Transcript: Public Reason and the Availability of Truth Acknowledgments He wants to strengthen public reason from external criticisms. A disposition of citizens: (1) willingness to propose claims acceptable to others (2) Treat fellow citizens as free and equal (3) Accept the consequences of the burdens of judgement The truth-apt activities of public reason can rely upon this internal use of the truth predicate in order to make sense of their validity. Available Claims in Public Reason Ex. "It is true that law x is unjust." - As an internal claim, the example relies on an accepted framework (a political conception of justice). - These types of truth claims adhere to the constraints as they are limited in their range. (Their use is not intended to change the framework of justice already in place) a. The Constraints: Justificatory considerations are political. Reasonable as External Duty of civility requires it An essential feature of democratic society b. Internal Claims: Internal claims take a particular framework as given, they can not be made before the acceptance of a framework. Cohen's Political Conception of Truth Assume (a) Assume (b) 'Reasonableness': Standard of correctness for political justification. 'Political Conception of Justice': responds to the fact of `reasonable pluralism,' is freestanding, and is the focus of an `overlapping consensus.' Attitudes: Truth is the norm governing belief, assertion, and judgement If we take the political conception of truth to be an internal claim then public reason can make sense of the validity of its own claims. Public reason can already make sense of the validity of its own claims. Therefore Cohen requires further justification or motivation to include the political conception of truth. Correspondence: True beliefs correspond to how things are but not in any mind independent sense. - There is a limited range of application that characterizes the judgements, claims, and reasons that can be appealed to in public reason. - justification can not be on the grounds of comprehensive doctrines. (they have broad scope of application qua grounds) Truth & Political Justification: Must be in terms acceptable to all "reasonable' points of view. Why favor reasonableness as a standard? The Political Conception of Truth as External Contrast: Truth is distinct from warrant but not in any substantive sense. - judgements appealing to such justification then aim at the truth about justice in a controversial, philosophical sense. - this is restricted in light of political liberalism's commitment to propose and honor fair terms of cooperation. (The duty of reciprocity can not be maintained) Introduces the political conception of truth Political Conception of Truth Public reason's avoidance of a standard of truth is not justified by its central aims. A political conception of truth is acceptable. The political conception of truth is necessary for public reason to make sense of the validity of its own judgements and claims. Non-metaphysical Is truth available? Not designed to restrict liberty of conscience 1. If Cohen's political conception of truth resolves the discrepancy between truth and public reason then it is either (a) an internal claim or (b) an external claim. 2. In either case of (a) or (b) Cohen's political conception of truth is unsatisfactory on its own terms. C: Therefore Cohen's political conception of truth does not resolve the discrepancy between truth and public reason as is intended by its introduction into political liberalism. If the political conception of truth is used as an external claim then it is outside the constraints entailed by the standard of correctness for public reason. Cohen argues that the political conception of truth entails such constraints. Therefore it can not be an external claim. The Argument Responsibility of citizens: Moral responsibility Epistemic responsibility Reasonableness The reason of citizens - endorsement of a political conception of justice. - agreement in the form of overlapping consensus - necessary for political legitimacy -allows for reasonable disagreement It is reasoning addressed to others in their capacity as citizens When acting from public reason, legal acts are legitimate even though they may not be just Value: Truth is valuable in a way warrant is not. (The duty to be able to explain to one another how the principles they advocate can be supported by the political values of public reason.) I am grateful to Nick Alvarez, Aaron Bentley, John Gotti, Emily Lobsinger, Mike Nishkian, Patrick Smith, and Jeuel Wilkerson for all of their support, philosophical insight and overall encouragement. Their friendship is inexorably entwined with my philosophical growth. I'd like to acknowledge and thank Carlos Montemayor, Jennifer Montgomery, Kevin Toh, and Shelley Wilcox for their continued support and dedication of time through feedback, advice, and guidance. Without the loving support, patience, and understanding of my parents and my
