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Vaishville & Bowen - Brunei - Philippines

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Vincent Vaishville

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Vaishville & Bowen - Brunei - Philippines

1521: First Europeans visit-Portugal's Ferdinand Magellan
Portugese interested in economic & trading relations
1888: Britain declares Brunei a protectorate
Protection of Chinese trade routes & expansion of British trade motivated colonization in 19th century
20th Century Control: In 1906, Brunei submits to British Resident system, giving Britain control over home affairs - except customs & religion Nationalism After WWII, Brunei continued as a British protectorate - Sultan ruling with advice from a British Resident
Nationalist movement not active during WWII, but Japanese occupation led to rise in nationalistic feeling in Brunei
Early 1950's: nationalist movement begun by BARIP or "Youth Front"
goal: independence & preserving sovereignty of Sultan & the country of Brunei
1959: Brunei achieved self-government & constitution drawn providing for elections Ancient Civilizations No major empires/civilizations controlled Brunei Geography Culture by Vincent Vaishville & Robert Bowen Brunei People Population: 405,938 people
Percent of world's population: 0.67%
Median age: 28.4
Urban population: 75.70% of total population
Infant mortality rate: 7.3 deaths per 1,000 babies before reaching age five (in 2010)
Brunei's literacy rate: 94%
Brunei's school life expectancy (SLE): 14 years Independence Post-Independence Government Economy Historical Landmarks Major Attractions Recent News Geographic Map of Brunei Istana Nurul Iman Largest occupied residential palace in the world
Official residence of the Sultan of Brunei
Seat of the Brunei government Mausoleum of Sultan Bolkiah Built in honor of Sultan Bolkiah - Ruler during golden age of Brunei
Cemetery on the bank of Brunei river House of Twelve Roofs Former housing of the British Resident
Currently displays photos of British involvement in Brunei & close relations then and now Natural hazards such as typhoons, earthquakes & flooding are rare Nationalist groups like BARIP instilled national awareness,worked to unite Malays & uphold Malay rights and demonstrated need for unity
1959: new constitution declared Brunei a self-governing state - but foreign affairs, security & defense still Britain's responsibility
January 1, 1984: Brunei gained independence from Britain
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, leader since 1967, was the leader when Brunei gained independence and continues as sultan today signing of the treaty Few noticeable changes for Brunei's people post-independence
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah still in power today (1967-today)
Memory of understanding on defense cooperation signed in 1994.
Since then, US military has worked alongside Brunei’s armed forces In theory - constitutional sultanate; in practice - an absolute monarchy (After 1962 rebellion: Sultan declared a state of emergency & suspended the constitution)
Mixed legal system based on English common law & Islamic law
Brunei has a legislative, executive, and judicial branch in its government.
Sultan & other government staff live in the Istana Nurul Iman palace in the capital, Bandar Seri Begawan
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah is current Chief of State and Head of Government Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Government provides free education, medical services, subsidized rice and housing
GDP: 2.7% (2012 estimated)
GDP per capita: $50,500 (2012 est)
GDP country comparison to the world (2012 est): 11
Unemployment rate: 2.7% (2010 est)
Population below poverty line: no answer (N/A %)
Exchange Rate: 1.25 Bruneian dollars per US dollar
Main Exports: crude oil, natural gas, garments SULTAN OMAR ALI SAIFUDDIEN MOSQUE:
Built in artificial lagoon in Bandar Seri Begawan
Main dome is covered in pure gold
Interior for prayer only
"Water Village" or "Venice of the East"
Home to 39,000 people
Built entirely of stilt houses & wooden walkways
Religion: 67% Islamic (official religion); 13% Buddhists; 10% Christian
Major ethnic groups: 66.3% Malay; 11.2% Chinese; 3.4% Indigenous; 19.1% other
Official language: Malay, but English & various dialects of Chinese spoken
Major holidays: National Day (2/23), Sultan's Birthday (7/15), Teachers' Day (9/23), Chinese New Year
Popular foods: satay (beef/chicken/lamb kebabs), lontong (rice cakes in coconut leaves, rendang (spicy marinated beef)
One of the world's weakest nations in terms of sports, but soccer is the favorite Natural Resources: oil, natural gas & lumber Elevation: It's an island, so sea level up to highest point at Bukit Pagon (6,070 ft) Major Geographical Features:
-mangrove-covered islands
-coral reefs Terrain: flat coastal plains rise to mountains in east Early settlers: Austronesian migrants (from Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia) Civilizations Influencing Brunei:
-India brought Hindu & Buddhism
-India/China: trade (spices, wood, camphor)
-Arabian Peninsula & Indian Muslim traders: introduced Islam Oil and natural gas discovery in 1920s - possible motivation for Britain to maintain colonization Major Political Events of 20th Century Include:
Invasion by Japanese during WWII
1962: First and only elections held in Brunei
Winning party demands full democratic rights & wants Brunei to join Federation of Malaysia
Sultan rejects demands, causing 1962 Rebellion
1962 Brunei Rebellion quickly crushed & Sultan maintains monarchy THE ROYAL REGALIA BUILDING:
Built to commemorate 25th anniversary of Sultan's coronation
Holds Golden Royal Coronation Chariot
Displays jewel encrusted crowns used during the coronation
Gifts from various heads of state February 10, 2013
The Brunei Times reports that Brunei is seeking World Heritage Site recognition for its Sungai Ingei Conservation Forest
A biodiversity survey is needed to build a database of its animal and plant species
The need to promote ecotourism or nature tourism to avoid clearing the forest for lumber was stressed
The topic of conservation is often in the news in Brunei and is important because of the massive primary rainforests containing many new and endangered species. Also, Brunei is seeking economic diversity (money from resources besides oil) and ecotourism can be an important source of income for Brunei
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