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Transcript: The purpose of the space program is to explore space and aeronautics, or flight research. NASA is also responsible for making sure that the United States space program is conducted for peaceful purposes that can help mankind, instead of harming. NASA uses space exploration and aeronautics to help mankind. The status of the space program is that NASA is working on 6 new projects. These projects are: “Journey to Mars” “International Space Station” “Aeronautics” “Technology” “Earth” “Solar System and Beyond” Why do we want to go into outer space? How does the moon help the earth? The Moon's gravity pulls on Earth's oceans and distorts them, causing tides. The water on the side of Earth closest to the Moon experiences the biggest pull, and bulges outward. The water on the opposite side also bulges, and the two bulges follow the Moon's motion and Earth's rotation. How was the moon formed? The moon was formed ~4.5 billion years ago, about 30–50 million years after the origin of the Solar System, out of debris thrown into orbit by a massive collision between a smaller proto-Earth and another planetoid, about the size of Mars. Why is the moon essential? The moon is essential because it stabilizes our rotation. When the Earth rotates it wobbles slightly back and forth on its axis. It's like a top, which doesn't simply spin in a vertical position on a table or the floor. But without the Moon we'd be wobbling much more. Why haven’t we been back to the moon? We haven’t returned to the moon since Apollo 17 because of financial issues.The U.S. is in a lot of debt, and to be able to do Apollo mission a 36-story rocket is needed. Just to build it it will be around $711 million dollars (in 2016 dollars worth). Plus the training the astronauts will need to into space, and the material needed to do a moon exploration is also very expensive. Then the cost to actually send the rocket into space are extremely expensive. A trip to the moon (in the long run) would cost taxpayers over $5 trillion dollars, which at the moment is unavailable and could cause a lot of poverty in the U.S. Stars are responsible for the manufacture and distribution of heavy elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Stars are responsible for the manufacture and distribution of heavy elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. A reason the U.S. wants to colonize Mars, is due to overpopulation. Earth is populating and extremely fast, and many scientist are afraid the the earth will over populate to the point where it could extremely harm the planet. But whether it is a realistic idea is hard to determine since the average temperature on Mars is -55 degrees Celsius (-67 degrees F) and it is really dry. And at the poles, temperatures can reach as low as -153 °C (243 °F). Much of that has to do with its thin atmosphere, which is too thin to retain heat (not to mention breathe). But Mars also has a lot of similarities with earth such as the availability of water, the prospects of generating food,oxygen, and being able to building materials on site. And there’s even the long-term benefits of using Mars as a source of raw materials and terraforming it into a liveable environment Moon What is the status/purpose of the space program? We want to go into space for many reasons. Some said by President Bush are that we want to go into space for scientific discovery, economic benefit and national security. Which actually really make sense but that isn’t the reason us as humans want to go. We want to be the first or best in something, we want to be the first person to go into space or the best astronaut. It’s in our nature to want to be the first or best. This wanting to be the best drive is a reason we would like to go in space. Secondly humans are extremely curious, we always want to discover something new, or find out something we didn’t know. So it’s really an instinct to want to go to space to see things we haven’t seen before. Finally we want to leave a impact to future generations. We want our offsprings to know that we did something great for humanity, and nothing is more of an honor then going to space. Outerspace Stars Why do we want to colonize Mars? Is this realistic? “Star Formation: Stars form inside relatively dense concentrations of interstellar gas and dust known as molecular clouds. These regions are extremely cold (temperature about 10 to 20K, just above absolute zero). At these temperatures, gases become molecular meaning that atoms bind together. CO and H2 are the most common molecules in interstellar gas clouds. The deep cold also causes the gas to clump to high densities. When the density reaches a certain point, stars form. Since the regions are dense, they are opaque to visible light and are known as dark nebula. Since they don't shine by optical light, we must use IR and radio telescopes to investigate them. Star formation begins when the denser parts of the cloud core collapse under their own weight/gravity. These cores typically have