Transcript: Throughout the book, The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare, Katherine started off with being the outcast and going against the rules set by society. She had a personality that the majority of men would generally have. As a result, her only suitor was someone who was able to change her to conform to society. Secondary Source Breaking the norm In the book, Katherine is portrayed as a female, who is much more similar to a man than a woman. She is described as ill tempered, confident, loud and aggressive. This was seen from the way guys spoke about her. "Her name is Katherine Minola, Renowned in Padua for her scolding tongue (Act 1, Sc 2, 100-101). Hortensio said this about Katherine in front of Petruchio, to warn him about who she is. This is a topic guys would not usually discuss because the majority of women during the 16th century were well behaved, unlike Katherine. Primary quote #3 The film “I am ashamed that women are so simple To offer war where they should kneel for peace; Or seek for rule, supremacy and sway, When they are bound to serve, love and obey.… Then vail your stomachs, for it is no boot, And place your hands below your husband's foot: In token of which duty, if he please, My hand is ready; may it do him ease (Act 5, Sc 2, 177-195).” This was said by her, as she gave up her individualism for her husband. She fell for the trap and could not do anything but obey and turn herself into the person that she never would have wanted, if Petruchio never came into her life. "When a woman, like Katherina, disregarded society's expectations for her and, in essence, acted like a man—she takes advantage of male privileges like speaking freely and doing as she wishes—Katherina disrupts the clearly defined order represented by the chain, and hence, others view her as a threat to order and stability." "Guys were afraid of getting in contact with her because she was out of control... Though after spending time with Kat, he began to form feelings for her. She became less aggressive. She wasn’t afraid to express her pleasure of having him around his life. This was depicted during the scene, which she recited her poem in front of the class, after the dreadful event that had happened a night before. She realized that Pat was the one, that she wanted nothing more but his existence in her life." It only took one person to alter the way she thought. This was meant to be because, they were both seen as a threat towards their environment. Thesis defense presentation Thesis Statement Another way that she fell under the category of an outcast was after the way she acted towards her father when Katherine figured out that there were suitors ready to marry Bianca. "You have but jested with me all this while. I prithee, sister Kate, untie my hands [Katherine] strikes her (Act 2, Sc1, 20-21). Katherine showed aggression towards her sister, after trying her hand, while attempting to get answers out of her, she made the decision to hit her as well! This is definitely one of the least favorite characteristic of a woman. She was never soft and she did what she wanted to do. "But when the three bridegrooms square off in a betting contest to prove which husband garners the proper respect from his wife, Petruchio wins. Kate carries out his commands with alacrity as she masterfully drives the outraged "froward wives" onstage—"prisoners," as Petruchio puts it, "to her womanly persuasion." No one dares to interrupt when, in the longest speech awarded to any character in the play, Kate labels the recalcitrant wives "froward and unable worms" and lectures them on seemly behavior. Speaking for the establishment, Kate can at last speak to her heart's content." "People never really expected Kat to accommodate with the guideline of the culture. It took a special person to persuade her into becoming the girl that everyone would adore." Primary Quote #1 Favorite excerpt Conformity Primary Quote #2 Sloan, LaRue. "Individual and Society in The Taming of the Shrew." McClinton-Temple, Jennifer ed. Encyclopedia of Themes in Literature. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2011. Bloom's Literature. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 1 June 2015 <http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&WID=20591&SID=5&iPin=ETL1022&SingleRecord=True>. Going against the norm
