Transcript: Tanning Methods The Middle Ages Classic Leather 3M Tiles Prehistoric times How to Install Leather Cushion Accesories Skirts & Dresses Leather is definitely a beautiful, luxurious material that you can add to any interior space to add the mood you want for the room itself; it can be chosen by the style or color to decide what vibe that you are looking for Vegetable tanned lathers Synthetic-tanned leather Alum-tanned leather Aldehyde-tanned leather Chromium-tanned leather Killing the environment Rugs Walls Hotel Lobby . The process for doing so first involves preparing the hide—scraping it clean of meat, fat, and hair Restaurant Wallpaper You can tell the difference between a tanned hide and a rawhide based on their reactions to heat and water Characteristics of Leather Living Room Leather can be tanned to be used for certain purposes, for instance if the hide is tanned using a certain chemical, such as chromium sulfate, then the leather will end up more flexible which is ideal for clothes. Bags Not only its killing animals by the process of getting their skin but also harming the producers of the leather through the tanning process To the Egyptian lady, a fur piece was highly prized as her jewellery. In recorded history, pieces of leather dating from 1300 B.C. have been found in Egypt. lung irritant harmful to the skin nasal cancer bladder cancer Estimate 2007 Footwear 11,925 Garments 2,290 Auto 2340 Furniture 3,210 Gloves 1010 Other leather products 2155 Total 22930 Leather use - % of total production Footwear 52 Garments 10 Auto 10.2 Furniture 14 Gloves 4.4 Other leather products 9.4 men discovered methods of preserving and softening leather treating animal skins with such things as smoke, grease and bark extracts. Aisha Alshuwaihy 131320003 Fatma Hejazi 131310016 Sara Ahmad 131310008 History of Leather Leather is killing slowly The Greeks Tanning process Jackets Living room 1. No two hides are the same: The most important leather-producing countries are Italy and Korea, followed by the states of the former USSR, India, Brazil, Mexico, USA, and China. Leather Faux Tiles North America Harmful to The Makers Pre-Assorted tiles with self-stick adhesive can be applied directly to the surface with ease. Since self-stick adhesives are very strong and highly effective, tiles should not be pressed to the surface until it is absolutely certain that the perfect placement has been achieved. The 3M adhesive must be pressed firmly against the wall for 1 - 2 minutes to activate the adhesive. Not doing so will create a weak bond. Each individual tile within a 12"x12" mosaic must be pressed firmly against the wall. The 3M adhesive is a one-time use product that should not be applied multiple times. If the 3M adhesive touched a surface, you MUST use a new layer of 3M adhesive. The strength of the adhesive deteriorates after each re-positioning or re-application. The 3M adhesive must be applied to a clean, rigid, non-flexible, flat surface. Any dust, debris, foreign materials or irregularities on the wall will affect adhesion. The 3M adhesive attains highest adhesion and performance after 72 hours Modern Chic white leather adds contemporary vibe to a space designed with traditional elements. In prehistoric times man has used the skins of animals to satisfy his basic needs. 3. Leather is a good insulator Pants We cant really tell or choose where leather is used the most, leather is never out of style, its always been there and will always be there, because we use it literally everywhere and in everything, But I think the place that will never stop needing leather is car interior for seats and leather covering specially in sport and luxurious cars. Leather is a stylish and family friendly element to insert in your house. The Indians of North America also had developed great skills in leather work before the coming of the white man. General Stain Removal Faux Leather: Spot cleaning with mild soap and water will remove most of the everyday stains. Faux Suede (Micro-fiber Suede): Use a brush or tape to take any dirt before using any sort of cleaner. Tough Stain Removal Since there are mixed patterns and surface qualities in the Tiles, each pattern in the mosaic may use different types of cleaners. Where is Leather Used? Car Seats How Does leather enhances interior design? Egypt General Installation Instructions 4. Leather is extremely versatile: Living Room Individual tiles can be direct glued to the wall using FRP or Panel adhesive. The base material is a Magnesium Oxide Board (MgO), used often as an eco-friendly drywall substitute. The MgO board is naturally water, fire, mold, impact and mildew resistant. 1-Clear the tile of any dust or debris. 2-Using a roller, place an even coating of adhesive onto the wall surface. 3-Next use the roller to place an even coating of adhesive onto the backside of the tile. 4-Let the adhesive set on both the wall and backside of the tile for a few minutes until the adhesive has a tacky
