Transcript: Background photo by t.shigesa People were stricter and the teachers would hit them with canes. The children had stopped working in bad surroundings. Children had responsibilities of an adult. By Santiago Ibarreche Y5K How did school life change between 1837-1901 for poor children in Great Britain? - Jails were very crowded. - Could be transported to Australia. - Children could be sent to industrial schools. - Finger stocks. How have attitudes towards crime and punishment changed between Victorian times and now? 20% of children in London went to school. Children had to help their parents make money. They were earning money by doing dangerous jobs. Gruel, Grime and Greatness How have attitudes towards children changed between Victorian times and now?
Transcript: Literary Milestones Introduction Victorianism Late Victorian Era Era of Rapid Change 1832-1901 Literary Milestones Studied at the Normal School of Science Considered himself a failure of a student His exposure to science led to his work with science fiction novels Landmark novels: The Time Machine and War of the Worlds Children's novel Readers were drawn to this fiction novel because of the written adventures through which pirates were perceived Escapist fare rounded out the great diversity of Victorian writers Touched on history back in 1455-1487 Inspired by Wars of the Roses Part of the transition from depressing literature into adventurous tales Imperialism was present in Britain and influenced many writers Influenced by Romanticism Shifted from Romanticism to Realism Late Victorian writing shifted more into "escapist fiction" and naturalism Thomas Carlyle (1843) - publishes Past and Present Lewis Carroll (1865) - publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Matthew Arnold (1867) - publishes "Dover Beach" Video Quiz Poet Known for his melancholy and elegiac works In "Dover Beach", Arnold describes a "sea of faith" retreating to the edges of the earth, leaving humanity stranded in darkness. Matthew Arnold Literary Milestones Oscar Wilde (1891) - publishes The Picture of Dorian Gray H. G. Wells (1895) - publishes The Time Machine Rudyard Kipling (1901) - publishes Kim George Eliot George Meredith Anthony Trollope Focused on internal realities Romanticism didn't disappear when realism was introduced in writing Many novelists combined the two in their works Through realism, writers were able to broaden their writing into more genres Realism Fiction Around the World Psychological Realism Robert Louis Stevenson (1883) - publishes Treasure Island Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1887) - publishes A Study in Scarlet Thomas Hardy (1891) - publishes Tess of the D'Urbervilles H. G. Wells The Transition Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Queen Victoria (1837-1901) - ruled during the Victorian era Thomas Edison (1879) - invents the first light bulb Henry Ford (1893) - develops first gasoline-powered automobile Treasure Island Around the World Realism in Fiction Naturalist writer Expressed pessimistic themes in his fiction and poetry Saw the universe as an "uncaring force" Thomas Hardy The Victorian Era Realism Novelists Charles Dickens- The Old Curiosity Shop Emily Brontë - Wuthering Heights Charlotte Brontë - Jane Eyre Background of Victorian Period Guglielmo Marconi (1895) - invents the first radio Sigmund Freud (1900) - publishes The Interpretation of Dreams Theodore Roosevelt (1901) - becomes president of the United States Victorian literature shifted from Romanticism to Realism Fiction was considered to be light entertainment instead of serious literature Realistic novels captured everyday life as it was really lived Writers began to separate their writing from the romantic period Started expressing loss and pain, chaos and confusion in their works Though, ideals inherited from the romantic period kept the first Victorian poets from redefining poetry for their time Readers found serious literature depressing They soon turned to writers like Rudyard Kipling and Lewis Carroll for adventurous, optimistic novels
Transcript: The Victorian Age (1837-1901) Social background Morality Contradiction in terms: utmost abeyance to the dictates of society, exemplified behavior and formality child labor and prostitution Victorian age is often thought of as a time when society and its rules were rigid and strict Values MOST IMPORTANT VALUES Charity Charity Obligation of the upper class to care for and manage the lower class Church: main instrument Social service and good work Family and Duty Family and duty Quite large: patriarchal structure Upbringing of the children Punishments for children Truthfulness Way to determine someone's character The moral character more important than factual basis Truthfulness Respectability Respectability Good manners House, servants and carriage Attendance at church Charitable activity Sexual Propriety Sexual propriety Upper - middle class: no sexual relations before marriage Low class: servants and prostitutes could take place premarital sex Patriotism Influenced by the ideas of racial superiority: some races destined to be guided by others British race = superior race Patriotism Impact Crimes and punishments What caused the increase of crime in the 19th century? CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS Crime rates rose from 5000 cases in 1800 to around 20.000 in 1840; crimes skyrocketed because of the industrial revolution; due to urbanization, many families had to move to cities; high poverty rates indirectly caused the crimes rate to rise What different crimes were committed during the Victorian Era? MAJOR CRIMES: burglary murder rape usually any crime resulted in death MINOR CRIMES: drunkenness prostitution vagrancy larceny The most common punishments imprisonment hanging transportation