurrected, and that he was the Messiah.
Christianity: Spread and Adoption
The Decline of the Roman Empire
1. The death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius leading to conflicts
2. Restoration from civil wars fails
3. Foreign invasions
Reforms for the Roman Empire
The End of the Western Roman Empire
Following the death of Constantine, the empire began to split in two.
410 A.D., Visigothic armies sacked Rome
455 A.D., Rome was attacked by the Vandals
476 A.D., the Germanic king Odoacer removed the child Roman emperor, and declared his rule over the Western Roman Empire.
The Early Christian Church
The church and it's government offered stability for society.
Pope Gregory the Great (590 - 604) took control of Rome, extended his authority, and used the monasteries to gain converts.
After the W. Roman Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, became king of the Franks in 768 and ruled until 814.
Created the Carolingian Empire, crowned Emperor of Rome in 800 C.E.
Counts acted as local representatives
Promoted learning in kingdom, renaissance (interest in Greeks/ Romans)
His reign symbolized the union of Roman, Christian, and Germanic cultures.
By 100 A.D., Christians had established churches in major cities across Eastern Europe, and some areas of Western Europe.
Persecutions began from 50 - 200 C.E.
Under emperors Constantine and Theodosius, the Edict of Milan was passed, allowing freedom of worship, and Christianity became the official religion of Rome.
From the Eastern Roman to the Byzantine Empire
Emperor Justinian came to power in 527 A.D.
- Created the Twelve Tables, rebuilt Constantinople, and fought off foreigners
The Great Schism of 1054 A.D. - leaders of the Eastern and Western churches excommunicate each other.
In 1071 A.D., the invasion of the Seljuk Turks prompted Byzantine Emperor Alexus I to ask for aid leading to the Crusades.
The lands were divided into different Germanic kingdoms:
- The Visigoths in Spain
- The Ostrogoths in Italy
- Angles and Saxons in Britain
- Franks in France and western Germany
Clovis, the Frankish leader, defeated many neighboring peoples to form the first Frankish kingdom.
- Converted to Christianity, supported by the Roman Catholic Church
- Pepin the Short fought the Lombard Italians to give back the Church's lands to form the Papal States