Transcript: Re-use of materials The 3R Reduce - to buy less and use less. Reuse - elements of the discarded item are used again Recycle - discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. To reuse is to use an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function Advantages Disadvantages Comparison to recycling Recycling differs from reuse in that it breaks down the item into raw materials which are then used to make new items, as opposed to reusing the intact item. Advantages & disadvantages Reuse often requires cleaning or transport, which have environmental costs. Some items, such as freon appliances or infant auto seats, could be hazardous or less energy efficient as they continue to be used. Reusable products need to be more durable than single-use products, and hence require more material per item. This is particularly significant if only a small proportion of the reusable products are in fact reused. Sorting and preparing items for reuse takes time, which is inconvenient for consumers and costs money for businesses. Energy and raw materials savings as replacing many single use products with one reusable one reduces the number that need to be manufactured. Reduced disposal needs and costs. Refurbishment can bring sophisticated, sustainable, well paid jobs to underdeveloped economies. Cost savings for business and consumers as a reusable product is often cheaper than the many single use products it replaces. Some older items were better handcrafted and appreciate in value.
Transcript: Caitlin Boyland, Sam Cook, Becca Anstee & Rachel Tyler Good conductors have low values of resistivity Good insulators have high values.. The strength of polymers are low in comparison to other materials. ABS is tougher than other plug materials. UF = thermoset. Stronger and stiffer than ABS The heat comes from the current, drawn by the appliance and resistance of the conductor. A firm fit is needed as the plug will be removed from the socket many times during its life time. The pins are made of nickel plated brass. Brass is an alloy of copper, so it has a higher strength than the pure metal. The materials with the lowest values of resistivity are aluminum, brass, copper and gold. All these are conductors in practice. USB metal Injection moulding is commonly used in mass production of thermoplastics; -> high production rates -> dimensional accuracy -> quality of finish Possible use Aluminium or Copper for the plug pins since they are more conductive despite being a little more expensive - they would last longer However, they are more difficult to work with.. The information on the casing was not available from Apple though we deduced it was likely to be ABS.. Advantages & Disadvantages? References.. Complex 3D shape = injection moulding Must hold pins securely and protect conducting parts. The cable sheath is manufactured from PVC; -> Insulation -> Durability ->Value -> Lifespan Disadvantages? Nylon could be used for the plug casing... And one more thing... Thank you for your attention! Viable Alternatives The USB The Plug and USB Casing Manufacture - The Plug and USB casing They must not overheat..apple states it has 0-35 degree operating temperature so as it will not be a fire hazard. ABS, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, is used for the one piece moulded plugs The plug is sealed by ultrasonic welding What are the common problems? http://store.apple.com/uk/product/MB706B/B#overview http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ABS_resin_formula.PNG http://www.nickelinstitute.org/NickelUseInSociety/MaterialsSelectionAndUse/Electronics http://www.ehow.com/info_8332551_power-plugs.html http://www.materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/plug/non_IE/page5.html OCR Design and Technology for A Level. J. Grundy, D. Hallam, M. Hopkinson and S. McCarthy Making It: Manufacturing Techniques for Product Design. C. Lefteri http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/plug/non_IE/page5.html A Level Product Design. B. Evans and W. Potts Design and Realisation. C. Chapman and M. Peace http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiGlq7408ME http://www.ides.com/info/generics/1/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene-ABS http://www.gopolymers.com/plastic-types/abs-plastic.html Why did Apple use these materials? Process not dissimilar to extrusion though with brass instead of polymer The process that follows is known as forging.. Mains lead doubles as a USB charger... Built in obsolescence should be eliminated from the Apple design process... Parts Within The Plug.. Plug & Components Manufacture - Cable Sheath Apple iPhone Charger Conductors and Insulators, Pins, Fuse, Cable Wires, Plug Body, Cable Cover, Wire Covers, Pin Cover, Fuse Body.. Requirements for the Pins.. Casing The Cable Sheath is manufactured through extrusion. The Plug Pins