physical punishments Social classes In the Victorian Age there were 3 social classes: Upper class Aristocrats, Nobles, Dukes, wealthy families working in the Victorian Courts; powerful position: authority, better living conditions, and other facilities; traditional families were now slowing disappearing growing wealthy class; Many Aristocrats did not work as they had enough money to live a luxurious life; education: the rich families got the best tutors. the next in social ranking Middle-class people also owned and managed vast business empires at the very start of the Victorian era was limited to a few Industrial Revolution Middle class more job opportunities drastic changes in the standard of living of the Victorian Middle-Class people Working class The lowest among the social hierarchy; it was hostile to the other two classes; skilled workers and unskilled workers; the industrial workers got jobs to improving their living conditions; the worst affected class in the Victorian times. Victorian compromise Context: complex and contradictory era: progress, stability, great social reforms but also poverty, injustice and social unrest; the idea of respectability distinguished the upper-middle class from the lower class. The compromise silent pact among the "two nations", the rich and the poor; considered as a bridge between ethical Romanticism and modernism. What did it mean? __ Upper class engaged works of charity and aid for the poor < > lower classes available to support this structure without questioning privileges Gambling BETTING HOUSES Drink, gambling and loud entertainment were central for Victorian working class leisure; The most common form of gambling was horse racing; Before the railways it attracted only few people; The invention of telegraph attracted audience; 150 betting houses in 1850s (small bets, payoffs); When bidding houses became illegal, the action moved to pubs and into city street; CARDS AND CASINOS Another popular form of betting were the cards; The bets were made in the casinos; During evangelical reforms they were banned RACING Better educated gamblers focused on racing; Skill, fresh information and the analysis of previous results were important.
Transcript: Such As... Population grew from around 2 million to about 6.5 million Early photos were printed on polished silver Andrea Guyot Twombly. Victorian Mourning and Sentimental Jewelry. Guyot Brothers Company, Inc. Web. 1 Oct. 2012 The development of photography lead to the downfall of mourning jewelry One of the most important aspects of Victorian life was death Dan Meinwald. Memento Mori. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. "Memento Mori" Originating city was Paris Named After Queen Victoria Hair Jewelry Mourning Jewelry Many different rituals / funerary practices were performed... Supplied by the Undertaker Made of fossilized drift wood During the 1850s the photos were printed on paper Professional potrait photographers were hired "Remember Thy Death" Made of the dead's hair Reminders of the dead Reminder for recipient to pray Loretta M. Alirangues. Morbid Outlook. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. Jet Jewelry By: Shana Snyder The business of making jet jewelry began in 1851 During the Victorian Age Lasted from 1830-1901 (1837-1901) Performed as a special service ~very expensive Mourning Cards Tennyson spent 17 years writing all the poems Became very popular after the King died in 1861 By the 1860's virtually anyone could afford it Tennyson's "In Memoriam A.H.H" Eighteenth Century ~Also known as the Victorian Era Photographing the Dead Mourning Cards Lockets and Brooches "The Victorian Age" The Norton Anthology English Literature. Ed Stephen Greenblatt. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2012. 1017-23. Print. Victorians mourned for very long periods of time Mourning Then later moved to London Memento Mori Hair was sometimes braided into bracelets Were mounted on ornamental memorial card mounts The Victorian Age The Connection The poems were written as remembrance for Arthur Henry Hallam Works Cited Death in the Eighteenth Century Mourning Jewelry
Transcript: Respectabilty discipline Values were not reflected in the reality Industrial Revolution Rising wealth of upper/middle class, prosperity Expanding power Victorian Optimism Innocence and pure Confined within the family walls Modesty Subordinate to men role imposed by the providence mothers Duty + hard-work + respectability = success Not to gamble Not to swear Not to drink Public sphere effective condition in practice Victorians Moralisers Poverty diseases Injustice Lack of hygiene based on the autority of the husband Good manners Money Serrants Attendance at church Charity Sexually repressed Family = centre of stability, indissoluble keep a high respect and consideration Reformers fought to improve and change conditions for the working class contrast Belief in material progress Prosperity Stability Peace Greatest expansion of the Empire very big progress in theory The Victorian Family Morality, hypocrisy, severity and conformity to social standards it opposed ethical conformism to corruption reflected the world as they wanted it to be, not as it really was separation private life from public behaviour = VICTORIAN COMPROMISE Women fathers Victorian Compromise Men Contradiction education and housework Queen Victoria herself = prolific mother Victorian social-background
