Transcript: The Civil Rights Movement The British Empire in India Victorian London Important events that changed the world as we know it The History of the World The Russian Revolution
Transcript: London fog was usually tinted yellow due to terrible pollution In Victorian London there were no "police" so all persecutions were normally carried out by the victim who informed a magistrate. There were areas of London where early police or "peelers" did exist but even then most persecutions began with private citizens. The weight of the crime was then decided by the court and paired with a suitable punishment (1837-1901) "The Victorian Period." The Victorian Period. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2015. London was characterized by foul smells and poor sanitation, the main resource being the River Thames, as the invention of flushable toilets allowed sewage to be dumped in to the body of water, consequently raising death rates and disease through poor methods of sanitation. There was something about pie in19th century London. These few quotes will help grasp how influential pie was in the Victorian era. A cook book by Mrs. Rundell stated, “There are few articles of cookery more generally liked than relishing pies, if properly made.” The chef Alexis Soyer wrote about the pies of the Victorian era, “From childhood we eat pies – from girlhood to boyhood we eat pies – from middle age to old age we eat pies – in fact, pies in early England may be considered as one of the best companions du voyage through life. It is we who leave them behind, not they who leave us; for our children and grandchildren will be as fond of pies as we have been; therefore it is needful that we should learn how to make them, and make them well! Believe me, I am not jesting, but if all the spoilt pies made in London on one single Sunday were to be exhibited in a row beside a railway line, it would take above an hour by special train to pass in review these culinary victims.” Clarkson, Janet. Pie: A Global History. 2012 History of Pies in Victorian London Europe Centered Around the Thames Katie Himes, Calvin Jones, Matthew Levandowski, and Elena Liem Works Cited Early Policemen known as 'Peelers' "19th Century Justice - Victorian Crime and Punishment." 19th Century Justice - Victorian Crime and Punishment. Web. 28 Sept. 2015. "Victorian Inventions Timeline." Victorian Inventions Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2015. Victorian Gaol The Victorian Era was marked by the rule of Queen Victoria, during majority of the 19th century. Empire building and imperialism were also quite important, in Europe's extensive expansion into parts of Africa and the British thought as a world power. Innovations of the Victorian Era Brief History 1838 - first photograph taken 1846 - sewing machine by Elias Howe 1849 - concrete by Monier 1852 - flushing toilet 1856 - pasteurizing by Louis Pasteur 1863 - underground railway 1873 - typewriter by Christopher Sholes 1876 - telephone by Alexander Bell 1879 - home electric light bulbs by Swan and Edison 1883 - first electric railway Oliver Twist Laws Did you know? As many laws were created in this period, Victorian London also produced a notable number of innovations important then and now. Waterloo Bridge and the River Thames Laws cont. Pie in Victorian London Crime rates sky rocketed in the 19th century and so did hanging even for smaller crimes. this angered many citizens with hangings for "petty crimes" Serious crimes later resulted in transportation out of London into penal colonies such as Australia. less serious offenders were sent to gaols. Victorian London was the largest city in the world at this time. One of the most famous people of Victorian London was the murderer Jack the Ripper, who was never caught or found. Geese were a popular dinner during Christmastime The important contributions of Victorian London were in literature, arts, innovations, and laws. Victorian London The town was often featured in Charles Dickens novels like Maps, Laws, and History
Transcript: Victorian London Industrial Revolution Witness Sara R. Hine: “She was tending her ‘sides’ like a veteran, but after I took the photo, the overseer came up and said in an apologetic tone that was pathetic, ‘She just happened in.’ Then a moment later he repeated the information. The mills appear to be full of youngsters that ‘just happened in,’ or ‘are helping sister.” London's 'Great Stink' and Victorian Urban Planning By Professor Martin Daunton Cholera epidemics, the 'Great Stink' and miasmas combined to create a death rate in Britain's cities higher than at any time since the Black Death. The Government was forced to face up to the need for an urban planning policy. Death in the city The census of 1851 recorded half of the population of Britain as living in towns - the first society in human history to do so. Over the previous 70 years, the population of Britain had risen at an unprecedented rate, passing the levels reached in an earlier period of growth, in the early 14th century, when the population had been decimated by epidemics such as the Black Death. The towns offered a better chance of work and higher wages than the countryside, where many families were trapped in dire poverty and seasonal employment. On the other hand, the countryside was healthier. A baby born in a large town with a population of more than 100,000 in the 1820s might expect to live to 35 - in the 1830s, life expectancy was down to a miserable 29. New epidemics were stalking the cities - cholera and typhoid were carried by polluted water, typhus was spread by lice, and 'summer diarrhoea' was caused by swarms of flies feeding on horse manure and human waste. The problem was