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Transcript: DV1: PTSD symptoms Values: Score on Davidson Trauma Scale OXOO Dorrepaal, E., Thomaes, K., Smit, J. H., van Balkom, A. J., van Dyck, R., Veltman, D. J., & Draijer, N. (2010). Stabilizing group treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder related to childhood abuse based on psycho-education and cognitive behavioral therapy: A pilot study. Child abuse & neglect, 34(4), 284-288. DV5: Severity of Depression Values: Score on Beck Depression Inventory No ethical issues were discussed in this study, however it mentions that all participants signed written informed consent. The article also states that the Medical Ethics Board approved this study. The narrative states that the participants signed written informed consent, but does not state whether or not participants were verbally informed as well. Some of the participants had very poor educational backgrounds and may not have fully understood the study. The participants would have benefitted from being informed verbally along with the written consent to ensure full understanding by participants. The narrative also does not state what happened with the excluded participants. Though they did not meet the inclusion criteria, the excluded participants should still have been offered resources for treatment since they could not be included in the treatment for this particular study. Ethical Issues IV: Stabilizing Group Treatment Values: Before and after Descriptive Statistics The study does seem to imply causation, citing the Stabilizing Group Treatment as the catalyst for changes in Complex PTSD. To that end, this design is susceptible to all threats to internal validity. Since there is only one group, history and maturation are threats. Instrumentation is a threat where the follow up interviews are concerned, as interviewers could change over time and skew the results of all participants. Similarly, multiple exposure to tests could create familiarity that impacts results, so the threat of testing is present in this case. Regression to the mean, interaction and selection are all threats as there was no random assignment involved in group selection. The article accepts that individual treatment or medication could account for changing results, but cites that the changes from before treatment to after treatment are greater than changes after treatment to the follow up, when individuals would still presumably be effected by other treatment or medication. Design The statistical test used in this study was the t-test for paired differences. The t-tests were performed by measuring the dichotomies of either pre-test and post-test with the interval scores on the scales of all dependent variables and the dichotomy of pre-test and follow up with the interval scores on the scales of all dependent variables. The t-test for paired differences was used because it is comparing the same sample over time (before, after, and 6 months following). There were significant findings in all categories with the exception of a few: The pre-test and post-test for the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) as well as the pre-test and follow up for the DES of the clients was not significant. The clients that completed the treatment showed no significant difference on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) between pre-test and follow-up. The rest of the data was found to be significant as indicated by p values far below .05. It would be interesting to see what the p values would be for all areas when comparing post-test to follow up. It would appear that these particular results would not be significant, and therefore, may not have been included because of that fact. Methodology Statistics Reliability and Validity Operationalization DV6: Complex PTSD Values: Present, absent based on interviews Since the data in this study is continuous, the main statistics used were mean and standard deviation. These statistics were found on pages 286 and 287 in the article. The data was discussed both in the narrative and on Table 2 in the article. Some of the interesting statistics included the fact that 75% of adults who suffered abuse in childhood also suffered abuse as adults. Though this was high, there was an expectation that it would be even higher. Sexual abuse started at a mean of age 7yrs and physical abuse began at a mean age of 6yrs. Since these were both means, this tells us that the abuse started even earlier for some of the victims. It is also interesting that the pre & post-test scores are compared as well as the pre-test & follow-up scores. However, the post-test and follow-up scores were not compared. When looking over the data, there are consistent decreases in scores from the pre-test to post-test and from the pre-test to follow-up. The scores from post-test to follow-up do not have a consistent decrease in score in all areas. Measurement Results and Discussion For this study, psychopathology was operationalized by Borderline symptoms, Dissociative symptoms, general symptoms and depression.

Presentation Critique

Transcript: Comparison to presenter's case QIUCHEN XU SID: 430553329 Oliver Wood was convicted on several counts of using his position as a director of SEO Company dishonesty, including withdrawing more than $29,000 from the company's bank account for his personal use. He also pleaded guilty to make a false statement in documents lodged with the ASIC. Presentation Critique Title: Palmer's victory in nickel court case Critique questions Do you think court treat such breach of duty case consistently? Where the court would draw the line with regard to the contrary to s181 duty, is it actual breach or potential breach? Do you think the legislation should capture the potential breach issue and cover the grey legal area, why or why not? The brief summary of article Facts: Robash, a company which holds shares in Gladstone Pacific Nickel wanted the NSW Supreme Court to allow it to bring proceedings in Gladstone's name against Mr Palmer and three of Mr Palmer's associated companies according to s236 of Corporations Act. The plaintiff (Robash) alleged Mr Palmer had breached his duties as director of Gladstone when he bought the Yabulu nickel refinery in 2009 with estimated value of $250 million. More specifically, Mr Palmer had negotiated with BHP to buy Yabulu for his own interests, rather than negotiating the sale to Gladstone which contravenes s181 of Corporations Act. Outcome: Supreme Court dismissed the application to bring the derivative action on behalf of GPNL. The judge held that the evidence falls short of establishing that there is a serious question that Mr Palmer was in a position of conflict or possible conflict of interests at the time he was the director of GPNL because BHP firstly approached Mr Palmer was not the director of GPNL about this deal. Secondly, the important reason that BHP negotiate with GPNL is relying on the fact Mr Palmer is the director of the company at that time. Most importantly, Mr Palmer only step in when there is 'no prospect that BHP will reach the deal with GPNL' therefore there is no conflicts of interest existing then there is no breach. Given the Corporations Act is the Federal Act. Each and every single court in Australia should be administrated consistently regardless it is the superior court or the lower court. Palmer's victory in nickel court case Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s181, s236, s237 In the matter of Gladstone Pacific Nickel Limited [2011] NSWSC 1235 Relevant provisions Reference Judgement Palmer was potentially involved much more huge amount compared to Wood just because he is not involved in conflict of interests at that particular time,provided that he was the director of the company all along the negotiation. s181 good faith--directors and other officers (1) A director or other officer of a corporation must exercise their powers and discharge their duties: (a) in good faith in the best interests of the corporation; and (b) for a proper purpose.

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