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Switzerland

Transcript: The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, which was in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. One main thing comes to mind when you're thinking about Switzerland's features and that is The Alps. They take up over half of the country. The highest point that they reach is called Mont Blac and it is 15,774 feet tall but aswell as mountains Switzerland has a range of lakes such as Lake Geneva, Lac de Neuctal and Lake Contance . Switzerland's total area is around 15, 940 square miles(1,280 sq km of water ) and has a population of about 7.9 million people. NEUJAHRSTAG (New Year's Day) January 1(Amateur dramatic performances, visiting among friends, and general merrymaking characterize the first day of the New Year, which generally is observed as a quiet holiday.) BERCHTOLD'S TAG (Berchtold's Day) January 2 (In many areas the second day of January is devoted to gay neighborhood parties in which nuts play an important part. In early autumn children begin hoarding supplies of nuts for Berchtold's Day, when they have "nut feasts." Nut eating and nut games, followed by singing and folk dancing are features of these Berchtold Day gatherings.) FESTA DI SANT' ANTONIO (Feast of Saint Anthony), canton of Ticino January 17(In Bellinzona, Locarno, and other towns and villages throughout the canton of Ticino, the ceremony of Blessing the Animals is an important rite. Owners curry their horses, mules, and donkeys until their coats shine, then adorn the beasts with bells and ribbons and take them in procession to church. Often the family dogs attend the parade, barking and jumping joyously as the larger animals are driven in state toward the sanctuary doors.) CHALANDA MARZ (First of March), in Engadine, canton of Grisons March 1 (On the first of March boys of the Engadine "ring out the winter" and announce spring's arrival with a picturesque old custom. The youths put on herdsmen's costumes with wide leather belts from which they suspend as many large cow bells as they can collect. Smaller bells hang from their necks or are strapped across their chests.) SECHSELAUTEN (Six Ringing Festival), in Zurich, canton of Zurich Some time in April (For over six hundred years the city of Zurich has symbolically driven out Winter and welcomed Spring with the traditional Sechselauten, Six Ringing Festival, which is observed on a Sunday and Monday early in April.) KUHKAMPFE (Cow Fights), canton of Valais Some time in April (Organized cow battles are unique to the canton of Valais. Each spring during April the Queen Cow of the village herds is determined by pitting the cows against each other in battle.) ALP AUFZUG (Procession to the Alps) Some time in April or May (On the morning of the Alp Aufzug the whole village tingles with suppressed excitement. The air is filled with the barking of dogs and the melodious ringing of cowbells. Herdsmen dressed in vivid peasant costume, with flowers in their hats and, sometimes, a brass ring in one ear, assemble the long procession of animals for the slow march to the mountains) FASTNACHT (Carnival) Some time before Lent--usually the Sunday, Monday and Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday (One of Switzerland's most magnificent spectacles is the Basel Carnival which opens in the market square at four o'clock in the morning with fife and drum performances by the bands of various companies.) OSTERN (Easter) (After attending morning church service, which features magnificent music, Easter Sunday generally is spent in merrymaking and festivit.Games and gaily-decorated Easter eggs are important to the young people, especially those living in towns and smaller villages.) FRONLEICHNAMSFEST (Corpus Christi Feast) The Thursday following Trinity Sunday (In many parts of Switzerland Fronleichnamsfest, or Corpus Christi, is celebrated with distinctive ceremonies that have come down from the Middle Ages. Customs vary widely from town to town and canton to canton, but this festival which commemorates the institution of the Sacrament is almost universally observed with sumptuous processions of clergy in gorgeous vestments, people in picturesque regional costume and soldiers in uniforms of former days.) MAITAG VORABEND (May Day Eve) April 30 (The custom of planting the Maitannli, the May pine tree, on May Day Eve, is celebrated widely in villages of the cantons of Vaud, Solothurn, Zurich and Ticino.) SANKT GEORG'S TAG (Saint George's Day), in Turtmann, canton of Valais April 23 (The blessing of Saint George, fourth-century patron saint of domestic animals, is solemnly invoked at Turtmann's parish church on the anniversary of the saint's martyrdom.) SANKT PLACIDUSFEST (Saint Placidus Festival), in Disentis, canton of Grisons July 11 (An impressive religious procession is held on July 11 at Disentis in honor of Saint Placidus, who reputedly was murdered near the great Benedictine Abbey