Transcript: Nickel Titanium (NiTi) Rockwell Results (NiTi) MAG=200.00 K X - Refine with friction, removing saw marks and cleaning the specimen surface. - There’s two type of grinding machines that we use for this specimen the - Role Grinder - Optipol-2 Grinding Machine - Purpose for this step is to obtain a flat surface free from all previous tool marks and cold working due to specimen cutting 100 x 100 MAG=100.00 K X NiTi: its composition, properties, and uses 320 Role Grinder Machine The alloy was named Nitinol, an acronym for the elements from which the material was composed; "Ni "for Nickel, "Ti" for Titanium and "nol" from the Naval Ordnance Laboratory Alloy of nickel and titanium. The two elements are present in roughly equal atomic percentages. It has the ability to return to a predetermined shape when heated. Hardness: Rockwell Scale NiTi 120 10 x 10 AFM setup (picture obtained from Wikipedia.com) AFM creates a Topographic 3-D image In a non contact AFM, the probe tip (cantilever) scans the surface without ever making contact with the specimen. Because the probe can not make contact with the specimen, and is moving in the x-y direction, deflection from a laser is used so the probe moves in the z direction to avoid collision while scanning During the scan, the probe is oscillating at a frequency slightly above it resonance frequency where amplitude of oscillation is typically a few nanometers (Van der Waals forces are strongest from 1-10nm above surface). SEM opened sample chamber the bar was one foot long 20 samples were cut into 5mm thick the samples were cut by a professional using a very precise and sharp blade. The last letter of the Rockwell scale, “HRA” specifies the load/indenter in use Every scale has either a different load/indenter or both As finish with the 120 staer machinege is time to move to the Buehler grind Begin by turning on the water, this flushes impurities in order to have a better grinding of the sample Now start with the 240 grit SEM is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with electrons in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected and that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Grinding: Properties Cutting: Uses Starting with the 120 grit belt, carefully place the sample face onto the exposed area of the belt being careful not to touch the rotating surface. Now apply moderate pressure, move the sample left and right across the rough surface to obtain an even grinding. To confirm the 120 grit stage is complete, all the saw marks should be replaced by parallel lines. If any line is not in the same direction as the other ones, continue grinding until all of the lines are parallel. Scanning Electron Microscopy: SEM analyzes the surface of materials. It measures and evaluates surface pitting, failure analysis, characterization of dust, deposits, contaminants, particles, filter residues, and other applications. SEM testing provide elemental analysis of solid samples, impurities, and the identification of physical and chemical defects. Three dimensional surface profile (3-D) True-Atomic resolution in ultra-high vacuum(UHV) Finishing Atomic Force Microscope Micro Cleaning Slower test time for same resolution (Requires a lot of time for accurate image) Images may become inaccurate due to creep and liquid present on the surface 240 Rockwell scale determines hardness by measuring the depth of penetration under a set load The higher the Rockwell hardness value, the harder the material Benefits of Rockwell scale is speed, reliability, and small areas of indentation Scanning Electron Microscope 10 x 10 Disadvantages over SEM Group #2 Ana Guajardo Joel Montemayor Nayely Parra Christopher Salinas An electronic producer that transfers high-energy and frequency vibrations to a container filled with liquid, used to remove particulate matter When the specimen doesn’t have any scratch is time to move to the 600 grit Follow the same steps Move specimen in one direction Rotate 90 degrees every 30 strokes This final step is for the specimen to get a good polishing Advantages over SEM Steps Atomic Force Microscopy: For the 400 grit is the same steps as the one above However need to repeat this grit twice in order for the specimen to be free from scratches This is the result of the grit not being rough as the 240 and 320 100 x 100 In the early 1960s, a nickel–titanium alloy was developed by W. F. Buehler, a metallurgist investigating nonmagnetic, salt resisting, waterproof alloys for the space program at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Silver Springs, Maryland, USA This alloy is used in aircraft, piping, automotive, telecommunication, robotics, medicine and dentistry.