Transcript: Lauren Knapp Leatherfolk Hello! Hello! Lights out? door closed? perfect. let's get weird. Let's talk about sex, kinks, and gays. Welcome to the leather world! excuse me? excuse me? Let's first discuss the foundation of leather folk. Why do people feel the need to create a uniform or costume for their groups? the answer to this is self-fashioning. where? where? Where did this subculture originate? Territory? Who? Who? Where did this group come from? -Mid twentieth century, thought to be associated with the end of WWII -"Leather had gained it's subcultural, and it's sexual associations through various biker organisations in post Second-World War America." (Gelder, 137.) -Evolution of leather as a symbol... Modern definition Modern definition -New definition of "leatherfolk" -Video clip on "Miss Universe of the Gay Leather World." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezV_-MkgGvg (00:20-2:10 and 3:35-4:15) -Fetishism, kinks, BDSM -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gR3bFOZkpfY&t=131s (00:35-2:10) -Leather went from being viewed as a 'tough exterior' to a 'second skin.' - "Urban Aboriginals" -Video clip on "Miss Universe of the Gay Leather World." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezV_-MkgGvg (00:20-2:10 and 3:35-4:15) -Fetishism, kinks, BDSM -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gR3bFOZkpfY&t=131s (00:35-2:10) -Leather went from being viewed as a 'tough exterior' to a 'second skin.' - "Urban Aboriginals" LEATHER AS A UNIVERSAL SYMBOL OF ACCEPTANCE AND SEXUALITY LEATHER AS A UNIVERSAL SYMBOL OF ACCEPTANCE AND SEXUALITY To elaborate... To elaborate... -Leather as a sign of community, trust, respect. -Safe place with an emphasis on CONSENT. Gelder: "The leathersex scene seems to place special emphasis on intimacy and trust." Mark Thompson: "S/M leathersex play is about healing wounds that keep us from fully living." Matthew D. Johnson: "The credo among leather practitioners is that all such expressions are mindful of physical, mental, and emotional health, are understood as mutually consentual." Discussion questions: Discussion questions: In the last few years, there have been releases of a movie series which introduces a couple who practise BDSM. This series, as I'm sure you're all aware, is called 50 Shades. Do you believe that these movies help to bring awareness, understanding, and acceptance to the BDSM/leatherfolk community? Or do you feel that the way it is portrayed is problematic? Discussion Question 1: Discussion Question 1: Leather culture prides itself on it's moral basis which puts emphasis on love, acceptance, trust, and respect. However, many practises of BDSM include humiliation, pain, and vulgar language. Are these two premises contradictory? How is a healthy balance maintained? discussion question 2: discussion question 2:
Transcript: Botega Lee Why I do Intoduction to Leather Work How I do What I do What I do How I do Why I do Questions to ask Questions
Transcript: International evolution GLOBAL OR LOCAL? Political Systems Legal Systems Cultural environment Economic Systems Financial Markets BIBLIOGRAPHY KidsNet (2017) Command economy. Australia: Kids.net.au. Taken from http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/ce/Centrally_planned_economy Potrebic, N. (2016) 8 Countries That Produce the Most Leather in The World. Insider Monkey. Taken from http://www.insidermonkey.com/blog/8-countries-that-produce-the-most-leather-in-the-world-444872/8/ Eadie, A. (1994) Commodities and Derivatives: Rising demand hides leather's limited supply. United Kingdom: independent.co.uk. Taken from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/commodities-and-derivatives-rising-demand-hides-leathers-limited-supply-1434711.html Redwood, M. (2013) Don’t make a commodity and complain about prices. Taken from http://internationalleathermaker.