Transcript: recruitment - recruitment posters & songs - swore allegiance to king/country on a Bible - serve as long as the war lasted - defend their country & respect authority training - age - nationality - medical exam - standards - let friends or family work together - some special roles - soldiers in training life as a soldier works cited requirements - appointments - police control oath of allegiance - training camp - discipline - drills - weapons - uniform - short supply units lines becoming a soldier in WW1
Transcript: THE END This is what went down at the battle Fought between: France/Britain and Germany Fort Vaux Lone Pine Cemetery Flanders Fields Konigstein Fortress The Lochnagar Crater is the location of one of the very first explosions durring the Battle of Somme. It took place on July 1st, 1916 The Menin Gate This battle is considered the biggest battle in history, even though it was held on only 10 acres of land. casualties were around 700,000 The Memorial Museum Passchendaele is named after the Battle of Passchendaele in 1917. This battle is one of the bloodiest battles of World War I. There were about 857,100 people that died. This is what Verdun looks like now A Medieval Castle used as a prisoner of War camp. The Castle was used in both World wars This is what the street corner looks like today. It is a museum If the Germans would have won this battle, the war would have ended right then and there in 1914. The Battle Site of Marne The lochnagar Crater Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917 Places around Europe retaining to WW1 This school is a prison This is the street corner where the sandwich shop was and the path that the cars took to and from the senate The Battle of Verdun Battlefield By: Lucas Arendt, Sam Ferguson, and Scooba Steve Grey Point Fort The Langemark German War cemetery is located where the Battle of Ypres in World War I took place. This cemetery consists of men from the first Battle of Ypres and the second Battle of Ypres. There were about 125,500 people that died in the first Battle of Ypres and about 105,000 people that died in the second Battle of Ypres. Fort Vaux is located in Verdun, France, which was a defensive fort for the French troops during the Battle of Verdun. The fort was attacked by German troops in the beginning of 1916. Later in 1916, France would retake the fort and restore it. Once a forest, during WW1, it was used as battlefields. Sarajevo Sandwich Shop The Lone Pine Cemetery is located in Turkey where the Battle of Lone Pine was fought to remove the Ottoman Empire. The Battle was named after a tree that stood the whole time while fighting. There were about 7,000 people that died in the Battle of Lone Pine. Langemark Cemetery Deadliest battle One of the most significant WW1 memorials. Bears the names of 54,896 British soldiers who died without graves. The Grey point fort was a defensive area durring both world wars. It was designed to protect the entrance to Belfast Lough. Nowadays, Flander's fields is just fields of flowers. Most likely for memorial This is the sandwich shop that started the whole war. The killer was eating a sandwich on this sidewalk when he saw Archduke Ferdinand and his wife and decided to shoot them. This is where Marne is in France
Transcript: WW1 presentation World War I summary World War I summary World War I began in 1914, after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and lasted until 1918. During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers) fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan and the United States (the Allied Powers). Thanks to new military technologies and the horrors of trench warfare, World War I saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction. By the time the war was over and the Allied Powers claimed victory, more than 16 million people—soldiers and civilians alike—were dead. Europe by 1914 Almost exactly a century before, a meeting of the European states at the Congress of Vienna had established an international order and balance of power that lasted for almost a century. By 1914, however, a multitude of forces were threatening to tear it apart. The Balkan Peninsula, in southeastern Europe, was a particularly tumultuous region: Formerly under the control of the Ottoman Empire, its status was uncertain by the late 1800s, as the weakened Turks continued their slow withdrawal from Europe. Order in the region depended on the cooperation of two competing powers, Russia and Austria-Hungary. The slumping Austria-Hungary--in which small minorities (Germans in Austria, Magyars in Hungary) attempted to control large populations of restless Slavs--worried for its future as a great power, and in 1908 it annexed the twin Balkan provinces of Bosnia-Herzogovina. This grab for territory and control angered the independent Balkan nation of Serbia--who considered Bosnia a Serb homeland--as well as Slavic Russia. Upstart Serbia then doubled its territory in back-to-back Balkan wars (1912 and 1913), further threatening Austro-Hungarian supremacy in the region. Meanwhile, Russia had entered into an alliance with France--angry over German annexation of their lands in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71--and Great Britain, whose legendary naval dominance was threatened by Germany's growing navy. This Triple Entente, squared off against the German-Austro-Hungarian alliance, meant that any regional conflict had the potential to turn into a general European war. Outbreak of World War I Outbreak of World War I .In order to maintain its credibility as a force in the