Transcript: My building serves a great purpose for the city of Changchun. The harsh winter weather and heat of the summer are both very extreme and make it hard for many varieties of plants to grow. A community green house will allow anyone to be able to go and grow what they want. Growing plants can be a very self rewarding activity and in a green house, it will be easier to monitor and supplies will be provided right there. Schools and all kinds of students can benefit from this also especially art and science stuents. A community green house is something that will greatly benefit Changchun and its future. My Building How can my building be inteligent? Brick is not extrmely beneficial to the environment but it is sturdy and can hold for a long time. Bricks would be sustainable and can hold for a long time. Stone buildings have lasted many years expecially pyramids built by ancient cutures. Wood: This is for the door. Ecological, Environmental or Sustainability Issues Materials! Brick: Brick will be the foundation for the builing as well as the frame. This is because it looks nice with glass and also the building is too big to be only made of glass so brick is sturdy. Glass will be a key material in the green house and because there will be a lot of it, there should be sustainable and ecologically beneficial aspects to it. The windows should be triple glazed insulated windows that heat won't escape and cold won't easily come in. This is beneficial to the climate of the greenhouse and less energy will be used to heat up the place. Inteligent Buildings Glass: Since this is a green house, there has to be many windows to let in sunlight for the plants. The roof and sides of the building will be all made of glass. What is the benefit my building provides Changchun? -Using properly insulated windows can be a big benefit to making my building a sustainable and eco-friendly place. -Maybe even using solar panels for solar power instead of regular electricity can also make my building more inteligent. -Technology could be used for the timing of spinklers and tracking who comes in through the doors. Also, technology can be used for a security system that greenhouse members could access at their own homes. (Although there is a lot technology can do, green houses are more about nature and the natural world. Inteligent buildings are the the concept of having a building that can are not only sustainable but technologically advanced. Ther are super efficiant and can do things most buildings can't do. The technology in inteligent buildings is state of the art and all connected. Wireless connections for everything to make it simple and easy internet acces throughout the whole house and not just on computers but tables, appiances and remotes. This is to make life simpler and informtion easily accessable. Inteligent buildings incoperate materials that are environment friendly and provide sustaninablility like large double (or more) paneled windows, solar powered energy, and sunlights are things that would be incorperated. The inteligent buildling is energy efficiant so electic and water bills are deffinitely lower because everything is built to conserve energy.
Transcript: To carry/transport laptop without damaging it. Protection against water/spillages or impact/shock damage. Make the laptop easier to carry/hold. Long strap to allow the user to have their hands free, particularly useful if carrying other bags or items. STAGE TWO. MATERIAL: PVC COATED FABRIC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COATED POLYESTER) ADVANTAGES; Durability and Life span. Multiple forms, ranging from soft to hard. Colour eco friendly easy to process cost effective DISADVANTAGES; oil (the 43% bit) usage acounts for 0.3% of global oil consumption Over time, the plasticisers added to the polymer come to the surface of the coating. How was it manufactured? How was it manufactured? Material(s) used and its Properties: Advantages: Heat resistance chemical resistance Good resistance to Solvents, Formaldehyde and Alcohols Very strong It stretches and can then regain it’s original shape Shiny colour/transparency Can be moulded Tear resistance Machine Washable Durability machinable impact resistant Low friction levels Available in many forms. Disadvantages: Limited resistance to acids Requires energy to extract and form the hydrocarbons colour will fade How was it manufactured? STAGE THREE. ...New design objective... no cost limit? more consideration to the aesthetic? different market/demographic? Constraints and Objectives ABS: Advantages: Properties can be manipulated Can be combined with other materials Can be processed using many methods. good impact resistance. Good resistance to change in temperature. Good resistance to stains. electrical insulator. Additional Objectives: Select material with good tensile strength properties. Select material with good flexural strength properties. Select material with suitable elastic properties. Main Bag Additional Objectives: Colour? Weight of the laptop and accesories? MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS (outlined in stage one). STAGE ONE. What materials will satisfy this redesign? Nylon 6 Thanks! Select material with high strength to weight ratio or a material with low density. select material resistant