Transcript: In 1922, Russia became a Socialist state, under the power of Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, and the Bolshevik party. Following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin took complete power over the newly formed USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) He exiled Leon Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev Stalin lead the USSR through a large-scale industrialization program. Also established a planned economy and suppressed political opposition to him and the Communist party. After these, the idea of Communism was in full affect in Russia Idea for Communism created by Karl Marx The Non-Communist White Movement Soldiers victory march over Nicholas Karl Marx, creator of Marxism, soon to be known as Communism The last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, ruled the Russian Empire until his abdication in March 1917, due in part to the strain of fighting in World War I. A short-lived Russian provisional government took power, to be overthrown in the 1917 October Revolution (N.S. November 1917) by revolutionaries led by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 with the union of the Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics, each ruled by local Bolshevik parties By Hudson Cleveland and Josiah Klingenberg A Bolshevik meeting before the Russian Revolution THE SOVIET UNION
Transcript: Lenin Period (1917-1924) - Remember: civil war going on during this time between the Reds and Whites - Red Army led by Leon Trotsky, who was able to get all necessary materials for successful Red military campaign. - Lenin and Bolsheviks oust Provisional Government - 1st thing government does: bans all opposition press - "Freedom of speech?! We are not going to commit suicide!" - Then holds elections. After Bolshevik lose elections, they dissolve the Constituent Assembly. "The Communist Experiment" - Control of factories was leading to massive collapse of production, as well as high rates of theft and stealing War Communism (June 1918-March 1921) - Lenin did not know how to plan his economy, and there was civil war raging throughout Russia. So, Lenin implemented "War Communism" - Aimed at keeping towns supplied with food and weapons. - How would Lenin and War Communism achieve this goal? Policies of War Communism 1. Industry and management of it became strictly nationalized 2. State monopoly on foreign trade 3. Strict discipline for workers. Rebels would be shot 4. Mandatory labor duty, even for non-working people 5. Prodrazverstka: government program forcing peasant farm workers to surrender any surplus of crops to government for a fixed price. - result of famine of 1921 6. Centralized food distribution 7. Private industry and enterprise illegal War Communism ends, enter Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP)- 1921 - Lenin's NEP, was enacted to please struggling workers. - Allowed peasant farmers to sell surplus of crop on open market - De-nationalized some business, allowed for small amount of private industry Results of NEP: - Soviet economy revived, but at a price - re-emergence of capitalism!! - Emergence of capitalist classes: - Kulaks: wealthy independent peasants located in the countryside - NEPmen: young men and women from towns Lenin's Later Years - In May of 1922, had his first stroke. Lost speech and had paralyzed leg and arm. - 2nd stroke in December 1922, 3rd stroke March 1923 Lenin's Successor??? Door #1: Trotsky - considered the 2nd man in command of Communists - Supported Lenin's World Revolution OR..... Door #2: Joseph Stalin - First General Secretary of Communist Party - Appointed post in April 1922 after Lenin has disagreements with Trotsky. - Significance? - Used post to strengthen his own personal powers, while consolidating power into his own position - In Lenin's last years, he wrote a Testament to the party, citing that Stalin was "rude, mean, power hungry" - Testament is never delivered to Communist Congress, thanks to a triumvirate including Stalin and two other members of Communist party - Triumvirate would govern against Trotsky and Bukarhin (friend of Trotsky) - Stalin's Flip Flop = Success gaining full power By 1928: Stalin in full power!!!! Beginning of Stalin Era The Soviet Union
Transcript: Tsar Nicholas II overthrown as emperor, and Tsarist government turns into a "democracy." Stalin and Trotsky become leaders of the revolution, and say that everyone is equal Profits, food, and all material goods are shared Everyone works to make the same profit; not much motivation to work Leaders became corrupt with power and Stalin kicks Trotsky out, declaring him an enemy of the revolution Working class soon becomes mistreated and used by their abusive rulers; Forced in line by KGB and Secret Police Propaganda for working Class Property Ownership Limited democracy given to the people Large country (8,650,000 sq. miles), so there were many regions to cover Authoritarian style government that was centralized Presidium of the Supreme Soviet were an elite group who made most of the decisions General public had little to no say in the government Introduction Socialism in the Soviet Union was sparked by a lack of food and necessities. Money and energy was spent fueling military campaigns against the Germans in WWI. This left thousands of people hungry and angered with the government. Revolution was afoot. Outcome of Revolution Social Safety Net "Russian Revolution of 1917." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://archive.school.eb.com/eb/article-9064488>. "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://archive.school.eb.com/eb/article-9105999>. "Communist Party of the Soviet Union." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://archive.school.eb.com/eb/article-9024991>. By Kobi Bhattacharyya Everything is owned by the public Government became corrupt and had personal luxuries, while others had only public goods General public could buy goods and services with the small amount of money each person received February 1917 Food and protection were free to everyone Healthcare provided, but protection diminished over time Everyone was required to work, as resources provided to them were reward for working This method of labor gave the working class incentives to work, while it only hurt the upper class. Education was provided to everyone Joseph Stalin Socialism in the Soviet Union Political System Bibliography Over Time: Upper class becomes fed up with little to no luxuries that they're used to; either move to other countries or refuse to participate Working class mistreated, misguided, and used People became lazier, as work was not a necessity anymore in order to earn a living Government corrupted, and ended up as the people they were trying to avoid Secret Police and KGB harass the public into conforming to "societies rules" NOT EQUAL
Transcript: Czechoslovakia was created at the end of World War I. In 1918 Hitler demanded the return of the Sudetenland. Hitler claimed the German government during this time. The Soviet Union opposed Germany's demands but did not threaten to declare war on Germany. In 1917 Russia was losing World War I to Germany and Russians home front was suffering economic hardships. In the spring of 1917 life became so difficult that Russian society disintegrated into chaos. The result was a revolution by the Bolsheviks, a Russian communist group, who overthrew the government. A civil war began as a result of the Bolsheviks coming in. Joseph Stalin began ruling over Russia also know as the Soviet Union. Russia was called the Soviet Union when the reds took over. During September Britain and France gave Hitler appeasement so they wouldn't have to go to war. Hitler agreed to the proposal and began to occupy the Sudetenland, but on May 15, 1939 Hitler broke the Munich Pact and took over Czechoslovakia. The Soviets supported Germany's annextaion. Hitler began demanding the return of Poland back to Germany In 1939 Joseph Stalin and Hitler signed a Nonaggression Pact that stated they would not fight each other if there was to be a war. Soviets provided financial aid to allies and on September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland. Germany and allies did not fight for 8 months. This period was called the "phony war." On May 10, 1940 Germany invaded smaller countries such as Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Belgium. With the help of Great Britain and France Belgium was able to stay neutral until they surrendered to Germany on May 27. Germany invaded France on May 12. The Soviets supported Germany's invasion of France. On June 22, 1940 France surrendered to Germany. Hitler was in control of all Western European countries except for Great Britain. Hitler hoped that Britain's Prime Minister, Winston Churchill would surrender, but he wouldn't. So Hitler planned Operation Sea Lion, an invasion of Britain. This invasion would be an air attack by Germany's air force. On August 2 Germany began an intensive massive bombardment over Great Britain. On August 8th Germany attacked Great Britain with 1,500 planes a day. The Soviets supported Germany's attack. In the Summer if 1941 Hitler began his long anticipated invasion of the Soviet Union called Operation Barbarossa. The nonaggression pact of 1939 was nothing more than a pragmatic attempt to stall the inevitable battle between the two countries. Hitler had used the treaty to insure a one-front war. Joseph Stalin wanted more time to modernize his army before he was forced to fight the Germans. The false security of the Nonaggression pact was broken on June 22, 1941. Then Hitler unleashed a massive invasion across a long front. Since December 1941, the United States have been in the World War when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. America and British officials had been planning Operation Sledgehammer, which was buildup of a massive force against Germany. Polish Corridor The inside information on the Soviet Union The "Phony" War Pacific Theater Soviet Union in 1939 The Munich Pact Operation Sea Lion Soviet Union The Explosive Times Operation Barbaroosa The Czechoslovakia Operation Overlord Europe in 1939
