Transcript: Neurology By Sam Waltimyer A neurologist is a medical doctor or osteopath who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles Neurologist Education Requirements Four years of premedical education in a college or university Four years of medical school resulting in an MD or DO degree (doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy degree) One year internship in either internal medicine or medicine/surgery At least 3 years of specialty training in an accredited neurology residency program Licensure and board examinations to be able to work in hospitals. Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that works with other fields such as chemistry,computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine and allied disciplines, philosophy, physics, and psychology. The term neurobiology is usually used interchangeably with the term neuroscience, although the former refers specifically to the biology of the nervous system, whereas the latter refers to the entire science of the nervous system. Neurologists work in hospitals, public or private clinics, and universities or research facilities. Many neurologists are in private practice. Neurologists new to the profession make around $150,000 per year. The average salary for a neurologist is $208,000. However, neurolgists that have developed a good name can make around $300,000. As most other physicians do, neurologists are not able to follow a 40-hour workweek. The job can be quite stressful, and treating patients properly may require working for more than 60 hours in a week. Neurologists employed in busy medical facilities may have to put in extra hours during the week and also work on weekends. Those who work in research facilities and medical schools, however, enjoy regular working hours. Job prospects for neurologists are expected to be very good in the coming years. As the baby-boomer generation approaches older age, rate of occurrence of neurological problems, like dementia and stroke, is expected to rise considerably, creating good job opportunities for neurologists. Got Nerve? Works Cited http://www.healthcommunities.com/neurologist/what-is-a-neurologist.shtml http://neurologist-salary.com/ http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/741767 http://www.schoolsintheusa.com/careerprofiles_details.cfm?carid=521 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience
Transcript: Neurology - the science of the nerves and the nervous system, especially of the diseases affecting them Neurology for Massage Therapists Finally Objectives - Explore the history of neurology - Review brain, spinal cord and nerve anatomy - Review cranial nerves - Learn cranial nerve evaluation - Discuss nerve plexuses - Introduce current research regarding neurodegenerative disorders Coined in 1618 by Thomas Willis Introduction History
Transcript: On inspection: facies and resting tremor? Ask the patient to walk: gait Ask the patient to stand still ? postural instability? Ask the patient to sit: rigidity? synkinesia and bradykinesia Afferent - CN II Efferent - CN III parasympathetic If testing left pupil Direct reflex tests CN II and CN III on Left Consensual reflex tests CN II on Right and CN III on Left anterior horn, root, peripheral nerve The examination Common Motor to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid - Cannot turn head towards affected side Differentials CN III palsy (peripheral nerve lesion) Horner's syndrome (symphathetic lesion) MG (NMJ lesion) Rapid side-to-side movement is cerebellar Diabetes, EtOH, GBS, entrapment Rarer Peripheral neuropathy Parkinson's Disease Upper Motor Neuron Brain Brain stem Spinal cord Lower Motor Neuron Peripheral nerves Some branches of CNs Types of seizure LMN sign - wasting Know how to examine: UL and LL Cranial Nerves including eye movements For cerebellar signs Parkinsonian Patient Gait Speech For brain stem reflexes CN II - Optic Examining the cranial nerves Anterograde. Dermatomal - rarer LMN Central palsy - pseudobulbar (hot potato) Peripheral - bulbar Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Epilepsy Muscles of facial expression Sensation to anterior 2/3 tongue UMN lesion e.g. stroke - lower (opposite) side of face affected only as bilaterally innervated LMN lesion e.g. Bell's palsy - ipsilateral forehead involved NB: Herpes Zoster Oticus - Ramsay Hunt syndrome with involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve D: Dysdiadochokinesia A: Ataxia N: Nystagmus I: Intention tremor S: Slurred speech H: Hypotonia V: Vertigo T: Titubation Stroke and TIA Horner's Syndrome X - efferent gag reflex, palatal elevation, vocal cords, parasympathetic supply 1. History - Onset - seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks - Progression - ?intermittent, time course 2. Examination - Central (brain and cord) versus - Peripheral (anterior horn, peripheral