Switzerland

Transcript: Switzerland The Av. house hold is 5.47 metric tons. Av. industrial is 11 metric tons. Worldwide corbon foot print is 4 metric tons. World wide carbon foot print chande is 2 metric tons. Results foa popoulation based epidemiological study organized be Malak Hamdan and Chris Busby. They show in there study that increases in cancer, leukemia and infant mortality and perturbations greather than those reported for the survivors of the A-Bombs at Hirshima annd Negaske in 1945. They have been doing there study for over 12 years. They didnt say how much it cost to fix the problem or even studying it. Despite a dearth of natural resources, Switzerland is one of the world's most advanced and prosperous nations. Per capita income is among the highest in the world, as are wages. Trade has been the key to prosperity in Switzerland. The country is dependent upon export markets to generate income while dependent upon imports for raw materials and to expand the range of goods and services available in the country. Switzerland has liberal investment and trade policies, with the exception of agriculture, and a conservative fiscal policy. The Swiss legal system is highly developed; commercial law is well defined; and solid laws and policies protect investments. The Swiss franc is one of the world's soundest currencies, and the country is known for its high standard of banking and financial services. Switzerland is a member of a number of international economic organizations, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development According to the Red Lists (Moser et al. 2002, but without species of category C), the Swiss flora presently encompasses a total of 2943 species of which 350 (12%) are alien species, species naturalised in Switzerland after the year 1500 due to human activity and reproducing themselves these species are called neophytes . About 10% of these invasive alien species can cause problems. This has not been the case up to now for the other 90%. The Chamois is a cousin of the goat. At maturity the Chamois stands about 4.5 feet tall and weighs about 110 pounds. The horns on its’ head curve into a hook at the end. It has two white strips running down its’ face and a 6 inch mane running down its’ back. This animal in Switzerland is a popular game animal. Locals like to eat the meat of the Chamois, use its’ hide as leather, and use the mane to decorate hats and clothing. The Chamois has become endangered due to over hunting. The Swiss government now has limited the hunting tags. The weather in Switzerland varies greatly between different places. The highest precipitation receives Rochers de Nave, a mountain near Montreux with approximately 260 cm per year. Precipitation is generally higher in the western part of Switzerland where often clouds come in from the Atlantic coast. Also the parts south of the Alps get quite some rain, Lugano for example receives about 175 cm per year. If the winds blow in clouds from the south, they get blocked at the Alps and drop their water. Usually this causes dry and warm weather north of the Alps, often accompanied with heavy winds and an extremely good view where the mountains appear much closer than they are. This phenomena is known as Foehn. Many people claim that they get headaches under these conditions. On the other hand, the valleys Engadin in the very east and Valais in the southwest of Switzerland receive relatively little precipitation. Scoul receives about 70 cm, Staldenried about 53 cm. During the last few years the question has been raised if there is a weekly cycle in climatological variables due to anthropogenic activity. In this study, particulate matter data and precipitation data from 17 Swiss weather stations are analyzed for weekly cycles with three different methods: a nonparametric statistical test, a Fourier analysis on the time series, and a comparison of the regular 7-day week with either a 6- or 8-day week. Results show a well-pronounced and statistical significant weekly cycle for PM but do not show any statistically significant weekly cycle for meteorological quantities such as precipitation. Switzerland sits at the crossroads of several major European cultures, which have heavily influenced the country's languages and cultural practices. Switzerland has four official languages--German, French, Italian, and Romansch (based on Latin and spoken by a small minority in the Canton Graubunden). The German spoken is predominantly a Swiss dialect, but newspapers and some media broadcasts use High German. Many Swiss speak more than one language. English is widely spoken, especially among the university educated. More than 75% of the population lives in the central plain, which stretches between the Alps and the Jura Mountains and from Geneva in the southwest to the Rhine River and Lake Constance in the northeast. Resident foreigners and temporary foreign workers

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