easy to identify and difficult to solve. Too little was invested in the urban environment, in sewers, street paving and cleansing, and in pure water and decent housing. At some point, conditions long accepted with fatalistic resignation become intolerable, a problem in need of urgent action. The process of persuasion was crucial to investment in Victorian cities, to the realisation that conditions should not be accepted and money should be spent. The sanitary reformers used the literary techniques of Victorian novelists to create a sense of crisis. Edwin Chadwick, the author of the report on the sanitary conditions of British towns, consulted Charles Dickens over how to describe the situation - and Dickens himself obtained graphic accounts of the vile conditions of reeking graveyards from his brother-in-law, Henry Austin, a leading sanitary reformer. The imaginative force of their writings made people aware of the need for action. The 'Great Stink' The appearance of cholera from Asia in 1831 provided another powerful incentive. The wealthy were not immune to it - indeed, it's possible they were the group who were most vulnerable to the illness. Water closets were adopted by the more affluent households of London in the early 19th century. As a result, sewers originally intended to take rain water into the Thames now carried raw sewage - which was then extracted by the water companies to be drunk by their customers. The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers had responsibility for the situation, but didn't have the power to impose sufficient taxes to solve the problem. The crisis came to a peak in the 'Great Stink' of London in 1858. Such was the overpowering smell from the Thames, that the curtains of the Commons were soaked in chloride of lime [cloruro di calce] in a vain attempt to protect the sensitivities of MPs. It is no surprise that a bill was rushed through Parliament and became law in 18 days, to provide more money to construct a massive new sewer scheme for London, and to build the Embankment along the Thames in order to improve the flow of water and of traffic. Packing in the people One of the greatest problems created by the rise of great cities, was that of housing the population. The early Victorians spent little and their children died young, while later Victorians spent more and enjoyed a longer life. This was not a triumph of medicine, but of political action and public investment in engineering and preventive medicine. In the first half of the 19th century, the answer was all too often by subdividing existing property and cramming more accommodation into backyards. Cities became more densely packed, creating dead-ends and foul alleys, and damp cellars offered miserable accommodation. The borough engineer painted a lurid picture of the conditions in the early 1860s, explaining how courts had no through ventilation, and normally contained 'the privy or ashpit common to all the wretched dwellings, with its liquid filth oozing through their walls, and its pestiferous gases flowing into the windows'. Conditions within the houses were no better. In 1854, the commissioners appointed to enquire into the cholera outbreak in Newcastle-upon-Tyne found that about 50 per cent of families had only a single room. Most houses did not have an independent water
Transcript: Victorian London Queen Victoria became Queen in 1837 and ruled until 1901 Here is a picture of Queen Victoria Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and became queen in 1837 Here is a picture of a steam train, it was made by Victorians There are three video about Vile Victorians The first video is all about Victorian's name Here is a second video,it is all about Shouty Man Here is the third video What have you learn about the third video? Queen Victoria married Prince Phillip,The Prince died in 1861 Queen Victoria died in 1901 when she was in her 80s Created By: Dylan Assi
Transcript: Social Classes F Social Classes Victorian Era E What is a social class? Social Class is an extensive group of individuals, which all share a similar socioeconomic class. There are many different things that can play a role in affecting social classes such as: The Social Class you were born into Education An individual's own health Criminal activity Geography D Main Social Classes in Victorian England The Victorian society was divided into nobility Upper Class,Middle Class, and the Working Class. The Victorian Upper Class consisted of the Aristocrats, Nobles, Dukes, and other wealthy families working in the Victorian courts. The Victorian period was very prosperous for the middle class. Middle-class people also owned and managed vast business empires. The lowest among the social hierarchy were the working class. This working class was further categorized as the skilled workers and the unskilled workers. Main Social Classes in Victorian England C How did each social class view the world around them? Upper Class: They hired the Working class to work for them so people looked at them as the lords. Middle Class: People with skilled jobs and they were mostly white collared workers who moved up in corporate rankings to obtain higher salaries. Working Class: They were supported by others and considered unskilled laborers and couldn’t really make living so they resorted to drugs an alcohol to cope with the hardships. B What were the expected behaviors of the different social classes? What social customs were common in the era? There were rules for making new friends, keeping up with old friends and even cutting out morally dubious friends. But most importantly, knowing the rules helped one show respect for everyone else, including servants, acquaintances, nobility and clergy.
