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The Middle Ages
Transcript of The Middle Ages
they also had to pay a 10% of their yearly product tax to the church this tax was called tithes tithes could ether be paid in cash or food the people had little money so they mostly paid in goods, whatever the church got in tithes they put in huge tithe barns
and if they forgot to pay there tithes the church said the people would go the hell The power of the church Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labor.
Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the medieval period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944),feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs. Feudalism Charlemagne was
born in 742 A.D. and died in
Every day when he got up in the morning he would exercise and eat like a horse.
When he got older he grew to be 6 foot 8 and was an intimidating man the only thing wrong was that he had a high pitched voice that threw off his masculinity. He was the founder of the Carolingian Empire, reigning from 768 until his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdom, adding Italy, subduing the Saxons and Bavarians, and pushing his frontier into Spain. The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne was the first Emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire four centuries earlier. chivalry was when men started acting nice and friendly to ladies most noble men and knights went by this to get sponsors and wife's The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. Jerusalem was and is a sacred city and symbol of all three major Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). The background to the Crusades was set when the Seljuk Turks decisively defeated the Byzantine army in 1071 and cut off Christian access to Jerusalem. The Byzantine emperor, Alexis I feared that all Asia Minor would be overrun. He called on western Christian leaders and the papacy to come to the aid of Constantinople by undertaking a pilgrimage or a crusade that would free Jerusalem from Muslim rule.Another cause was the destruction of many Christian sacred sites and the persecution of Christians under the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim.
The crusaders comprised military units of Roman Catholics from all over western Europe, and were not under unified command. The main series of Crusades, primarily against Muslims in the Levant, occurred between 1095 and 1291. Historians have given many of the earlier crusades numbers. After some early successes, the later crusades failed and the crusaders were defeated and forced to return home. Several hundred thousand soldiers became Crusaders by taking vows; the Pope granted them plenary indulgence. Their emblem was the cross — the term "crusade" is derived from the French term for taking up the cross. Many were from France and called themselves "Franks," which became the common term used by Muslims. the end
Sam Briggs Cody Rozier the crusades Europe’s great revival would have been impossible without better ways of
farming. Expanding civilization required an increased food supply. A warmer
climate, which lasted from about 800 to 1200, brought improved farm production.
Farmers began to cultivate lands in regions once too cold to grow crops.
They also developed new methods to take advantage of more available land.
Switch to Horsepower For hundreds of years, peasants had depended on oxen
to pull their plows. Oxen lived on the poorest straw and stubble, so they were
easy to keep. Horses needed better food, but a team of horses could plow three
times as much land in a day as a team of oxen.
Before farmers could use horses, however, a better harness was needed.
Sometime before 900, farmers in Europe began using a harness that fitted across
the horse’s chest, enabling it to pull a plow. As a result, horses gradually replaced
oxen for plowing and for pulling wagons. All over Europe, axes rang as the great
forests were cleared for new fields. For centuries, invaders from various regions in Europe landed on English shores.
The Angles and the Saxons stayed, bringing their own ways and creating an
Early Invasions In the 800s, Britain was battered by fierce raids of Danish
Vikings. These invaders were so feared that a special prayer was said in churches:
“God, deliver us from the fury of the Northmen.” Only Alfred the Great, Anglo-
Saxon king from 871 to 899, managed to turn back the Viking invaders.
Gradually he and his successors united the kingdom under one rule, calling it
England, “land of the Angles.” The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that
had invaded the island of Britain.
In 1016, the Danish king Canute conquered England, molding
Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people. In 1042, King Edward the
Confessor, a descendant of Alfred the Great, took the throne. Edward died in
January 1066 without an heir. A great struggle for the throne erupted, leading to
one last invasion. At the beginning of the 1300s, the Age of Faith still seemed strong. Soon, however,
both the pope and the Church were in desperate trouble.
Pope and King Collide In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII attempted to enforce papal
authority on kings as previous popes had. When King Philip IV of France
asserted his authority over French bishops, Boniface responded with an official
document. It stated that kings must always obey popes.
Philip merely sneered at this statement. In fact, one of Philip’s ministers is
said to have remarked that “my master’s sword is made of steel, the pope’s is
made of .” Instead of obeying the pope, Philip had him held prisoner in
September 1303. The king planned to bring him to France for trial. The pope was
rescued, but the elderly Boniface died a month later. Never again would a pope
be able to force monarchs to obey him.
Avignon and the Great Schism In 1305, Philip IV persuaded the College of
Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope. Clement V, the newly
selected pope, moved from Rome to the city of Avignon (av•vee•NYAWN) in
France. Popes would live there for the next 69 years.
The move to Avignon badly weakened the Church. When reformers finally
tried to move the papacy back to Rome, however, the result was even worse. In
1378, Pope Gregory XI died while visiting Rome. The College of Cardinals then
met in Rome to choose a successor. As they deliberated, they could hear a mob
outside screaming, “A Roman, a Roman, we want a Roman for pope, or at least
an Italian!” Finally, the cardinals announced to the crowd that an Italian had
been chosen: Pope Urban VI.