Transcript: Culture in Victorian Age Skyler lawson, Kata Haas, Katrina Winslow 1842- Richard Owen invents the word 'dinosaur' 1852- Canterbury Hal Opens in London 1854- John Snow identifies contaminated water as the cause if the cholrea & typhoid epidemic in London 1859- Darwin on the Origin of Species 1878- Joseph Swan produces first practical light bulb 1881- Completion of Waterhouse's Natural History Museum building 1887- Verdi's Opera Otello, based on Shakespeare's play 1897- Ronald Ross discovers that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes; vaccine against typhoid is introduced History Timeline Cont Timeline of Literature Writers of the Victorian Period were not unified at all. In fact, the literature during this time could often be described as the birth of many new genres. It was the many different perspectives that really brought a love of reading to the Victorians. Early poets often ignored the wars and rebellions and instead chose to focus on beauty and nature. Novelists however, didn't see the point in sugar-coating the things going on around them and chose to write about the rebellions and wars. It was during this point that romanticism started dying out of literature and realism became the new focus. This was because many realized that romanticism was unrealistic and unachievable. Many started writing their beliefs down and in turn they became books. These novels were so heavy that they usually had to be divided into three novels called Three Decker Novels. Many novels were first published in serial form, magazines and newspapers during monthly installments. Dickens was a master of this field often drawing crowds near the boats where the newspapers were unloaded. Yet, the Victorians love of reading was not limited to fiction as they also enjoyed opinion based articles and research reports. 1863- Foundation of Football Association; 1866- David Livingstone goes missing on his final exploration in Africa as a missionary to find source of Nile River 1867-Second Reform Act. Working class men got to vote 1870- Local gov, establishes public schools; MWA gives women economic rights 1870-1891- Under Elementary Education Act, basic state education became free for every child under 10 1876- Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India (secured by Disraeli) 1879- Ireland presses for home rule 1882- Double assassination in Phoenix Park, Dublin of Chief Secretary and Under-Secretary) 1887- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes the study of "Scarlett" introducing Sherlock Holmes 1888- "Jack the Ripper" murders first of 11 women from Aug-Sept of '88 and was never caught 1897- British- Sudanese war begins 1900- Nigeria becomes a British protectorate 1901- Queen Victoria dies; British establishes common wealth of Australia History Cont. 1838- Charles Dickens "Oliver Trwist" 1838-1839- Charles Dickens "Nicholas Nickleby" 1843- Charles Dickens "A Christmas Carol" 1844- Benjamin Disrael "Coningsby" 1847- Chatlotte Bronte "Jane Eyre" 1847- Emily Bronte "Wuthering Heights" 1856- Elizabeth Barrett Browning "Aurora Leigh" 1865- Lewis Carrol "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" Cruttenden, Aidan. The Victorians: English Literature in Its Historical, Cultural and Social Contexts. New York: Facts On File, 2003. Print. "Victorian Era." Victorian Era - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., 18 Aug. 2015. Web. 08 Feb. 2017. http:// www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Victorian_era Damon, Duane. Life in Victorian England. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 2005. Print. Joshi, Vaijayanti. "Victorian Era American History." Victorian-Era.org. N.p., Feb. 2016. Web. 08 Feb. 2017. http://www.victorian-era.org/about-us.html Harrison, Anthony H. "A View Of Victorian Literature." Magill’S Literary Annual 1979 (1979): 1-3. Literary Reference Center. Web. 8 Feb. 2017. Eagleton, Terry. "Hard times: false, fragmented and unfair, Dickens's 19th-century London offers a grimly prophetic vision of the world today. Terry Eagleton... (The Back Half)." New Statesman, 7 Apr. 2003 https://create.kahoot.it/#/preview/5b0ebd21-d138-4b4e-915b-63516d061415 Background of Victorian Era Kahoot Link: During the beginning of her reign, the Queen realized that the role of royalty had to change. She yielded the control of day to day governmental affairs to very powerful and successful prime ministers ( Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel and Lord Palmerston). By 1850, England boasted 18,000 cotton mills and produced have the iron in the world. The Industrial Revolution created a vast new wealth for the rapidly growing middle class & in 1851 the Great Exhibition displayed the works of all industries in all nations. Hosted in the Crystal Palace located in Hyde Park, London, the Great Exhibition displayed 17,000 exhibitions including indoor toilets, telegraphs, power looms, electric lights and even a full sized locomotive.It was during this time that the middle class truly helped the economy grow. The did this by making money and then spending this money on things to buy. The constant movement of revenue helped
Transcript: Fashion during the Victorian Times is very unique and it stands out when looking at fashion history throughout the years. Victorian hats were big. They're giant and decorated with flowers, ribbons, lace, birds and feathers. Men also wore hats and it became improper for a gentlemen to go outside without a hat. Woman often wore corsets under their dresses to reshape their figure and to get the thinnest waist possible. Tiny waists were very popular and seen as attractive during this time. They also wore hoop skirts under their dresses. A hoop skirts is a undergarment that extends the dress or skirt to flair out. For young girls, they would wear similar dresses to the older woman but instead would have high collars to cover their necks and three piece ruffle skirts were common to children. The boys would wear suits on a daily basis. Pants that stopped mid-calf and would layer with jackets and vests. SCHOOLS DURING THE VICTORIAN ERA A few rules that applied to some Victorian classrooms are: Students must stand