Transcript: Focuses more on current problems Clinical Psychologist College & Graduate's in Clinical Psychology to earn PhD or PsyD 5-8 years, + college Psychiatrist College + Medical school to receive MD or DO with specialization in Psychiatry 5-10 years + college Modern Psychoanalysis Behavior Therapy Focuses on confronting and refuting irrational beliefs that cause psychological issues techniques that are used to help people with psychological or interpersonal problems Biomedical Therapy & Psychotherapy Knowledge and understanding of the state and origin of one's own emotions and thoughts Competent Treatment & Informed Consent Free Association Counseling Psychologist College & Graduate's in Counseling Psychology or education to earn PhD or EdD 4-6 years + college All shown to be effective, particularly on children Pairing an undesirable stimulus with a maladaptive behavior to extinguish it Not used to cure; only to stabilize so that therapy can be employed Useful in treating anxiety & panic disorders, PTSD, and insomnia Fast-acting Highly addictive Withdrawal can be lethal Impairs cognitive and motor functions High relapse rate Lithium A possible long-term side effect of antispsychotic drugs involving involuntary movement of the mouth, tongue, and face 2. Systematic Desensitization is... Focuses on the client's worldview and self-awareness Biomedical Therapy is... Antidepressant Drugs Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) Tricyclics The therapist's ability to make a person feel valued for who they are, regardless of their faults and problems Effective in treating severe mania Has fewer side-effects than lithium ...the use of medications or other medical interventions to treat mental health conditions Interpretation Aversion Therapy Self-Help Groups Empathy Albert Ellis' Rational-Emotive Therapy The ability of the therapist to understand the client's feelings Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) The most frequently-prescribed antidepressant Acts upon the reuptake of serotonin Less severe side-effects Side-effects may lessen with time Overdose not fatal Can also be used to treat anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance abuse Functions on the assumption that psychological factors such as emotions, cognitions, behaviors, or relationships are the roots of interpersonal & psychological disorders Humanistic Therapy The practice of using tokens to reward desired behavior Therapists are not to form relationships or interact with the client beyond the context of the therapist-client relationship Highly effective in treating psychotic depression Quite a Lot of Qualifications Token Economy Flooding Focuses on identifying and treating negative automatic thoughts that impede healthy mental functions 3. Why does electroconvulsive therapy work? Dreams the client has are recounted and analyzed for their latent content; their symbolic meaning Family Therapy Client-Centered Therapy Focuses on changing maladaptive behaviors Focuses on agreed-upon set of problems Ethical Standards a. It forces the brain into a more plastic, adaptable state b. The electric charge helps normalize neurotransmitter levels c. I don't know Appropriate Interactions Discussions within the context of therapy are not repeated, except in extenuating circumstances Reinforcement & Punishment Derived from the latter methods; the Psychoanalyst's view of the unconscious themes and issues that may be influencing the client's behaviors Confidentiality Unconditional Positive Regard Couch-and-chair therapy; the client reclines, and the therapist sits and listens. When the client starts to treat the Psychoanalyst as though they were a loved one, such as a family member or romantic partner Effectiveness uncertain Even fewer side-effects than anticonvulsants or lithium A group of people with a similar issue who meet to aid one another Deep brain stimulator implantation is used to treat motor impairment, effective in 60% of Parkinson's patients Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is Psychology? Essentials (2nd ed., p. 539-560, 564-572). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Psychotherapy Couples Therapy Therapist does more than just listen Resistance Licensed Professional Counselor College + Graduate's to earn Master’s in Counseling 3-5 years + college Psychotherapy is... The intentional creation of brain lesions is effective in 25-30% of patients The client talks freely about a subject while the therapist listens for themes or issues Useful in treating anxiety, particularly Generalized Anxiety Disorder Lower risk of addiction Much slower-acting ...the use of psychological principles and techniques to treat mental health disorders Systematic Desensitization a. ...a one-time procedure b. ...a three-step process c. ...a form of self-harm A series of treatments in which an electric current is passed through the brain in order to induce a seizure Aaron Beck's Cognitive Therapy Client-Centered Therapy has been shown to be equally effective with other,