Transcript: Title Description: • A system that will maintain track of student records such as name, address, teacher, courses, classes, grades and other information. Once the data is inserted into the database, the system will provide quick information related to a particular student and gives a print out of a student’s vital records Objectives : • To create a system that helps the user to conveniently access information of students • To enhance the efficiency of the school administration • To monitor the record of a student Target Beneficiary: • AMA Makati Campus Language to be Used : • VB: User-Interface • SQL: Database • Java: Codes Scope & Limitations : • For the student: overview of student’s school records • For admin: add, delete, update of the student’s school records • No computation of fees and grades • Exclusive for AMA Makati Campus Features : • Systematized viewing of information system • Added feature print in the Student’s Info System • Student’s Info System using RFID Requirements • RFID • RFID Reader • RFID Scanner Estimated Cost • Approximately: P10,000 - A system that is used to review and record information about an individual’s time of entry and exit in the building through the use of RFID. Objectives : - To give a much more secure and manageable record of entering guest in an establishment - To maintain the safety of everyone residing in the vicinity - To provide an easy way of recording guest entry. Target Beneficiary: - AMA Makati - Java, VB.NET, Visual Studio, MySQL Scope & Limitations : It includes the registration of the students or employees, depending on the company. It uses an RFID device to scan and read a card ID from the employees to verify their identity whether they are guest, employee or student. This can be use on any company buildings . Its use is limited only inside the building.. It is also limited to showing only basic information that is necessary to be known or be verified and recorded Features : • IT 301 - Systematized Identification of Employees or Students • CS 372 – Automated Recording of Time In and Time out • IT401 – Using RFID scanner and reader ., and Report message to the individual . Requirements - Computer - RFID scanner and reader Estimated Cost - P10,000.00 Title Description: • A system designed to monitor, organize, and processes the task of the employee such as calculating wages, tracking hours, paying withholding taxes, deductions, delivering and printing of transactions and paying government taxes Objectives: • To create a system that will help the employees to conveniently access, tracks, checks, and monitors information of payroll records • To minimize clerical data entry using an automated payroll system • To abolish the manual payroll system and create a user friendly payroll system Target Beneficiary: • RETRO DCG FM 105.9 Radio Station Language to be Used: • VB: User-Interface • SQL: Database • Java: Codes Scope & Limitations: • For the employee: overview of payroll records • For admin: add, delete, update of the payroll records • Monitor, access, tracks, and checks the employee’s payroll records • Exclusive for RETRO DCG FM 105.9 Features: • Systematized viewing of information system using a user friendly interface • Automated calculation of the payroll system • RFID required Requirements RFID RFID Reader RFID Scanner Estimated Cost • Approximately: P10,000 Title Description: A system that serves as a planner and management of tasks in your daily schedule. Objectives : • To create a system that will improve the process of creating schedules and plans on a daily basis. • To help the user keeps record of his/her daily schedule up-to-date. • To efficiently help the user easily access his/her task on an easier way. Target Beneficiary: • AMA Computer College Makati Language to be Used : • Visual Basic: Interface • SQL: Database • Java: code Scope & Limitations : The system is created to assist users in their daily tasks. Used for task managing and creating a planner, checking statuses of daily tasks for the user. Still, the system's functionality will mostly depend on the user's action and how he/she will input his/her tasks or activities. Features : IT 301: Systematized management of tasks. CS 372:Includes statuses of tasks, its priority level, notifications . IT 401: Mobile-supported, online-based, with SMS notification to user's registered mobile number. Requirements • Computer • mobile Estimated Cost - Atleast 10k PHP Title Description: • AMA Integrated Library System is a well-organized system that covers the functionality of a simple library. The system will keep track and monitor the books issued, used, returned and has been added to the library. Objectives: • To create a system that helps the students conveniently access information such as books needed for research, etc. • To minimize workload of the librarian • To develop a database that records the data entry of the books issued, used, returned and added to the library. Target Beneficiary: • AMA