Balkan region (let alone its status as a great power), Austria-Hungary needed to enforce its authority in the face of such an insolent crime. However, with the threat of Russian intervention looming and its army unprepared for a large-scale war, it required Germany's help to back up its words with force. Emperor Franz Josef wrote a personal letter to Kaiser Wilhelm requesting his support, and on July 6 German Chancellor Theobald Bethmann Hollweg informed Austrian representatives that Vienna had Germany's full support. On July 23, the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Serbia delivered an ultimatum: The Serbian government must take steps to wipe out terrorist organizations within its borders, suppress anti-Austrian propaganda and accept an independent investigation by the Austro-Hungarian government into Franz Ferdinand's assassination, or face military action. After Serbia appealed to Russia for help, the czar's government began moving towards mobilization of its army, believing that Germany was using the crisis as an excuse to launch a preventive war in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28. On August 1, after hearing news of Russia's general mobilization, Germany declared war on Russia. The German army then launched its attack on Russia's ally, France, through Belgium, violating Belgian neutrality and bringing Great Britain into the war as well. The Road to World War I The Road to World War I 1918 World War I ends 1918 World War I ends Germany had formally surrendered on November 11, 1918, and all nations had agreed to stop fighting while the terms of peace were negotiated. On June 28, 1919, Germany and the Allied Nations (including Britain, France, Italy and Russia) signed the Treaty of Versailles, formally ending the war. Over the next four years, the Great War (as World War I was then called) would grow to involve Italy, Japan, the Middle East and the United States, among other countries. More than 20 million soldiers died and 21 million more were wounded, while millions of other people fell victim to the influenza epidemic that the war helped to spread. The war left in its wake three ruined imperial dynasties (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey) and unleashed the revolutionary forces of Bolshevism in another (Russia). In the end, the uneasy peace brokered at Versailles in 1919 kept tensions in check for less than two decades before giving way to another devastating world war. The Great War and Its Impact The Great War and Its Impact
Transcript: Alliances between European countries made a small scale war into a global conflict. Alliance systems allow for countries to feel safer if they ever attacked another country, and this is evident as Astro Hungary was unwilling to start a war with Serbia until they received the blank check with Germany. And this situation also happened in the simulation as Morovia was unwilling to go to war with Bakhan until Morovia joined the alliance with Caledonia, Penland, and Yorkton. And soon after Austro Hungary’s heir to the throne was assassinated and they received the blank check from Germany, Austro Hungary declared war with Serbia. This would simply be a minor war between the two countries, however, because Germany was allied to Austro Hungary and Russia was allied with Serbia, the two other countries quickly became involved in the war and turned it into a large scale European war. But as more alliances became involved, the war turned into a global conflict. This system of countries allying one another to achieve a goal is called an alliance system, and it was the main cause of World War I. This domino effect of countries being pulled into World War I was similar to what happened when Bakhan assassinated Morovia’s heir to the throne, Morovia quickly engaged in a war with Bahkan. But similarly to what happened in Europe in 1914, allies of either countries became involved in the war and turned the war into a global conflict. Cause Cause During a short truce, breakfast would be served and eaten And later bayonets would be repaired and soon broken During this morning truce, wagons would deliver sustenance And that bit of food and water would be our only protection… against horrid disease and famine Moreover, cuts from repairing the splintered buckboards caused infections This lead to common amputation The pervading odor of dried sweat that gave off an offensive stench Which attracted the lice into the clothes of the men of the trench Lice in our filthy clothing were a never-ending problem, breeding in the trench’s seams Yet, men weren’t even afforded the luxury of a both more often than once every few weeks The never ending problem of lice, Was just another common thing for the trench life Deep within trenches lay another beast, millions of rats And unlike small lice, these grow to the size of cats Trenches became miserably muddy following heavy rainfall Made worse by the surprise attacks as night fell Directed by the enemy, constant shellfire brought random death Even when there was no raid or sign of attack Men of the trench rapidly became misshapen and prone to collapse Like when they made a mistake refilling and repairing the sand bags Trench Life Trench Life The quote "They rode in on horses and left on planes" references the extreme technological growth seen during World War I. During the start of world war I, soldiers still formed groups of Calvary on horses and rode into battle facing lines of machine gunners spraying metal in a deathly display. This led to militaries having to discover new forms of fighting, through the use of