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The chemistry of Winemaking

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Melissa Irangabiye

on 1 May 2015

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Transcript of The chemistry of Winemaking

What is wine?

Wine is an alcoholic drink made of grapes or any other fruits.
The fruits provide a sugar known as fructose.


which is the same as Glucose in its chemical formula.
Discovery of Wine Fermentation

The scientist Louis Pasteur was the very first scientist to formulate the equation that explained the conversion of sugar into alcohol with the presence of yeast. He discovered that adding yeast to a solution of simple sugars formed alcohol. His greatest concern was finding ways to preserve wine.
Before this people knew of wine and the fermentation process but no one explained the chemistry of fermentation and alcohol formation.

When yeast is added to fructose or glucose it converts it to alcohol.
Wine is mainly composed of:
79% Water
1% Organic Acids
8-13% Alcohol
Not all the materials are converted to alcohol only about 8-13% is converted to actual alcohol. The other 7-12% is the impurities such as Carbohydrates,vitamins, minerals and nitrogenous compounds.
Process of Wine Making
Importance of pH in wine making

The pH is the scale that measures the concentration of hydrogen ions floating around the wine.
White wines have a more acidic as they are picked and pressed when the fruits are not fully ripped. Ripped fruits are more sweeter than those that are not fully ripped .
The Role of Temperature

The fermentation reaction of yeast and glucose releases energy in the form of heat, this heat then causes the temperature inside the reaction to rise which then affects the yeast as yeast is an micro-organism. Micro-organisms work best at temperatures that best resemble the human body environment. In higher temperatures the yeast then denatures changing its metabolism by significantly slowing it down, making the ratio of glucose to alcohol disrupted. This results in more glucose molecules than
pH affects the flavor, aroma, color, carbon dioxide absorption and fermentation rate.
Australian Wine Industry
Some Australian

Australia is amongst the leading countries in the world that produce and export wine The Australian wine industry is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine with approximately 750 million liters a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production is used domestically
unter Valley located in New South Wales.

Swan Valley and Darling Range. The vineyards of Western Australia's oldest wine region

Goggle image, wine making process.,https://silversmithvineyards.com/winemaking/

Li, H., Hu, T., Jia, W., Cao, J., Liu, S., Huang, R., . . . Xi, N. (2015). Evaluation of policy influence on long-term indoor air quality in emperor qin's terra-cotta museum, china. Atmosphere, 6(4), 474-489. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/atmos6040474

Itelima, J; Onwuliri, F; Onwuliri, E; Onyimba, Isaac; Oforji, S. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development4.2 (Apr 2013): 213.)
Goggle image,chemistry of wine., http://www.worldofchemicals.com/104/chemistry-articles/grape-chemistry-makes-wine-tasty.html

Goggle image; red and white wines ., http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-red-white-wine-bottle-glass-image26334569
YouTube video The process of wine making;https:www.youtube.comwatchvFAIyzK9cqPY
Australian wine association.,http://www.wineaustralia.com/en/Contact%20Us/Wine%20Sector%20Organisations.aspx
Goggle images Aussie wineries., http://www.australia.com/en/articles/ultimate-wineries.html
Goggle image swan valley wineries http://riverbankestate.com.au/Default.aspx?PageID=3808848&Page=3&A=PhotoGallery&PID=17022&Items=12#
Goggle image Hunter Valley.; http://www.waytoaustralia.com.au/tour_hunter_valley.html
Presence of yeast

The yeast acts as a catalyst. By speeding up the reaction of glucose conversion to alcohol and carbon d
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