Transcript: Education The Male Bias of Tuberculosis In India: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Problem Age 1. Stigmatization of TB in Women 2. Active Case-Finding 3. Scheduled Tribe Membership 4. High Gender Ratio Case Studies 5. Mortality Statistics 1. Solid Fuel Hypothesis Thank You! Female Era of Neglect and Complacency Methods Gaps in Knowledge About TB Applying the Scientific Method 1990 Interest Reignites 2. Tobacco Use Rejected Factors 1947 Future Research Total Age > 35 Desire for Discretion 2006 Cultural First TB Drugs Developed Results Scheduled Tribe Membership Biological Logistical and Linear Regression Categorically Sorted Dependent Variables Methodological Narrative Methodological Modern Era 1970 Male Male Bias of TB Biological Narrative Discretion 1989 Cultural Narrative Malnutrition Total Age > 35 Desire for Discretion
Transcript: How does the Online Forum Structure Mediate That Process? A Case Study in Brief -It stems from the legendary belief that in the old days a white belt became black from the sweat, blood, and dirt of years of hard training. "it seems like there are always posts about which techniques you shouldn't use on classmates, washing belt debates, or something else to learn from. Therefore, I didn’t need to ask anything in person." The structure of the forum also allowed him to bypass some of the obstacles present in person, such as the embarrassment of asking a "stupid question." The Short Answer Is Yes Yes. Genesis of a Thesis: -This creates an Ideological conflict between health and tradition in the grappling community. Independent Study: Here Mukhtar was able to access resources that allowed him to define his place in the community as a belt washer. Seeing the different viewpoints and values expressed in debates on the forum (tradition vs hygiene) helped him develop his own stance. Enter The Grappling Forum Mark Smith -Identity Construction is Distributed across different groups, spaces, and platforms. -Transfer between online and offline spaces occurs frequently. Identities developed online are used offline, and of course the reverse is true as well. -Forums are an excellent source of Identity Resources. -People use forums Intentionally in order to address specific needs or desires, not just for recreation. Grappling Arts and Belt Washing: Vygotsky: Sisters playing "Sister" -Whether to wash one's belt is an ongoing debate in the martial arts community -Identity Resources and Trajectories (Nasir/Cooks) Eventual Research Question: Thank You! -Positioning oneself in relation to this debate is an early moment of identity construction for many martial artists. Intitial Research Question: Distributed Cognition: "Can you construct or modify an identity to serve specific purposes?" Lave, Wenger, and Cain: Alcoholics Anonymous Community Belt Background: -Enhanced Cognition Through the use of Constructs (Vygotsky) Learning to Be: Identity Construction Do People Do Identity Construction Work on Online Forums? How do People Access Identity Resources on Online Forums? Mukhtar and the Dirty Belt: -Identity as an Aspect of the Surround (Lave/Wenger) Brought to you by "It was helpful to have read about the belt washing before there were any conversations in my classes. I already had made up my mind and was able to explain to classmates why they should wash their belts too." Mukhtar was also able to transfer his online progress into an offline scenario, using the resources he got from the forum to position himself as an informed and contributing member of the community. Mukhtar: "I was not aware of what kinds of nasty items lived on the mats since I was very new to bjj. Once I read about it [on the forum] I made my decision." -Practice-linked Identity Construction in an Online Community (Korobkova) In Online Communities Mukhtar's Belt Washing Adventure Exemplifies Some Key Findings: -Superstitious martial artists believe that washing their belt will "wash away their skills" and/or bring bad luck. -Ceding the Executive to an Aspect of the Surround (Perkins) -Hygiene is much more critical in grappling systems due to the risk of skin infections Story Time: Redux -Gating Features and "semi-nonymous" Communities (Zhao)