Transcript: Not clear sense of self or other Confusion about mental and perceptual states Poor reality testing Primitive anxieties and defences First days of Spring - the sky is bright blue, the sun huge and warm. Everything's turning green. Carrying my monk's bowl, I walk to the village to beg for my daily meal. The children spot me at the temple gate and happily crowd around, dragging to my arms till I stop. I put my bowl on a white rock, hang my bag on a branch. First we braid grasses and play tug-of-war, then we take turns singing and keeping a kick-ball in the air: I kick the ball and they sing, they kick and I sing. Time is forgotten, the hours fly. People passing by point at me and laugh: 'Why are you acting like such a fool?' I nod my head and don't answer. I could say something, but why? Do you want to know what's in my heart? From the beginning of time: just this! just this! Aimless Searching Which Journeys? Therapy and life as play Beginnings of understanding Empathy as vicarious introspection Adapting to therapy Developing a therapeutic frame Personality organisation Following the Footprints Borderline Level Catching the Ox Neurotic Level Without props Trusting the process "Without memory or desire" Capacity to be alone The Heart of the Matter Returning to Life With Open Hands Unintegrated self, fragmented and fragile Need others to maintain self Anxieties around abandonment Splitting defences - intense swings of perception and emotion Therapy becomes second nature Rogers and empathy Secure base "Strivings and difficulties in the endeavor to reach an object where it may find support" Personal Journey Professional Journey Therapy Journey Past, future, and most importantly, present Basic anxiety Efforts to escape Coming to therapy Looking for love in all the wrong places Observations on Intersecting Journeys Psychotherapy Taming the Ox Craig Nicholls September 2014 Psychotic Level Spring Day Secure, cohesive and complex sense of self and others Whole self, but at a cost "Nothing to see here - move along" Anxieties related to unwanted and forbidden Catching a Glimpse
Transcript: 1954 - Abraham Maslow helped find humanistic psychology 1937 - Cerletti and Bini discovered electroconvulsive shock therapy What exactly is Psychotherapy? Disadvantages Behavioral therapy Cognitive therapy Gestalt therapy Interpersonal therapy Jungian Psychoanalysis Psychodynamic therapy 1935 - Neurologist Antonio Moriz developed lobotomy as an option for mental patients 1970 - Arthur Janov outlined his theory of Primal Scream Thearpy Benefits and Disadvantages By: B009 - Anahita Suyash B022 - Aenesh Sengupta B026 - Kevin Gandhi B030 - Mansi Tibrewala B067 - Vedant Bansal B068 - Tarang Doshi Personality disorders Obsessive-compulsive disorder Alcoholism Addiction Behavioral problems Bipolar disorder Thank you! Depression Anxiety Post-traumatic stress disorder Low Self-esteem Anxiety disorders Emotional crises Marital Problems Family disputes Difference between Counseling & Psychotherapy Some clients may find that the treatment results in changes they had not expected, or did not want. Some people do not like to have to relive unpleasant events (not all psychotherapy techniques make the client do this). 1913 - Carl Jung introduced Analytical Psychology Treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality and psychiatric disorders based primarily on verbal and nonverbal communications and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatment using chemical and physical measures. Types of Psychotherapy 400 BC - Hippocrates and ancient Greek therapy helped cure mood disorders 1886 - Sigmund Freud began the therapeutic practice and research What happens during Psychotherapy History What Psychotherapy Treats Being able to understand yourself and your personal goals and values better. Developing skills for improving relationships. It helps the client overcome certain problems, such as an eating disorder, depression, or anxiety. Obtaining a solution to the problems or concerns that made the client seek therapy. Benefits Case Studies 1). No 2 people are the same and therefore every therapy session is different. Usually, the therapist will encourage one to talk and express oneself in a structured manner. 2).The therapist may also suggest other methods of exploration such as using art, imaging dream or movement work. 3). Whatever the method may be, the process eventually helps one to find the capacity for improvement within oneself Psychotherapy 1892 - American Psychology Association was founded
Transcript: The most important thing is for the patient to have the belief that they can succeed and change. The, "Placebo Effect", is the influence that a patients hopes and expectations have on their improvement through the therapy. In Early times to have a psychological disturbance represented a moral or religious problem. They would take rigorous actions by exorcisms or religious ceremonies to help. But as time evolved over the past 200 years, the views have changed. Philipe Pinel at the Bicertre hospital in France, (1973) helped mark a realization that these people were not possessed but in fact mentally ill. The primary goal of the therapist is to strengthen the patients control over their life. People that need psychotherapy help are wanting to change their thoughts, behavior, or feelings. Or to change the behaviors that reinforce those feelings. Thank You! Where Did it Begin? What is Psychotherapy? "Healing of the Soul" To help people understand their way of living, how their present way of living casues problems, and to start living in a new, more beneficial way What is Important? Psychotherapy involves three things: verbal interaction, the development of a supportive and trusting relationship, and an analysis by the therapist of the client's problems, including suggestions or overcoming those problems Task of Therapist Main Types of Therapy To help people realize that they are responsible for their own problems, and that they themselves are the only ones who can solve their problems Psychotherapy Functions of Psychotherapy Goals Of Therapy There are many types of psychotherapy including, psychoanalysis, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, and biological. Each form of therapy is approached differently, by each theory and style.