Transcript: During the Victorian era technology was improving and many useful inventions were made. There were three classes as : the poor, the middle class and the rich. The Government gave a chance to the middle class to improve their city (London) and some wanted to build inventions that would be useful and would make a difference in the world. These inventions are the origin of the inventions that we enhance today. The Big Ben was actually the nickname for the Great Bell inside the tower. The tower itself was called the Elizabeth Tower. The Big Ben is located at the north end of the Palace of Westminster. It was opened in 1859 with a measurement of 319 feet (91 meters). On the night October 16, 1834, the Palace of Westminster was destroyed by a large fire. During its renovations Charles Barry designed the tower to incorporate with the new palace. The novella, Dr.Jekyll and Mr.Hyde, takes place and was written in the 1800's of London, which was better known as the Victorian Era. This was a highly sophisticated time period of great architecture, commerce, sport, culture, and technology. The Great Exhibition Palace of Westminster The Royal Institution Famous Institutions Some popular novel releases during this time were: Charles Dickens : "Oliver Twist," "Great Expectations," "Bleak House," "A Christmas Carol," etc. Mark Twain : "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," "The Prince and the Pauper," etc. Lewis Carroll : "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," "Through the Looking Glass" Robert Louis Stevenson : "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" Just like it's always been, Great Britain was a monarchy in the Victorian Era, ruled over by Queen Victoria. She was aided by her prime minister, Viscount Melbourne, who served office her entire reign, and the Congress, which was split into houses called the House of Commons and the House of Parliament. Literature Victorian London This era was named after Queen Victoria, who reigned Britain from 1837 to 1901. This was known as a time of peace, prosperity, and rebirth. There were many Institutions in Victorian London in the 1800s. Two of them were The Royal Institution and The London Mechanics Institute (later Birkbeck College). The Royal Institution's main lectures were on science. The London Mechanics Institute originated in Scotland until this Institute was opened in 1823. The Palace is one of the most important of political life in the United Kingdom. "Westminster" has become a metonym for the UK Parliament, and the Westminster system of government has taken its name after it. 19th Century London London was the largest financial center of the entire world during the Victorian Era. Its commercial world was entangled with joint-stock banks, stock brokers, private banks, ship dealers, and merchants. Trade was blooming. During the Victorian Era, the British currency was the highest of the entire world. They monetary unit of the pound was the only currency to be backed up by gold reserves. Their sterling silver was also a very valuable resource. These reserves were all stored under high security in the Bank of England, located on Threadneedle St, London. By: Srija, Priyanka, and Klea Sports The Victorian era was the amazing age of English literature where there were many varieties of fictional novels that were rising to the spotlight. Victorian novels tend to write about the difficult lives in which hard work, confidence, perseverance, love and life morals. The purpose of poetry and its basic style and tone changed drastically during the Victorian Period. The great exhibition was located at the Crystal place. The Crystal Place is a beautiful shining building made out of glass. The Crystal Palace is the origin of the Great Exhibition.This exhibition was open to the public on MAY 1 st 1851. The man that made this occur was Queen Victoria's husband (Prince Albert) who dreamed of peace. He believed that all countries should have a place to display the wonders of their culture. The architectural team's leader was Joseph Paxton who helped create the blue print of the Great Exhibition. He wanted people to gain trust toward London. Many countries offered to share their valuable items to display in the great exhibition. There were over 100,000 artifacts and inventions from all over the globe in that one place. Eventually, they had to close the Crystal Palace on May 1 st 1851. Big Ben (Elizabeth Tower) During Victorian London, the government was ruled by the Queen, the Prime Minister, and the Congress. Technology The Palace of Westminster is also known as the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Palace. The Palace of Westminster is where House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, meet. The Victorian Era is very important to the society of London because the police system was first established during this period. Before the 1800's, the country was only protected by the Navy, who were called "the defenders of Britain." But a