Transcript: Hard cider has not been sufficiently explored as a means towards addressing the generational demand for new culinary, geographic, sustainable, and experiential tourism Hard cider shows potential for beneficial economic impact for apple-growing regions, as well as filling the void of the modern tourist Product Motivation Factors Demographic Baseline Hard Cider in the United States 4.39 - To spend time with family/friends 4.32 - For fun 4.13 - To experience something new 4.10 - To support small businesses 4.08 - To support local businesses 4.08 - To support craft/artisan producers 3.95 - To get away for the weekend 3.76 - To taste new ciders Customer Survey Factor Analysis Purpose of the Research 92.7% tri-state area residents 88.9% drove 2 hours or less 70.2% first visit to the cidery 60% first visit to any cidery 61.3% specifically for craft cider experience 78.3% believe artisan products are often/usually/always of higher quality 66.9% not homebrewers Research Question 1 Tourist Baseline Qualitative Data Collection & Analysis What experiential factors can operators capitalize on to increase the number of visitors and ensure repeat visits? Problem Statement & Significance *Factors rated 4.0 (very important) and higher Demographic: Between 21-35 years old, single, white, highly educated, High earning Willing to travel Put great value into the experience Inherently believes artisan products are of higher quality Willing to pay premium costs for artisan and local products Surveys administered in person at each participating tasting room Data numerically coded and input into SPSS for analysis Questions grouped into demographic baseline, tourist baseline, local/artisan product motivation, and tourist motivation Semi-structured non-formal interview administered in person Summary of interviews recorded at completion Observed customer-employee and customer-customer interactions, appearance of facility, and overall vibe of establishments Analyzed findings to define similarities and key themes Tourist Baseline Tourist Motivation *Factors rated 3.0 (Important) and higher Support Small and Local Businesses To experience something new To taste new ciders To taste ciders specific to the Hudson Valley area To experience an artisan product To increase my knowledge of flavors Employee Interview & Observation Analysis Presented by Meghann Smith Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Montclair State University History of hard cider Colonization Immigration Prohibition Reemerging market Impact in New York state Academia Understanding the millennial impact on culture Hospitality & Tourism Catering to the to the locally-aware, experience seeking tourist Agricultural & Regional Development Growing interest and desire to support environmentally based industries Food & Beverage Industries Re-emerging product in the country Distinctly unique tasting experience potential RQ1: What factors motivate consumers visit an area featuring hard cider production? Interview Themes: History of the farm and business How employees foresee the business evolving What makes their product unique Observation Themes: Atmosphere & ambiance - winery vs. brewery appeal Customers new to both the product and the experience Introduction Plan of Research Research Question 2 Demographic Baseline By finding the connection between consumer experience and niche tourism, this study strives to understand hard cider's place within the expanding craft movement, and how it may affect heritage product promotion. Hard Cider and the Hudson Valley Area Implications Assessment of Hard Apple Cider Tourism Potential in the Hudson Valley Region 3= Important; 4= Very Important; 5= Extremely Important Results & Findings 58.1% typically pay $5-7 for 16oz cider 23.9% WTP over $7 47.9% WTP over $7 for locally made cider 69.8% likely - > extremely likely to purchase cider after visiting cidery 72.4% consider "local" to be 60-100% made on site 96.4% considered "local" to be within 100 miles from area of purchase 60% within 45 miles Tourism and the Millennial Generation Who is the hard cider consumer? RQ3: Who is the hard cider consumer? What factors motivate consumers to visit an area featuring hard cider production? To spend time with family/friends For fun To experience something new To support small business To support local business To support craft/artisan producers Continue surveys and observation throughout year Create modified survey for cideries that distribute through other methods Discover cultural and taste appeals for cider to distinguish a unique appeal and "space" within the market RQ2: What experiential factors can operators capitalize on to increase the number of visitors and ensure repeat visits? Quantitative Data Collection & Analysis 63% between 21-35 years 57.8% between 24-29 years 56.7% single 88.2% white 76.4% earned a Bachelors Degree or higher 60.9% annual income >$60,000 Limited focus Biased responses in both customer survey and interviews Biased
Transcript: Significant Exploratory Analyses First Secondary Hypothesis Testing the Biosocial Model of Borderline Personality Disorder Invalidation and the Mediating Role of Emotional Dysregulation (Crowell, Beauchaine, & Linehan, 2009) Second Secondary Hypothesis Primary Analysis Main Hypothesis The Big Model