Transcript: A major advantage of psychotherapy over treatment with medication is that psychotherapy has few physiological side effects, (especially important consideration for older adults who are often taking more than one type of medication.) In addition, psychotherapy offers the possibility of effective treatment for those who have not responded to medications. A disadvantage is that psychotherapy typically takes longer than drug therapy to produce benefits that are noticeable to the person receiving treatment -- six to eight weeks or longer for psychotherapy, compared with four to six weeks for medication. Also, psychotherapy alone is not effective in people with severe depression or bipolar disorder. Educational Requirements Disadvantages Usually work regular business hours, but those in private practice may have to work evenings and weekends, depending on client availability and deadlines Work in locations such as offices, hospitals and health care services, universities, prisons, residential services, and community organizations May work in emotionally draining and stressful circumstances May travel locally or nationally to visit clients, and attend workshops and conferences. http://education-portal.com http://www.theguardian.com/healthcare-network/2012/jun/29/day-life-judy-eaton-consultant Bibliography As required in every state, you need a masters degree in psychology, counseling or clinical social work, preferably with an emphasis on psychotherapy. Some states require a Ph.D. in the field. Master's and doctoral degree programs require students to complete two years of supervised clinical practice. Psychotherapist education programs at the doctoral level emphasize psychotherapy research, psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychotherapy and medicine. Prospective psychotherapists must take the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). Every state requires psychotherapists to obtain a state license before practicing. Earnings Range Psychotherapy Career Counselor Case Worker Child Care Worker Child Psychologist Clinical Psychologist College Admissions Counselor Psychotherapists work with individuals, couples, families and groups to help them overcome a range of psychological and emotional issues. Psychotherapy is a variety of non-medical based treatments to: Address the client's thought processes, feelings and behavior Understand inner conflicts Find new ways to deal with, and alleviate, distress Psychotherapy includes an exploratory analytic and psychodynamic dialogue during individual private meetings, group-work, along with dream work, psychodrama, movement exercises, trance, reflection, meditation, and various kinds of bodywork, all according to the specific needs of the client. Comparative Psychologist Community Counselor Counseling Psychologist Correctional Treatment Specialist Criminal Investigator Crisis Counselor A Typical Day! Job Description Shifts could be during the day or night. However, let's assume it'd during the day. Work days are long and busy. First, try to have an informal chat with patients.(If there are any in the morning) Then often attend the staff shift change, and have a catch-up with staff to learn if anything of note happened during the night. After going to my office and checking emails, I'll attend the handover. This is when all patients are discussed by the team, including social workers, therapy staff, psychiatrists, and our head of nursing and hospital manager. All of this will typically be a therapy session run in late morning. Time is spent during and after the session writing about the patient, doing research, discovering ways to help them overcome their issues and treat them with a proper diagnosis to help them overcome their problems. Throughout the day I continue sessions with my patients ect. Overall in a week, about a third of the time will be spent writing reports. Psychotherapist in Canada collects an average annual salary between $31,943 – $236,764 per year. The median psychotherapist salary around $65,870 per year. The 10th percentile of psychotherapists has been around $32,000 per year; the 75th percentile received around $100,000 per year and the 90th percentile collected around $240,000 per year. The average salary of psychotherapist by number of years is as follows: psychotherapist with 1 to 4 years of experience make an average yearly rate between $36,500 – $57,391 while those practicing for 5 to 9 years collect an average pay ranging between $47,808 – $92,500 per year. Related Jobs Working Conditions! Academic Counselor Advanced Psychiatric Nurse Advertising Agent Animal Trainer Animal Researcher Art Therapist Aviation Psychologist Advantages