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/234/Don_92t_make_a_commodity_and_complain_about_prices.html Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013) World Statistical Compendium for raw hides and skins, leather and leather footwear 1993-2012. FAO. Taken from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/est/COMM_MARKETS_MONITORING/Hides_Skins/Documents/COMPENDIUM2013.pdf Florez, F. (2015) La marroquinería y su situación actual en Colombia. Bogotá: elcampesino.com.co. Taken from http://www.elcampesino.co/la-marroquineria-y-su-situacion-actual-en-colombia/ People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2017) Wool, Fur, and Leather: Hazardous to the Environment. Taken from http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-clothing/animals-used-clothing-factsheets/wool-fur-leather-hazardous-environment/ Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2007) A guide to improving animal welfare in the leather industry. FAO. Taken from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/animalwelfare/Leather%20guide.pdf Workman, D. (2017) Leather Shoes Export by Country. WTEx. Taken from http://www.worldstopexports.com/leather-shoes-exports-country/ Asociación Colombiana de Industriales del Calzado, el Cuero y sus Manufacturas (2004) Cuero, calzado e industria marroquinera. Colombia. Taken from https://colaboracion.dnp.gov.co/CDT/Desarrollo%20Empresarial/Cueros.pdf Unites Nations Industrial Development Organization (2010) Future Trends in the World Leather and Leather Products Industry and Trade. Viena: UNIDO. Taken from https://leatherpanel.org/sites/default/files/publications-attachments/future_trends_in_the_world_leather_and_leather_products_industry_and_trade.pdf Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2004) Perspectivas a plazo medio de los productos básicos agrícolas. Roma: fao.org. Taken from http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5143s/y5143s18.htm Cueroplantes (2008) Oferta y demanda mundial de cueros y manufacturas. Bolivia: Cueroplanet.com. Taken form http://cueroplanet.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=19&Itemid=36 Cib3rcrim3 available at http://cyb3rcrim3.blogspot.com.co/2017/05/free-books-from-uk-law-publisher.html CBC available at http://www.cbc.ca/books/animalrights.jpg LEATHER INDUSTRY Tag laws available at: https://www.atarlife.com/tag/laws/ foro ideas para la democracia available at: http://www.foroideasparalademocracia.com/ democracia available at:https://www.google.com.co/search?q=political+systems&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi78b77-d7TAhWMNiYKHQ1mBNAQ_AUIBigB&biw=1138&bih=543&dpr=1.2#imgrc=COJaUmN4p7SXfM:&spf=413 Wikipedia available at https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Civil_and_Naval_Ensign_of_France.svg/2000px-Civil_and_Naval_Ensign_of_France.svg.png PETA available at http://www.peta.org/blog/facing-leather-industry/ Rome Economics available at http://www.romeconomics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/mixed-economy.png?50ff81 Wikipedia available at https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg/300px-Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg.png Dillsboro legion Available at http://www.dillsborolegion.org/inautomobiles.htm blogspot Available http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-qBaZNqjDypo/TxR6w1hwc3I/AAAAAAAAB-8/WZaeXB-ArwM/s1600/shoes+made+in+china.jpg Maps of World available at http://www.mapsofworld.com/flags/italy-flag.html Amazonaws available athttps://tce-live2.s3.amazonaws.com/media/media/7c9afe53-8b95-44b1-abc7-b461a5a0c5c2.jpg Simply Decoded available at http://www.simplydecoded.com/indian-constitution/
Transcript: Any Other Cloths Shoes/Boots Bed Sheets (Or Other Bed Stuff Cases (Pencil, Knife,Gun, Camera, Phone, And Others) Belts Wool Chairs Jackets Cotton Balls Cars (The Chairs And Others) What Is Leather? Pillows Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Leather What is Leather Made Of Wallets/Bags What Is Wool Made Of Gloves Tables (Depends What Type) And Stuff That Can Be Made With Leather And Or Wool Leather is a piece of material made from the skin of an animal by tanning or a similar process. Leather is mainly made from animals but this website I found says its not a type of meat. ( http://www.care2.com/causes/the-shocking-truth-about-leather-no-its-not-a-meat-byproduct.html ). Wool is the fine, soft curly or wavy hair forming the coat of a sheep, goat, or similar animal, especially when shorn and prepared for use in making cloth or yarn. Toys/Stuffed Animals Leather can be made from cows, pigs, goats, and sheep; exotic animals such as alligators, ostriches, and kangaroos; and even dogs and cats, who are slaughtered for their meat and skin in China, which exports their skins around the world. What Is Wool?