nerve, NMJ, muscle) LMN - wasted, floppy Partial seizures (begin focally) Simple (consciousness not affected) - motor (frontal, Jacksonian March), sensory (parietal), psychological deja vu (temporal) Complex (consciousness impaired) but usually no loss of postural control. Automatisms, altered emotion, strange tastes or sensations, usually last 10-15 minutes Partial seizure may become generalised Absence: 4-12 y/o, eye blinking jerks, school performance Myoclonic Tonic-clonic seizures: tonic: elbows flexed, legs extended, cyanosis. clonic: 1-2 minutes, tongue biting, tachycardia, loss of continence. Post ictal phase NB Todd's Paresis - transient paresis following seizure. May affect eye movement, motor system. Usually lateralises to one side. Occurs in 10-15% of all seizures. Important differential is obviously a CVA Red flags: Progressive Sudden Age > 50 Worse in morning Associated neurological deficit Tension type: analgesic overuse Migraine: in women, episodic, unilateral, aura, fortification spectra, exacerbated by movement Cluster headache: in men, pain around the eye, conjunctival injection, lacrimation, severe enough to wake from sleep Temporal arteritis: in elderly, raised ESR jaw claudication and scalp tenderness MG, Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome LMN Blood supply Sensation to face Corneal reflex Jaw jerk (UMN) Median nerve e.g. carpal tunnel: abductor pollicis brevis weakness Ulnar nerve e.g. interosseus weakness Midbrain III, IV Pons V, VI, VII, VIII Medulla IX, X, XI, XII V1 Opthalmic - sensory V2 Maxillary - sensory, autonomic V3 Mandibular - motor, sensory, proprioceptive, parasympathetic Cranial Nerves Reflexes may help localise the lesion: Biceps (C5,6) Triceps (C7,8) Knee (L3,4) Ankle (S1) (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Loss of Consciousness To complete... ask the patient to write (micrographia), do a BP (SD), DHx, Slit lamp (Wilson's) decreased CN - VII Facial UMN Clinical Anatomy Cord syndromes Spinal Cord brain, brainstem, cord absent XII - Hypoglossal Muscle pathology Tone Brain (unilateral and hemi-body, higher cognitive symptoms) Basal ganglia (movement, PD) Brain stem (CN symptoms, reflexes, autonomic functions) Cerebellum (ataxia, nystagmus) Spinal cord (sensory level, legs >arms) Anterior horn (UMN and LMN) Peripheral nerve (glove stocking, single nerve) NMJ (fatiguable) Autonomic (diarrhoea, sweating) NMJ Blue: Anterior Pink : Middle Green : Posterior NB. spinal shock DMD, Inflammatory causes Cavernous Sinus Vertebrobasilar ischaemia UMN Meningitis CN III, IV, VI Hypotensive XI - Accessory contracture Pupillary light reflexes Central cord e.g. syringomyelia - rare. Differential sensory loss - spares dorsal columns. UL LMN signs LL UMN signs Pituitary tumour at chiasm - bitemporal hemianopia Lesion in optic radiation - homonymous hemianopia or quadrantanopia (lower=patietal, upper=temporal) Reduction of C02 --> cerebral vasconstriction Light headedness Perioral anaesthesia Carpopedal spasm Anxiety, fatigue Rarely causes complete LOC Inspection Cord compression is a
Transcript: Patient Portal Utilization Meaningful use is using certified electronic health record (EHR) technology to: Improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce health disparities Engage patients and family Improve care coordination, and population and public health Maintain privacy and security of patient health information Meaningful use sets specific objectives that eligible professionals (EPs) and hospitals must achieve to qualify for Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Incentive Programs. Two metrics: Patient Electronic Access 1: 50% target Measure 1: More than 50 percent of all unique patients seen by the EP during the EHR reporting period are provided timely access to view online, download, and transmit to a third party their health information subject to the EP's discretion to withhold certain information. Patient Electronic Access 2: 5% target For an EHR reporting period in 2017, more than 5 percent of unique patients seen by the EP during the EHR reporting period (or his or her authorized representatives) view, download or transmit to a third party their health information during the EHR reporting period. “When patients interact with their test results, they need to know the purpose of the test, the interpretation of the result, and next steps. Addressing these issues may help improve patient-centered care” (Baldwin, Singh, Sittig, & Giardina, 2016). References 2016 Program Requirements. Retrieved September 25, 2016, from https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/2016ProgramRequirements.html Baldwin, J. L., Singh, H., Sittig, D. F., & Giardina, T. D. (2016, October). Patient portals and health apps: Pitfalls, promises, and what one might learn from the other. In Healthcare. Elsevier. Eschler, J., Liu, L. S., Vizer, L. M., McClure, J. B., Lozano, P., Pratt, W., & Ralston, J. D. (2015). Designing Asynchronous Communication Tools for Optimization of Patient-Clinician Coordination. In AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings (Vol. 2015, p. 543). American Medical Informatics Association. Heyworth, L., Paquin, A. M., Clark, J., Kamenker, V., Stewart, M., Martin, T., & Simon, S. R. (2014). Engaging patients in medication reconciliation via a patient portal following hospital discharge. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 21(e1), e157-e162. Snyder, E., & Oliver, J. (2014). Evidence based strategies for attesting to Meaningful Use of electronic health records: An integrative review. Available in the. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics (OJNI), 18(3). Wade-Vuturo, A. E., Mayberry, L. S., & Osborn, C. Y. (2013). Secure messaging and diabetes management: experiences and perspectives of patient portal users. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(3), 519-525. Wilcox, L., Patel, R., Back, A., Czerwinski, M., Gorman, P., Horvitz, E., & Pratt, W. (2013, April). Patient-clinician communication: the roadmap for HCI. In CHI'13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3291-3294). ACM. Stage 3 and MACRA Meaningful Use and the Patient Portal Literature “regular internet use and having a personal computer partially accounted for differences in use of the portal to send messages to health care providers by age, race, and income, whereas education and sex-related differences remained statistically significant even after controlling for internet access and care preference” (Graetz, Gordon, Fung, Hamity, & Reed, 2016). Meaningful Use Usability and Functionality Wanjiku Kariuki Viola B. Leal Mohammad Tabatabai Ana Ibarra Noriega MyUofMHealth.org Secure Messaging “over two-thirds had at least one medication discrepancy at discharge, and nearly one-third had at least one potential ADE” (Heyworth et al., 2014). The authors found that “virtual medication reconciliation following hospital discharge has the potential to improve medication safety in the transition from inpatient to outpatient care” “more effort on the part of the provider is needed to encourage patients to use a portal system. If providers take a more active role in educating patients as to the benefit of the portal, provide a positive view of the system, provide consistent standardized information, and remind the patients in multiple ways and times, patients are more likely to enroll in the portal system” (Snyder & Oliver, 2014). Objective 8: Patient Electronic Access (VDT) Provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit their health information within 4 business days of the information being available to the EP. Patient Portal Metric Provider Buy-in Portal on Newer Internet Browser Lab Test Results DMC Patient Portal “patient and provider attitudes toward patient portal use found that the most negatively-perceived feature was user-friendliness, making the portal difficult to navigate” (Baldwin, Singh, Sittig, & Giardina, 2016). “When patients interact with their test results, they need to know the purpose of the test, the interpretation of the
Transcript: ICEBERG Debt Monitoring and Analysis Division Deanne Patrick A. Rubio Date 1 Data Collection Data Collection Timeline Timeline Step 2 Release Step 1 Data Preparation Data Preparation Data Visualization Data Visualization Arranged the Data Arranged Data Analysis Data Analysis Data Presentation Data Storytelling "What we see often is only a fractional part of what it really is." Lesson "Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things." -Theodore Levitt Digest
Transcript: Presentation The PREZI way Suicide and Mental Health Suicide and Mental Health
Transcript: neurologists make up to 298,503 dollars Duties MY PLAN IS....... TO ATTEND HAVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL for 10-12 yrs OBTAIN MY DOCTORAL DEGREE TO SUCEED IN MY CAREER I NEED THIS CAREER INTERESTS ME THE END Develop treatment NOTHING CLOSE TO IT up to $298,503 a year The study of the nervous system neurologists make up to 2 Diagnosis nervous system disorders and I want to be a neurologist and coordinate with other health services Supervise the execution of therapeutic activities THIS JOB IS IN HIGH DEMAND (cc) photo by tudor on Flickr neurologists have a high salary OF THE POSSIBILITIES BASIC READING AND WRITING SKILLS BECAUSE........ (cc) photo by twicepix on Flickr EXAMINE PATIENTS TO DETERMINE SOURCE OF SYMPTOMS AND BECAUSE I WANT TO UNCOVER THE HUMAN BRAIN Neurologists to determine brain death $ A FRIENDLY PERSONALITY is the study of the nervous system