technology and science. Science was most often used in the discovery of harmful poisons which could be used as gases to flush out and kill enemy soldiers. Advances in technology included transportation such as cars, which did exist before the war but became far more desirable and preferred during the war. Tanks also utilized advanced technology to go over rough terrain, and submarines which could go far beneath the sea and hunt down enemy vessels. Overall, technology which came out of World War I was mainly used for military purposes, however, through adaptation, would later become technology that has changed the world and is still seen today. Technology Technology During World War I, hawks were used to hunt down messenger pigeons. Messenger pigeons would transport important information to allies across hundreds of miles. And with such a high success rate, the Germans needed a way to counter the pigeons. Thus, Germany introduced Hawks into the battle fields to hunt down these messenger pigeons. I find this truly interesting as Germany had a problem with the prevalence and effectiveness of messenger pigeons and as a result they used mother nature, predator and prey, to hunt down the pigeons. Animals Animals Frisson. World War I aerial warfare was excitingly dangerous. It was exciting in the aspect of flying in an open cockpit hundreds to thousands of feet in the open air above enemy territory. And how at any given moment, an enemy fighter can zooming at over one hundred miles per hour, diving towards your plane with the intent to kill its prey. With your natural reflexes pulling the plane into a dangerous diving corkscrew to narrowly avoid the lead spray emitting from the enemy plane’s machine guns. This is the thrilling aspect of it, however true aerial warfare and dogfights were not seen until later in the war when machine guns were successfully mounted on planes. Moreover, the thrill
Transcript: Austria-Hungary decided to act against Serbia, which lead to Russia joining in the war, than Germany entered to counteract Russia, than France joined in, bound by a treaty to aid Russia, than Britain joined since they were allies to France, than Japan joined in a military treaty with Britain, and finally, Italy joined only to defend Austria-Hungary and Germany from attack, and the United States entered the war afterwards to aid the allies. This caused the British to commence the battle of Somme, so that the Germans would ease up on the French. The battle of Somme was a major turning point. Peter Karadjordjevic: Serbia Alexander Kerensky: Russia The Americans joined the war after the British ship, Lusitania, was sunk by german U-boats. The germans believed that by sinking the Lusitania, they would gain the upper hand in the war, but instead, this caused a greater force to enter the war. The Americans. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando: Italy After the war, Chemical Warfare was banned The war was ended by the signing of the Armastice at Ferdinand Foch's railway carriage headquarters at Compiegne. World Leaders at the time: Trench Warfare was used during WW1 to avoid stray bullets and bombing. The living condition in these trenches was very poor and many people got violently sick. The trenches were also caches for gas to fall into. Machine Guns were new advanced weaponry used in WW1. They were used to pin a unit down and continuously suppress fire. The French were taking heavier losses than the German forces, causing the British to act. April 1915 : Zeppelins began attacking London. early 1916 : Winston Churchill serves in Belgium April 1916 : Romania enters the war 31 May 1916 : Battle of Jutland 28 Nov 1916 : First Aeroplane raid Dec 1916 : Lloyd George Prime Minister 21 Feb - Nov 1916 : Battle of Verdun 1 July - Nov 1916 : Battle of the Somme 1917 : New war commander Lloyd George July - Nov 1917 : W.front Passchendale failed German U-Boat Death Toll after World War 1 The stalemate was changed when British forces had invented the tank, which could take machinegun fire and mow right over barbed wire. 5/23/11 By joining the war, Americans gave the allies new hope for the war. 9 Nov 1918 : Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated 11 Nov 1918 :: Armistice signed The battle of Verdun was the longest and most costly battle of WW1 1917 : Churchill Minister of Munitions 1917 : Reinforcements sent to Italy early 1917 : German U-boat campaign In Germany 6 April 1917 : USA declares war on Germany Nov 1917 : British Tanks sent to W. Front Cambrai Dec 1917 : Treaty of Brest-Litovsk April 1918 : RAF formed (The Royal Flying Corps) 8 - 11 Aug 1918 : Battle of Amiens mid Oct 1918 : Allies recover France and Belgium 30 Oct 1918 : Armistice with Turkey early Nov 1918 : Hindenberg line collapsed World War 1 Warfare Lusitania Czar Nicholas II: Russia Battle of Verdun The war hits a stalemate Allies win the war The German, Italian, and Ottoman forces were pushed far back. World War I had officially begun when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. Germany 1,808,000 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Russia 1,700,000 France 1,385,000 England 947,000 Italy 460,000 Poland (civilians) 500,000 Turkey 350,000 Romania 350,000 USA 115,000 Total estimated 8,000,000 Wounded 19,536,000 Prince Georgy Lvov: Russia 5 Nov 1914 : Britain and France declared war on Turkey late 1914 Early stages of the war : The German advance through Belgium to Dec 1914 : Zeppelins 7 May 1915 : Lusitania sunk 23 May 1915 : Italy enters the war 2 Apr 1915 : Second Battle of Ypres Feb 1915 : Zeppelin bombing of Yarmouth Feb 1915 : British attack Dardenelles Apr - Aug 1915 : Dardenelles/ Gallipoli after Feb 1915 : Winston Churchill resigns Vladimir Lenin: Russia 28 June 1914 : Assassination of Franz Ferdinand 28 July 1914 : Austria declared war on Serbia 1 Aug 1914 : Germany declared war on Russia on Russia. 