Transcript: The people from the workhouse had to pick off the fibres from the wool until it was just one tiny fibre. This job was generally taken up by women, as the men had to do more dangerous jobs such as chopping wood. The servants all ate together downstairs while the masters of the house ate upstairs in the dining room. Family members would usually be separated if they were not the same age and gender. Drawing room disease on the streets When it became affordable, the motorcar was a popular and efficient way of travelling on the road. beds also had to be perfect - they were cleaned every night by the servants, so that the hygiene in the house was enough to prevent them from getting the major diseases. All plates were washed and dried by hand as there were no dishwashers to do this for them. This job would be done by the scullery maid. oakum picking Victorian London Children would live on the streets if the rest of their family did not have jobs or if they could not go to workhouses because of mental or physical disorders. Cholera was one of the main diseases in the Victorian era.It killed 10s of millions of people. Another major disease was typhoid - a hygiene caused disease which was very contagious.Smallpox was another disease which resulted in a third of all human blindness, and the death of 400000 people every year. Life was tough under the reign of Queen Victoria, and many people were either killed or driven mad by workhouses and disease. Many things including the great inventions of this fascinating era have helped us greatly, such as the light bulb and the steam train. This hard, dangerous job was mostly undertaken by men. the bedroom Wood Chopping Some buses were also pulled by horses,but in this case at least 2 Children also had to clean dangerous coggs in the mill, and lost fingers and thumbs in the process. The mill owners did not care about that - their only concern was their income. Rich Houses in 1865 lights were used for the road as they became cheaper after the sprengel pump was added to it The people who could afford houses did not usually get disease as they had house-maids to keep their atmosphere hygienic. This prevented them from cathing the diseases listed below. Inventions benefitting travel in the streets For the richer families the mirror was a priority in the house. The children AND adults in the house had to look perfect. Victorian ovens were typically heated by coal. Carts were generally pulled by horses until the petrol-powered car - which was invented by Karl Benz - became affordable. The servants were not allowed to wear fancy clothing because the masters wanted to distinguish themselves from their servants. Transport Some mill owners thought that work was easy - they underestimated what the children had to go through. The Scullery The mills The Workhouse The fire would be lit by the housekeeper or maid. As light bulbs were not invented until later on in the Victorian era, they needed fires for light as well as heat. The streets When the steamtrain was invented - many richer people found it faster to travel than cars - thus the roads became less full and the steam train also reduced friction Some people living in London who could not afford transport or lifts would try and hang on to the back of buses. This would have been difficult because there were usually conductors (people who check tickets) sitting on the back of the bus! THANK YOU FOR WATCHING! The bicycle was useful because it helped to decrease the congestion in the traffic The wood was used for fire because there was no gas and electricity for heating
Transcript: Victorian London They were full of diseases. Prisons were full of rats, lice and fleas, and 25% of the people in them died ! They were made to do pointless jobs and had to pay money whilst inside for basic necessitates such as food, water and even a comfortable bed or mattress to sleep on. It was a horrible place but many people were to poor to live outside of the prison and they had to go there to get free food . The more popular streets were usually crowded with men as women didn't have any rights .Where on the other hand smaller streets, lived less wealthy people and orphans . Streets were lit with candles and gas lamps as there was no electricity . How hard was it to be a kid in Victorian times? Before What were Victorian prisons like ? ...............Now The transport in Victorian times are VERY different to today's transport. .There were no cars. People either walked, traveled by boat or train or used coach and horses to get to places.Railways, originally built to transport goods, meant people could travel easily around the country for the first time. Railways brought new foods to towns and cities. If you were from a rich family you'd have nothing to worry about ,you'll be fed well and live in a good house + a good education. Unlike the poor families. If you were poor then you'd usually be put in a work house just so that you get 2 meals a day and a bed. You'd be paid a small amount of money, and if you were injured it would come out of your money. If you were an orphan you'll probably go to the work house or be a pick pocket. What was the transport like? What was the streets of London like?
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