Transcript: Programme Manager Youth Co ordinator Early Years Co Ordinator Family Subsystems Danny Edward Structural Approach D E External Agencies Jones Family Lynne Danny Case Presentation Michael Cl. Psych Danny Neill N (13) About Me Wendy Techniques Edward BBMS Pastoral Team Minuchin, Salvador. (1971). Families and family therapy. Harvard University Printing Press. Minuchin, Salvador. (1984). Family therapy techniques. Harvard University Printing Press. http://www.mariemontschools.org/parr/therapy_backgr.htm Sysemtic Interventions (Power Point) http://www.psyc.csustan.edu/kbaker/5790/.com Family Systems Therapy (Power Point) by James J. Messina, Ph.D. www.coping.org/write/C6444/Family%20Therapy.ppt Gurman, A. S. & Kniskern, D. P. (1981). Handbook of Family Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers. Umbarger, C.C. (1983). Structural Family Therapy. New York: Grune & Stratton, Inc. Danny- Disengagement-rigid-little commitment. Works long hours Lynne and Neill -Enmeshment-diffuse-very involved as one-fosters dependency on the other Setting Boundaries- Emotional/physical barriers that define amount and kind of contact allowable between members "Clear healthy boundaries-attain sense of personal identity yet allow sense of belongingness within family system" Family member play a different role in each of the subsystems they belong Structural difficulty when one subsystem takes over or intrude another Pastoral VP SENCO Heads of Year Year Counselors Neill Structural Techniques I currently work for ISCYP as a Behaviour Mentor Placed in BBMS Two Multi Disciplinary Teams Lynne ISCYP Team Crisis referral for Neil Jones referred aged 13 Major conflict with member of staff Family-School relationship fractured Repeated suspensions in this current year Started to school refuse Undergoing assessment for ADHD with CAHMS Referral Information & Background Joining Making Rules/Relationships Boundary-making Reframing/Relabeling L Wendy Education Psychology CAHMS Social Service Behaviour Mentor Enmeshed Understanding the Problem Boundaries Lynne The therapist determines the issues around which to explore and intervene in the session. "Joining the family in a position of leadership entering their reality and becoming part of that family’s patterns of relating/structure" The Jones Family Wendy References Structural Map W (4) Genogram Neill Ecomap
Transcript: The Case of "The Fraud" Basic Info How things started A - 50 D - None D - MI (s/p CABGx5 2015), DMII, OSA, Gilbert's Syndrome, TBI w/ LOC at 12, Obesity (BMI 43), Hypothyroidism R - Reformed Christian E - Caucasian S - Heterosexual S - Middle Class I - Not indigenous N - USA G - Cisgender male The First Visit "I have a lot of self-doubt and fear of being left out. I don't like being me" Chronic depression Poor ADLs Sarcastic humor directed toward himself New York City "...feel like I'm a part of something." Celexa x 10 years (no benefit) PDD: Depression + ADHD + EtOH ADHD: Confirmed via PCC testing "Capable of better work." Forgetful, missing deadlines Losing hours every day looking at his phone Impulsive buying "all the shiny things." Adderall XR stopped in 2015 because of MI EtOH: Remote h/o problematic drinking (18-27) Chugging fifths of liquor "just to get blackout drunk." Stopped after being dx'd with Gilbert's Syndrome, wanted to protect his liver Last taste of EtOH in 2015 Background Social History B/R in Michgan, moved to Zeeland in 1st grade One sister 3 years younger than him Ruthless bullying at school, but accepted by neighborhood kids "I felt like the only red-headed freckled kid in West Michigan." Dad was cold and distant, never felt accepted. "I forced him to play catch with me one time when I was 16." HS: "I suddenly realized what it took to get popular, so I changed myself." Played football for local college, immediately accepted into football family "I reinvented myself in college, assimilating just to be liked." Organized all the parties on campus, "so nobody could ever leave me out." Double major (Marketing + Psychology) Semi-pro football, career ending injury Spent 2-3 years comitting retail fraud Worked local newspaper as journalist, "never be the highest paid journalist at a newspaper company." "I'm a fraud." Negatives = my true self Positives = "just a fluke" Work + family Defenses: Humor Intellectualization Core Issues "Can we do therapy?" Timeline Timeline 2017 Where to start? CBT? Psychodynamic? Existential? Attachment? Chart Chart Label 1 Label 2 Label 3 Label 4 Topic 2 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 6
Transcript: Onset 7 years before last admission, continuous course Social Withdrawal Occupational deterioration Delusions that his brother is having an affair with his sister-in-law Delusions that his family and neighbours work in adultery Verbal and Physical Aggression substance intake Descriptive Case Summary By Yasmine Anwer Demographics: M.A 30 years old male patient single Educated from Currently working in Cement Company Living in Helwan Father: 77 years old, rtired, used to work as a waiter. The patient is living with his parents, his brother A. in their owned apartment in their own building, of 1 reception, 3 bedrooms, a bathroom and a kitchen with electrical appliances. The patient has his own room. Monthly income is 2500, of his father's pension, and rental fees of 2 other apartments in their building. Psychotherapy Case Conference Current Living Circumstances Patient was admitted on the day of assessment He received psycho-pharmacological and electroconvulsive therapies to control the symptoms By time, as the patient became less aggressive, less preoccupied by his delusions, psychotherapy was started. He was admitted for 70 days, the psychotherapy started after 40 days of admission. Family Settings
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