to water damage and corrosion. Select material that keeps its shape and is rigid and stiff enough to do so. Select material that is strong enough to satisfy constraints. Select material with appropriate/desired aesthetics. Select material with lowest price that satisfies constraints. Material Properties: [soft] PVC b Processing methods: Injection molding Temp is usually between 20-60oC High injection speed needed. cost effective. Extrusion Temp between 240 and 270oC. Typically used for: Bearings, gears, curtain rail fittings, luggage, sports equipment and clothing Constraints and Objectives. Additional Constraints: Desirable optical properties. Tensile strength. ? Material(s) used and its properties. OVERALL CHOICE Clips WHY WAS POLYPROPELENE CHOSEN FOR THIS COMPONENT? Additional Constraints: Must have good flexural strength to withstand constant clipping on and off. Must have good tensile strength. Requires elastic qualities so that it will not deform with regular use. Disadvantages: Poor resistance to weathering. burn easily Poor heat resistance. Poor transparency Affected by strong acids Can suffer stress cracking Denisty - Water Absorbtion - 2.9% Tensile Strength - 6.4x10*3 MPa Elongation - 25% Flexural Strength - Max Continuous use Temperature - 79C yeild strength - 10-25 MPa tensile strength - 2.6 N/mm*2 flexural strength - ... density - 1190 - 1280 kg/m*3 ..another source.. 1.38g/cm*3 cost effectiveness - good, low cost chemical resistance - dilute acid ++++ dilute alkali ++++ oil and greases +++ aliphatic hydrocarbons ++++ aromatic hydrocarbons + Halogenated hydrocarbons ++ Alcohols +++ water absorbtion - 0.2% [good resistance] impact resistance - low Abrasion resistance - some Aestetics - wide range of pigments available max continuous use temperature - 60*c Compromises? http://www.matweb.com/search/DataSheet.aspx?MatGUID=eb7a78f5948d481c9493a67f0d089646 http://www.matweb.com/search/DataSheet.aspx?MatGUID=08fb0f47ef7e454fbf7092517b2264b2&ckck=1 http://www.omnexus.com/tc/polymerselector/polymerprofiles.aspx?id=324&us=0&tab=4 http://www.omnexus.coma/tc/polymerselector/polymerprofiles.aspx?or=sel&id=248&tab=3&us=0 http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/materialsdb/default.html#Polypropylene http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/interactive_charts/default.html http://www.tangram.co.uk/TI-Polymer-ABS.html http://www.tangram.co.uk/TI-Polymer-PP.html www.wikipedia.org/wiki/polyvinyl_chloride#phthalate_plasticisers www.matbase.com/material/polymers/commodity/soft-pvc/properties www.plasticmouldings.ca/polymers/pvc.htm www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/polymers/pvc.aspx References: http://compreviews.about.com/od/buyers/a/Laptop-Size-and-Weight-Guide.htm http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/interactive_charts/strength-toughness/basic.html
Transcript: Materials and design NATURAL FIBERS Can be classified as Protein A natural or synthetic fiber composed of protein Protein Include: silk wool cashmere feathers hair Silk Double click to edit Silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. Silk worms Silk spiders Wool Double click to edit Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals Sheep wool Goat wool Cashmere Mohair Angora Camelids Cellulosic Cellulosic Cellulosic fibers are fibers structured from cellulose, a starch-like carbohydrate. These include: cotton flax hemp jute ramie Cotton OR Double click to edit Linen linen Linen is made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent and dries faster than cotton SYNTHETIC FIBERS Manufactured fibers are man-made fibers, whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. SYNTHETIC FIBERS Polypropylene Fibers can be: Rayon Polythylene Polyester Nylon Regenerated Regenerated fibers Fibers created by dissolving the cellulose area of plant fiber in chemicals and making it into fiber again These can include: rayon modal lyocell Rayon RAYON Rayon is a cellulose fiber Modal Modal Fiber Modal fabric is made by spinning cellulose that has been reconstituted from trees. Can be classified as a semi-synthetic cellulose fiber Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic fibers are made by humans with chemical synthesis These include: polyester nylon metallic acrylic rayon acetate spandex Polyester Polyester Polyester fibre is a manufactured fibre in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer or Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes. Nylon Nylon or Did you know, nylons first commercial use was in toothbrush bristles! BIBLIOGRAPHY (n.d.). Retrieved from https://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102026/protein fiber-m5/wool fiber.htm Filament Fibre. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/filament-fibre Filament Fibre. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/filament-fibreGetseen. (2017, September 14). Fabric facts - Wool, Nylon, Acrylic, Cotton & Polyester. Retrieved from https://silverfleece.com.au/fabric-options Linen. (2019, March 19). Retrieved from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linen Polyester Fiber. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/polyester-fiber Preston, J. (2016, April 29). Man-made fibre. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/technology/man-made-fiber Protein fiber - CAMEO. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Protein_fiber Robbie, Hutchins, A., Wautlet, L., Heather, Tom, Marta, . . . Schneider, R. J. (2018, May 19). 5 Reasons To Switch To Natural Fiber Clothing. Retrieved from https://empoweredsustenance.com/natural-fiber-clothing/ Truents. (2018, March 14). Physical classification of Fibers. Retrieved from https://www.textileschool.com/299/physical-classification-of-fibers/ Wool. (2019, March 26). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool Wool Fiber Properties of Wool Fiber Classification of Wool. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/08/wool-fiber-properties-of-wool-fiber_5920.html SAMPLES Samples Woven fiber Woven- warp, weft, selvedge WARP Goes long ways/horizontally Goes up and down/perpendicular Woven edge that does not fray WEFT SELVEDGE Knit fabrics Knitted fabrics Different types of knit structures These include t shirting and polar fleece Cool to wear (breathe) light comfortable polar fleece t shirting T shirting fabris are used to make t-shirts include cotton. The other fabrics include Linen, polyester, rayon, etc. breathable durable pleasant to the touch comfortable to wear all year round. dry easily soft non water resistant used to make t shirts and other soft clothes polar fleece Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating fabric made from polyester. Polar fleece is used in jackets hats sweaters gym clothes hoodies lightweight, warm soft insulating quick drying not moisture absorbent generates static electricity Non woven fiber Non woven fibers Staple fibers bonded together cheap moderate life span breathable alternative to tightly woven fabrics flexible light easy to decompose Knit fibers weft warp These include tricot jersey knit double knit stockinette balbrigga rib knit good comfort properties softness anti-pilling tendency UV-shielding water/oil repellency antibacterial functionality Double click to edit Click to edit text Woven fabric Woven fabrics non stretchy frays unless treated with pinking shears or hemmed higher elasticity and lower shear resistance non breathable soft wrinkle resistant Denim Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. durability comfortable sturdy machine washable moisture absorbant easy to die easily shrinks Calico is a Non
Transcript: Sisal Jute Cattail Jute Seagrass Rush Boodle Sisal Arrowroot Bamboo Cattail Hemp Rush Grass Weave Wall Coverings Mineral Fibre Ceiling Tiles
Transcript: so, what is cement? A cement is a binder, a subtance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. Modern day Portland Cement was brought into existence only during the early nineteenth century. Mankind has used burnt lime and clay as cementing material for construction purposes through many centuries. Most famous ancient structures in Rome were constructed using lime as the cement material. It began to be used increasingly in the second half of the nineteenth century and was the foundation of the huge economic development that occurred in the twentieth century with the building of modern cities and infrastructure Scientists have long believed that at the atomic level, cement hydrate (or calcium-silica-hydrate) closely resembles the rare mineral tobermorite. But it has been found that the calcium-silica-hydrate in cement isn't really a crystal. It's a hybrid that shares some characteristics with crystalline structures and some with the amorphous structure of frozen liquids, such as glass or ice. Four essential elements are needed to make cement. They are Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum and Iron. ,..How's it made? Raw Grinding Raw Material Preparation Pyroprocessing Finish Grinding and Distribution There are 5 main types of cement : Is general cement for general use, typically the type used in construction Is still a general cement, but it has resistance to sulfates For projects requiring strength at an early stage, Type two is ideal because it provides more strength within one week than the other types. Is used where very low heats of hydration are desired When soil or water is high in chemicals, Type five should be used because it is manufactured to resist chemical erosion. ...and what are it's uses? cements Aluminum and iron can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore, and only small amounts are needed. Type 1 White topping Type 3 Type 2 Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone. Cement sleepers Used to hold the rails to the correct gauge. It is a form of pavement rehabilitation that is designed to extend the life of HMA pavement. glasses It is a dental restorative material. It is used in dentistry for filling teeth and as a luting agent. Concrete structures abrasives refractories used in massive concrete undertakings, such as dams. Mainly used in buildings, bridges and other civil structures It is a railroad tie made out of steel reinforced concrete. Type 5 advanced ceramics ceramic materials widely used in coastal areas, sewage treatment plants, and underground structures. Type 4 Glass ionomer cement whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Whitetopping is the covering of asphalt pavement with a layer of Portland cement concrete. clay products
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