up to answer questions Students must call teachers "Sir" "Miss" or "Mrs" Students must stand up when an adult walks in the classroom. Students must use their right hand to do their work. Talking and fidgeting will result in a punishment Students who are late, behave poorly or rudely and do bad work will also result in a punishment. During this era, a woman shouldn't have another dream expect to marry, since that is her destiny. November and December are popular months for Victorian weddings. For choosing the exact day, they often looked at a popular rhyme, “Marry on Monday for health, Tuesday for wealth, Wednesday the best day of all, Thursday for crosses, Friday for losses, and Saturday for no luck at all.” This rhyme also feeds into the superstition that the day of the wedding will determine your future. The bride's gown is also a big part of a Victorian Wedding. They would be big, with help from a hoop skirt, and they would wear their corsets for tiny waists. It would have lace detailing and be made out of the finest quality's. The bride would also wear jewelry and, most of the time, wear a present their fiance had gotten them. Victorians took etiquette very seriously. There were many strict rules to what was proper etiquette and compared to what's good etiquette in our time, they're both different and similar in many ways. When greeting someone on the street, you must always be civil and greet one another. Men must bow when greeting with someone, the way someone who is being bowed to reacts depends on how close they are with that person or not. A man should always go out of his way for woman and when a woman might be in need of help, men must also go out of their way to help her. It was also rude to smoke in the presence of a woman or make comments about a woman when she is walking by. When doing these things, you would not be considered a gentleman. During dinner, the appearance of the room and table needs to be well-decorated. The table-cloth needs to be made out of the finest quality and the room should be lit with candles or lamps. The room decor should be arranged so it is not in the way of the guest's views of one another, the center piece should be simple and small. There should be name cards on the table so the guests know where to sit and along with that, there should be a plate, two large knives, a small knife and fork, three large forks and a tablespoon. They should be placed on the right side of the dinnerware. Napkins should be on the left of the plate and the glass should be on the right of the plate. When a man wants to invite a woman to the theater or any sort of place of entertainment, he should write her a letter, referring to himself in the third person. The woman who was invited must make replying her top priority so that if she can't go, the man can invite someone else to accompany him. If the woman accepts and agrees to go to the theater with him, the man must make sure she is comfortable at all times and must not leave her alone. During school, children would learn reading, writing, arithmetic and religion. It was important during school that you follow the strict rules and expectations such as wearing the proper attire. Multiples times a day, the teacher and children will pray. They also had recess, where they would go outside and play for a small amount of time each day. $1.25 Friday, April 28, 2017 VICTORIAN WEDDINGS VICTORIAN FASHION VICTORIAN ETIQUETTE WHAT WAS FUN? What did they do for fun during the Victorian times? Bicycling became an often hobby back then, they even had special attire specifically for bicycling. For board games, they would play chess and backgammon, which is the oldest known board game. Also, the people during this era found an interest in dancing with the influence of Queen Victoria, who did evening concerts. Theaters were also a common activity for people to go and enjoy. Dramas, melodramas, operettas and animal acts are just a few genres they would
Transcript: Social Classes F Social Classes Victorian Era E What is a social class? Social Class is an extensive group of individuals, which all share a similar socioeconomic class. There are many different things that can play a role in affecting social classes such as: The Social Class you were born into Education An individual's own health Criminal activity Geography D Main Social Classes in Victorian England The Victorian society was divided into nobility Upper Class,Middle Class, and the Working Class. The Victorian Upper Class consisted of the Aristocrats, Nobles, Dukes, and other wealthy families working in the Victorian courts. The Victorian period was very prosperous for the middle class. Middle-class people also owned and managed vast business empires. The lowest among the social hierarchy were the working class. This working class was further categorized as the skilled workers and the unskilled workers. Main Social Classes in Victorian England C How did each social class view the world around them? Upper Class: They hired the Working class to work for them so people looked at them as the lords. Middle Class: People with skilled jobs and they were mostly white collared workers who moved up in corporate rankings to obtain higher salaries. Working Class: They were supported by others and considered unskilled laborers and couldn’t really make living so they resorted to drugs an alcohol to cope with the hardships. B What were the expected behaviors of the different social classes? What social customs were common in the era? There were rules for making new friends, keeping up with old friends and even cutting out morally dubious friends. But most importantly, knowing the rules helped one show respect for everyone else, including servants, acquaintances, nobility and clergy.
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