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Ancient China - Simple Machines
Transcript of Ancient China - Simple Machines
Wheel and Axle - Water Wheel
1st Class Lever - Jie Gao
1. The water wheel invention was very important to Chinese agriculture and was used for irrigation. This invention helped carry water to crops in China which made watering plants slightly easier and faster.
2. Seemingly, the water wheel did not originate from China, but was improved by how well the machine worked and made its job faster.
3. The wheel would be placed in moving water which would then rotate the wheel on its axle and the water could be caught in small buckets bringing them above water but continuing the cycle.
4. The mechanical advantage is determined by how many ropes or strings are used. To find the MA, divide the load by the effort.
5. The efficiency of any type of pulley varies and not one will work perfectly, but to find the efficiency, divide mechanical advantage by velocity ratio then multiply by 100%.
6. Water wheels are still used today for energy efficiency and can be used to generate electricity.
7. Water wheels from today are comparable to Ancient Chinese water wheels mainly because in modern time we don't need water wheels for our crops, but it can be a source of power.
2nd Class Pulley - Chain Pump
1. The chain pump in Ancient China was used to scoop out natural materials like water, sand, and earth.
2. The chain pump most likely existed early in the first century, but the Ancient Chinese mastered how to properly move water from different levels.
3. The chain pump would have a chain that moved square pallets into a body of water, then up to a higher level of ground.
4. Mechanical advantage is found by dividing the radius of the wheel by the radius of the axle.
5. This efficiency is determined by the amount of friction put into the wheel and if the wheel and axle fit smoothly together.
6. In modern day, a chain pump is still used in the same way. We still find use from being able to easily bring up water from a lake, like for a farm. This simple machine can do its job fine without needing heavy machinery.
7. The use for the chain pump can vary today, such as for use in mass manufacturing but that's really the only change. There are just less uses for a machine that moves water around nowadays.
1st Class Lever - Jie Gao
1. The jie gao was filled with dirt, water, or sand like the chain pump. The basket would be brought up, providing water from wells making the job easier.
2. Not much was really developed upon for the jie gao since it had limited uses.
3. A basket at one end of the jie gao would be lowered into the ground or body of water, then at the opposite end someone would pull on a rope bringing the basket out of the ground.
4. Divide distance and effort by distance and resistance to find the effort.
5. Friction will lower the efficiency.
6. This machine is more often used as a way for children to play, now that we have better machines that are made to do a similar job.
7. The main change throughout history to make these levers work better is by changing the material from wood to metal. This change helps make the lever last longer.
Picture - http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-04/30/content_68354.htm
Picture - http://www1.chinaculture.org/created/2005-05/25/content_69090.htm
Picture - http://www.chinaaotu.com/crane.asp