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Unit 4: Periodic Table Trends

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Courtney Comperry

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Unit 4: Periodic Table Trends

Unit 4:
Ionization energy decreases as you go down a group because the valence electrons are further from the nucleus.
Which atom has the greater ionization energy?
1. Li or Be
2. Ca or Ba
3. Na or K
4. P or Ar
5. Cl or Si
Detail 3
Detail 4
Periodic Table Trends
Cartoon
On a periodic table, where are the metals, nonmetals, and metalliods?
metals
non-
metals
metalliods
What is the difference between a and a ?
group
period
groups are
vertical columns
on the periodic table
periods are horizontal rows on the periodic table
Lets Spiral Back to
Electron Configurations
1. Write the complete electron configuration for the Group 2 element in the fourth period.
2. Give the group, period, and block in which the element with the electron configuration [Xe]6s is located.
2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
2
2
2
2
6
6
Group-2, Period-6, & s-Block
Atomic Radii
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
INCREASES DOWN A GROUP
DECREASES ACROSS A PERIOD
Of the elements Mg, Cl, Na, and P, which has the largest atomic radius? Explain your answer in terms of the ionic radii trend.
Problem 1
Sodium has the lowest atomic number and the first element in the period. Therefore sodium has the largest atomic radius because atomic radii decreases across a period.
This trend is caused by the increase in energy levels and by the increasing positive charge of the nucleus pulling the electrons closer.
Ionization
Energy:
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.
F + energy F + e
+
-
Group 1 - Alkali Metals
Group 2 - Alkali Earth Metals
S BLOCK
D BLOCK
Groups 3-12 - transition metals
P BLOCK
Groups 13-18 - Main-group elements
Group 17 - Halogens
Group 18 - Noble Gases
F BLOCK
Lanthanides and Actinides
INCREASES ACROSS A PERIOD
DECREASES
DOWN A GROUP
Ionization energy increases across a period because the larger positive charge is holding the electrons tighter (& they are harder and harder to remove.)
Why?
ELECTRON AFFINITY
The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom gains an electron.
F + e F + energy
-
-
INCREASES ACROSS A PERIOD
DECREASES
DOWN A GROUP
It is hard to add an electron from 2s to 3s (down a group). It is easier to add an electron from 2p to 2p (across a period).
2
1
Cation vs. Anion
Cation is an ion with a positive charge.
Anion is an ion with a negative charge.
Ionic Radii
Metal atoms tend to lose electrons forming a cation. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons forming an anion.
Ionic radii generally decreases across a period and increases down a group.
Electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons when an atom is in a compound.
* Electronegativity is used to predict the type of bond that will form!
TREND
Electronegativity decreases down a group and increases across a period.
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