Transcript: Mabaquiao Janubas Oyan Alburo The researchers also want to uplift the important roles women in the society, the researchers decided to study about women in the film industry The researchers want to study on how woman portrayed a role in CINEMAGIS – 4th Digital Short Film Festival in Northern Mindanao also in their roles in the society. 2. How gender politics and inequalities are reflected in the student category film entries of CINEMAGIS – 4th Digital film Festival in Northern Mindanao? 3. Are short films an effective media for presenting women and their roles in the society? We believe that there is a need to create a study about women to generate an equal environment for both men and women. Thus the objectives of the study is to conclude the portrayal of women in the films as related to the perspectives of society by using the different theories as to support such inferences. Conceptual Framework Theoretical Framework Film Criticism Theory Cultural Poetics Theory allow assessing on how effective the short films in terms of influencing the viewers and their own perspectives of the women in short films A brief Review of Literature Films reflect and reinforce the dominant ideology, and this applies to how women are shown in films. (Gregor, 1993). Women films were popular in the 1930s and early 1940s, when women were shown as wanting to gain independence from their families, and trying to experience true romantic love. (Ksmith, 2008). Feminist film critics also will consider the whole structure of the film, aside from the content, including spectatorship, the look, the role of the gaze and identification (Lewis, 1998). Scope and Limitations This study is limited to the short films of Cinemagis and the female individuals that are involved in the films This study is limited to the short films of Cinemagis and the female individuals that are involved in the films object of sexuality victims Analysis of Data The form serves as the instrument that evaluates and measures the women’s overall score based on the six (6) six films that are dependent on the content that the researchers have formulated as follows: A - Sexual Perspective D - Professionalism B – Participation E – Language Abuse C – Performance F – Violence Content Reader-response Theory Rationale Research Design: The researchers studied about the content analysis of the Role of Women in Short films in 2012 Cinemagis Category Feminist Theory WOMEN AND THEIR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY ARE REFLECTED IN CINEMAGIS – 4TH DIGITAL FILM FESTIVAL IN NOTHERN MINDANAO Gender Theory very good in social skills artist And to determine what kind of woman would that be. Women today in films or in real life should be empowered and should be respected. Respondents: The researchers Significance of the Study How does Cinemagis short films treat women equally? How do women work in the film industry (production process, etc.) particularly in “Cinemagis” short films? Women did not have the same rights as men. The only role of women was to stay at home and take care of the children. This situation wasn’t sexual discrimination then, it was a norm Post-structuralism Theory Background of the Study Research Locale: Cinemagis 2012: Carmen Bahandi Kaarawan Ngulam Supernico Flatline 1. How the women are reflected on the Film entries of student category short film entries CINEMAGIS – 4th Digital film Festival in Northern Mindanao? Sampling Methods: (6) short films of Cinemagis 2012 student category. The team will also take down as many transcripts to be used after the film viewing and gather information with the use of it. Cinemagis 2012 Northern Mindanao Student Category showcasing the six different short films namely: Carmen, Kaarawan, Bahandi, Flatline, Ngulam and Supernico. The researchers focus on the role of women in the six short film entries of CINEMAGIS 2012 Student Category in Northern Mindanao, namely, Carmen, Kaarawan, Bahandi, Flatline, Ngulam and Supernico. This study is limited to the short films of CINEMAGIS – Digital Short Film Festival in Northern Mindanao and the women that as seen in the films. The researchers will only study about women and their roles in the society are reflected in the short films stated in the first line. sometimes terrorized Methodology The researchers come up with an idea about women to the extent that many films are represented less than one-third of the speaking characters are women. writers To know how women are being empowered in the Cinemagis short films. Late 19th and early 20th, woman started to venture the film industry as: Statements of the Problem object of attraction Thus the objectives of the study is to conclude the portrayal of women in the films as related to the perspectives of society by using the different theories as to support such inferences. Semiotics Theory The Product Resources killed on disasters Significance of the Study Scope & Limitation
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