3 Aug 1914 : Germany declared war on France 4 Aug 1914 : British declaration of war Aug 1914 : Battle of Tannenberg 13 Aug 1914 : Japan declared war on Germany Sept 1914 : Battle of Masurian Lakes 29 Oct 1914 : Turkey enters the war 2 Nov 1914 : Russia declared war on Turkey Brysson Schweitzer German Forces lose heart. Timeline of events The Archduke's assassinator was Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian Nationalist. Kaiser Wilhelm II: Germany The war on the Western Front hits a stalemate for both sides. Both sides take heavy losses and are pushed back and forth. World War I Woodrow Wilson: United States Chemical Warfare was big during WW1
Transcript: World War 1 Begins The US Declares War The War Hits Home WW1 presentation by Daniel Flores Causes of WW1 Countries believing they are superior known as Nationlism The war hits home when a German u-boat sank a british liner the Lusitania killing more than a thousand people with 128 of them being american. US declares war on germany after the intercepted zimmerman note and the sinking of unarmed ships that carried american civilians. America Turns Tips the Balance Countries building up their Armies and Navy in competition known as imperialism The four main causes of WW1 were countries trying to spread their influence through colonization, use of military force known as imperialism. America turned the tide after Blocking in German U-boats and preventing mass civilian casualties.
Transcript: Nitu Renganathan, Arjun Sankaran, Keerthi Tammineni, Amelia Wilder World War 1 Background Assassination in Sarajevo: Gavriel Philip, Archduke Ferdinand Diplomatic Tension & Alliances Military Arms Race Causes of WW1 Causes 1914-1918 Timeline Timeline Countries Countries The fighting in World War 1 was split between two alliances and their respective colonies Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, & Bulgaria Germany was the leader of the Central Powers and was the driving force of conflict in the war. Central Powers Central Powers Russia, France, & Great Britain Allies AKA Triple Entente Allies Helped by Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Poland, Finland Spain, Arabia, Persia, Norway, Sweden, & Switzerland Neutral Countries Neutral Most of the fighting took place in Europe along two places : the western front and eastern front. Geography of the War Cartography The western front was a series of trenches that spanned from Belgium to Switzerland (trench warfare). Western Front The eastern front stretched from the Black Sea in the South up to the Baltic Sea in the north, which covered most of Northern and Central Europe. Eastern Front We also see some fighting happen in the Middle East, Sub Saharan Africa, and in several Asian colonies. Colonies Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: the Global Experience. Longman, 2001. “World War One Timeline.” History, 15 Nov. 2018, www.historyonthenet.com/world-war-one-timeline. Sources Sources
Transcript: Machine Guns within WW1 The Inventor The first fully automatic machine gun was invented by Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884. Maxim was a British inventor who was born in the U.S. The Inventor As a child Maxim was knocked over by a rifle's recoil, leading to his curiousity of using the recoil force to automatically operate guns. When and Where During 1883-1885 Maxim mastered storing recoiling energy, blowback methods, and gas needed for the gun. After moving to England, he founded an arms company to produce the guns. It was later bought by the Vickers cooperation who improved the design. Modified versions of the gun was used by both sides fighting in WW1. When and Where Design The gas that was produced by the powder exploded in each machine gun cartridge would create a recoil which continued the machine gun mechanism. Because of this, no external power was needed and multiple bullets could be released by pulling the trigger only once. There was 12,000 guns when WW1 began in August 1914. By the end of the war, all machine guns were fully automatic firing 450-600 rounds per minute. Within the War More advanced firing methods developed along with sharpshooter detachments which conducted more specialized attacking formations. Within the War Was WW1 justifiable? There are many different reasons WW1 is justified by different sides. For one, the Russians believed it was helping Serbia. The French saw it as a way to regain lost territory. And the British defended Belgium against a dictatorship which helped them destroy a threatening navy. But the war is also considered very senseless. It lasted a long time and many soldiers needlessly lost their lives. WW1 led to many world-changing events. For example the Russian revolution, changes of the political order in the Middle East and Europe, and a revolution in Germany, bringing Hitler into power. Lasting Effects Machine guns led to many casualties in the war unlike any other, making them very popular in future combat. As technology has advanced the machine gun has as well. It continues to be one of the leading defense weapons in war today. But since the guns are easily accessable, many casualties outside of war have occured causing controversy over the use of firearms. Lasting Effects
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