Transcript: cow hide pig hide 5. Stake the Leather Leather Other products: book bindings walets belts jackets boots car interior furniture 8. Finish the Leather By: Tyler L , Dakota P 7. Dye the Leather 6.Level the Leather 1. Remove the Skin 3. Vegetable Tannage 4. Dry the Leather 2. Remove the Hair & Flesh Cow hide Pig hide
Transcript: Leather! Pictures ! Leather Pride Walk Their Flag ` Appearence ? copy paste branches if you need more.... Existed since the late 1940's. Most likely grew out of post WW11 Lingo ? Emergence? tIME? Member Developed its beginning in 1945 when thousands of gay servicemen were given blue discharges from service after WW11 and came to live in the major port cities of the United States to live in gay ghettos. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr most visible in gay communities and most often associated with gay men ("leathermen") Leather Way participants distinguish themselves from mainstream sexual cultures. Very few clothes. Mostly all leather, no type of cloth. Codpieces. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Transcript: Global Alternative Presentation - Leather Industry Behzad Mostaghni, Mackenna Stuck, Andrea Yepez, Chi-Ho Wong, Hanxiang Li 04/27/2020 Toxic Material: Toxic Material & Difficulty Tanning is one of the most toxic industries in the world because of the chemicals involved. Chrome, known for its cancer-causing abilities, is used in huge amounts as are acids, natrium and ammonium salts. A 2005 study showed 69.000 tons of chrome salts are used annually in 1,600 Indian tanneries. But despite the dangers, workers can still be seen laboring without adequate protective gear. Process of Production: -First the leather must be gathered. Killing Animals at alarming rates. -The the leather must be cured -soak the leather in water. -painting, liming, fleshing, modeling and other steps to produce leather. -The process is bad for the environment. Process Two main issues with the production of Leather are, Issues Pollution Workers Safety Pollution: Most of the tanning production companies done outside of the United States, do not follow safe dumping of their toxic wastes. To tan the hide chemicals that are toxic and harmful to both people and our planet are used. Pollution Workers Safety: Safety Due to the long hours, many workers suffer from chronic pain and skin irritations. It is not uncommon to find children as young as 11 years old working in the tanneries. Laborers are suffering extreme pain due to the lack of safety equipment and gear as well as health issues regarding being exposed to the harsh toxins The toxic acid from production of leather has effect on: Toxic on Environment & Neighbors Labor Environment Customers Neighbors The tanneries in India are hiring underage labors to work for them, which is illegal by law. Labor The tannery job is hiring under age children and giving them hard time working. This is because they have more power than older people and can work many hours during the day. In the other hand, The people who are working in the tannery are suffering from toxic acid and they are experiencing health issue. Pictures The toxic liquid is not only harming the labor but also can harm the environment . Many tanneries are flushing their toxic liquid to a draining pump that is going to the field by the villages. The toxic liquid is coming in the form of foam and killing the vegetables, plants and changing the color of the trees to black. Environment Consumption effect on Customers as well. Customers The leather products are not usually have effect on the consumers, but it has on their pets. One of the products is the leather toy for the dogs, which can be harmful. Chew Toy People who are living around the tannery are suffering from the toxic acid. The liquid is affecting neighborhoods’ daily life, and it threatens their lives. Same as the labors at the tannery, it can be harmful for the neighbor’s skin and make Vitiligo condition for them as well. Neighbors The top Countries with highest production of leather are: Health effect India China Brazil South Korea Italy Argentina Russia United States Hard to see but good to see Processing factories outside of the United States vary in the laws and regulations for dumping. Pakistan and India have regulations in place but do not enforce illegal dumping practices enough to truly help the environment and communities living near the dumping sites. It is estimated that around 300 kilograms of chemicals are used in every 900 kilograms of leather being treated (Good on You 2020). Tanneries Most factories either do not have safety gear and equipment or they do not have enough. This mainly comes from simply not spending money on the health and well being of the tannery workers. Not only are the toxic chemicals, present at the tanneries, a main reason for many illnesses that the workers contract but, at times the floors can be so slippery that workers run the risk of falling and seriously hurting themselves, or dying from the fall. It is not uncommon for you children working in the tanneries to drowned in the large tubs. Safety Equipment History Leather was first manufactured in the early 1800s. - Used for clothing and essential tools necessary for everyday life. - Throughout the centuries Leather has evolved depending on society and the time period. -Leather was seen as a necessity hundred of years ago but now it is Seen as a luxury. History of Leather & wrapping Up What can we do to help? What to do? I for one have always stayed away from anything that is made from animals purely for “fashion”. However, not all people can or are willing to do this. Here are some ways you can make a difference: Find companies such as Elevate that ethically and sustainably produce quality leather products. Elevate finds local craftsman and connects them with the global market through their website. This way all profits go directly to the craftsman. Find greener and more sustainable options With the science of today there are many different alternatives such as making leather from fruit skin
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