Transcript: Aetiology - - neurodegenerative disease, characterised by: - Loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra and formation of lewy bodies. Normal SN - promotes appropriate movements. Abnormal SN - unable to promote movement resulting in - - Tremor - Bradykinesia - rigidity Management 1. muscular skeletal - pretty much always most common - 2. lots of other 'medical causes' - drugs, endocrine, electrolyte, rheumatological, genetic, metabolic, od (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis) 3. Neuro - good stuff - vascular - stroke - inflammatory - MS - trauma - bleed, compression, spinal - autoimmune - - metabolic - B12 deficiency - infectious - polio, tetanus, botulism etc - Neoplastic - intracerebral, spinal - degenerative - MND, Mysathenia, Case 3 - Epilepsy - Syncope - Cardiac syncope / drop attack - arrythmias, stokes adams - Vasovagal syncope - including reflex anoxic seizure - NEAD/ pseudoseizure As with everything in neuro - tend to have good idea from clinical picture however to confrim Imaging - gadolinium MRI - you get gadolinium enhancing lesions - classically periventricular - demyelination and spinal cord (transverse myelitis) Neurophysiology delayed visual evoked potentials and other evoked potentials CSF electrophoresis oligoclonal bands of IgG in CSF not present in the serum demonstrate 2 lesions - so clincally weakness then neurophysiology shows previous optic neuritis etc. NON-MEDICAL - PT - increase strength, balance, posture etc - OT - maximise patients funtionality - Social services - assess home circumstances - Dietician - SALT MEDICAL Acute phase - corticosteroids! - methylprednisolone can only use couple of times a year - shortens symptoms duration but not relapse rate Chronically now lots of things... but the common things are beta interferon / Interferon 1B natalizumab - monoclonal antibody to the VLA-4 receptor prevents white cells crossing BBB prevent demyelination SE?? PVL? JC virus.. bone marrow transplant? SURGICAL - NA 1. relapsing remitting 2. secondary progressive 3. primary progressive 4. progressive relapsing anxiety and depression constipation urinary incontinence/ dysfunction pain weight loss/gain dementia - lewy body - sexual dysfunction orthostatic hypotension REM behavior disorder restless leg syndrome 32 Year old lady returns from holiday in Spain. Whilst away she has noticed difficulty swimming and weakness in her left leg. When reviewing her notes you noticed she missed an ophthalmology appointment that the GP made, as she feels she now has no problems with her eyes. 1. What are your differentials? 2. important questions to ask in a history of weakness? Investigations Medications - 1st line: dopamine agonist - ropinirole, pramipexole -2nd line: - COMT - entacapone - MAO-B - Resagaline -3rd line - Levo Dopa +PDI - Co-careldopa +/- amantidine Side effects: on symptoms - tics and dystonia off symptoms - freezing and severe parkinsoism Surgery - Deep brain stimulation - subthalamic nucleus and the globus palidus Loss of Consciousness MS!! - multiple sclerosis! autoimmune, demylinating disorder targeting any neuron myelinated by an oligodendrocyte - brain, spinal cord and the optic nerve. destruction of myelin sheath Loose the ability to jump from node to node via saltatory conduction - severe slow down nerve conduction - leading to symptoms eventually remyelinate - but myelin is not as good - relapsing remitting pattern over time cant remyelinate - secondary progressive. Epidemiology – women> men 3:1 Occurs more commonly in temperate regions. Rarer in black african/asian Typical age of onset – 30 years Take away messages 2 neurological symptoms, separated in space and time Clinical diagnosis! - It is all in the history - most dont need investigating. Epilepsy - EEG - Sleep study - sleep deprevation, flashing lights, telemetry etc. - Neuroimaging - temporal sclerosis, hypocampal lesions. New seizure >50 years - CANCER - cortical localisation - young people focal seizures. Syncope - ECG - Echo - tilt table test NEAD - psych input, counceling, adress psychosocial issues, stress, anxiety, depression etc. - very challenging to treat. Unilateral Optic Neuritis - visual loss, colour desaturation, pain on movement. Motor - weakness Sensory - pins and needles/ sensory loss Lhetmittes phenomenon Utoffs phenomenon Cerebellar symptoms - ACRONYM Any neurological symtpom- UMN NMO? severe form of MS Differentials Exciting Stuff!!! Management - Partial – carbamazipine - Complex – sodium valproate - Pregnant – lamotrigine valproate is teratogenic. - Vagal nerve stimulation – reduce incidence of seizures – doesn’t stop them completely - Surgery – temporal lobeectomy – temporal lobe epilepsy. Notify the DVLA – cant drive until seizure free for 1 year, and HGV – never drive again – so be careful when diagnosing! Swimming, and risky activities! Neurodegrenerative disease Clinically Xander Beer Management History - have a system and stick to it. Investigations - start simple and build to more complex
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