Transcript: We believe that America should co-exist in this world and cooperate with the international community and avoid entangling themselves in foreign affairs Why? Despite our political and ideological differences the Soviet Union wants the same outcome as the United States and that is international peace and security The only way to accomplish this is by accepting that each of us has our own ideology and cooperating with each other to preserve peace We are the superpowers of this world If we do not work together, peace and security cannot be accomplished political and ideological battles create uncecessary fear and conflict and interfere in our abilities to preserve security Just as in World War One the rivalry of powers for influence threatens the peace of the world today The peoples of the Soviet Union and their government desire peace; not war; economic justice, not exploitation; and security, not conquest. After defeating the forces of fascist aggression, we hope to preserve the spirit of internatioal cooperation that made victory possible Soviet Union Now is the time to build on this area of agreement to ensure a future of international stability and legality
Transcript: Turning Points of the Second World War Location 2 Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa D-DAY
Transcript: 1. Who is in charge? Hitler 2. How did he come to power? Hitler came in when Germany was in a bad time. He got the country to believe that he will help Germany improve. He went more towards the unemployed and lower middle class citizens. 3. How did he consolidate his power? The Reich stag Fire was an election that helps Hitler get an overall majority in the Reich. The Death of Hindenburg helped by being the only one opposing him by being the aging President Hinden- burg. Hitler, then, becomes Fuhrer, which is chancellor and the president combined. The Enabling Act passed which allowed Hitler to act as dictator without Parliament. Soviet Union Benito Mussolini 1. Who is in charge? Joseph Stalin 2.How did he come to power? Stalin spent his first years after the revolution slowly and secretly gaining power in the communist party. After Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin, Kamenev, and Zinoviev governed against Trotsky and Bukharin. Soon after, Stalin switched sides and joined with Bukharin. Together, they fought a new enemy consisting of Trotsky, Kamenev, and Zinoviev. By 1928 Stalin had achieve the control he wanted. The only desire he had left was to kill Trotsky, which he did about 10 years later. 3. How did he consolidate his power? He was elected as General Secretary of the Communist Party. After Lenin's death, Stalin started a campaign to ruin the reputation of his main rival for power, Leon Trotsky. When the popular party leader Sergei Kirov was assassinated in 1934, he used the murder as an excuse to get rid of the rest of his enemies. Eventually, Stalin had every individual who was competition killed or jailed, leaving him in complete control of the USSR, or the soviet union. Italy Germany Joseph Stalin 1. Who is in charge? Mussolini 2. How did he come to power? He won 35 seats in the election held in Italy and King Victor Emmanuel III called Mussolini to form the government in Rome on checking the March on Rome arranged by Mussolini. The king made Mussolini the Italian prime minister in 1922. 3. How did he consolidate his power? Mussolini passed the Acerbo law which changed the electoral system in Italy from proportional to a system which would allow Mussolini to gain a clear majority. He uses the Socialist Walkout as an excuse to kick out the socialists from parliament permanently and gets basically full control over the parliament. 1. Who is in charge? Hirohito 2. How did he come to power? He was the next in line after his father. He was born into it so once his father died he became the emperor. 3. How did he consolidate his power? All the power he wanted came with his role as emperor. Hirohito World War 2 Japan
Transcript: Genocide is the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. An estimated 7,000,000 people died in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe. Ukrainian troops fought against the Soviet Union but lost in 1921. The Soviets immediately began shipping out huge amounts of grain from Ukraine. By the end of 1933, nearly 25 percent of the population of the Ukraine, including three million children, had died. In June 1941 Nazi troops stormed into the country. The genocide in Ukraine is considered to be one of the worst genocides in the 20th century. "Stalin's Forced Famine." The History Place. The History Place, 2000. Web. 5 Apr 2011. <http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/stalin.htm>. Artem, Luhovy. "Genocide in Ukraine." Famine Genocide. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2011. <http://www.faminegenocide.com/2003-competition/07-luhovy-famine-genocide.html>. "Ukraine 1932." PPU. PPU, n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2011. <http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_ukraine.html>. Joseph Stalin Citations The Soviets immediately began shipping out huge amounts of grain
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