Transcript: Outer Space This is outer space. This is the sun. The Sun is 9,900 °F. Its core is 27 million °F. The distance between the Sun and Mercury is 36.0 million miles. This is Mercury. It is the closet planet to the Sun. It is -328 °F at night, but can reach 752 °F during the day. The distance between Mercury and Venus is 31.2 million miles. This is Venus. It is the second planet from the Sun. It has yellow clouds, and it has toxic gases called carbon dioxide that make up 96% of its atmosphere. In comparison Earth's atmosphere is only 0.0391% carbon dioxide. The distance between Venus and Earth is 25.7 million miles. This is planet Earth. This is the only planet that is known to have life. It is the third planet from the Sun. It has just the right temperature for life. The distance between Earth and Earth's moon is 238,857 miles. The Moon is the only celestial body to be visited in person. The distance between Earth and Mars is 48.7 million miles. This is Mars, and it is the fourth planet from the Sun. Some scientist have discovered riverbeds that may have had water in it. The distance between Mars and Jupiter is 341.9 million miles. This is Jupiter. It is the fifth planet from the Sun. Gravity is more on Jupiter in comparison to Earth. For example, if you weigh 100 lbs. on Earth then you would weigh 264 lbs. on Jupiter. The distance between Jupiter and Saturn is 407.2 million miles. This is Saturn. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Saturn's rings are made up of billions of pieces of rocks and dust. The distance between Saturn and Uranus is 897.3 million miles. This is Uranus. Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Uranus mass is more than 14 times larger than Earth. The distance between Uranus and Neptune is 1,010 million miles. This is Neptune. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun. Neptune only receives 1/900 of the solar energy that reaches Earth. Thanks for watching!


Transcript: 1970 - First Space Rescue Alan Shepard made a 15 minute, 28 second flight on board the Freedom 7 on May 5, 1961. Three weeks later, President John F. Kennedy vowed to send men to the moon and back by the end of the '60s. 1969 - First Crew Exchange in Space 1973 - First American Space Station 1976 - First Mars Landing On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite. This marked the beginning of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union. 1972 - First Spacecraft to Leave the Solar System The unmanned space probe Viking 1 transmitted the first pictures from the surface of Mars on July 20, 1976. True to JFK's promise, Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon on July 20, 1969. He famously said, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Millions of people watched the historic event live on television. 1981 - First Reusable Space Vehicle 1961 - First Person to Spend Over a Day in Space The very first crew exchange in space took place in 1969, between the Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 spacecrafts. In 1970, after an oxygen tank exploded on board Apollo 13, Mission Control helped the crew return safely to Earth four days ater. 1962 - First American to Orbit the Earth Guion "Guy" Bluford Jr. became the first African American in space on board the space shuttle Challenger on August 30, 1983. Pioneer 10 was launched in 1972 and became the first spacecraft to leave our solar system on September 22, 1990. At that point, it reached a distance 50 times farther from the sun than Earth is. It is currently en route to the constellation Taurus. 1965 - First Space Walk The Soviets launched Valentina Tereshkova into space on June 16, 1963, on board Vostok 6. She spent three days alone in space. 1983 - The First African American in Space Firsts In Space Exploration 1961 - First Human in Space The space shuttle Columbia took off like a rocket and landed like an airplane in 1981, becoming the world's first reusable space vehicle. Sadly, the Columbia disintegrated in 2003, after a piece of foam broke off its external tank and struck the vehicle's left wing, killing everyone on board 1969 - First Man on the Moon Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov took the first space walk on March 18, 1965. He was tethered to the Voskhod 2 and was outside the craft for 10 minutes. 1957 - First Satellite to Orbit Earth The first animal from Earth to be launched into space was a female dog from Russia named Laika, who took flight in 1957. She lived for seven days inside Sputnik II, proving that living creatures could survive in space. Unfortnately, there was no way to bring Laika back to Earth, so she also became the first animal to die in space. Gherman Titov was the first person to hang out in space for longer than a day. Part of Vostok 2 in 1961, he was also the first person to sleep in space. 1957 - First Animal in Space John Glenn circled the Earth three times in 4 hours and 56 minutes on February 20, 1962. 1963 - First Woman in Space Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space on April 12, 1961. There were some problems upon reentry, and Gagarin ejected from the Vostok 1 and parachuted to Earth. Skylab launched on May 14, 1973 but was damaged during launch. The first of three rews arrived 11 days later for a 28-day stay. They made in-orbit repairs and set records for the longest amount of time spent in space (at the time). 1961 - First American in Space


Transcript: Outer space is the near-vacuum beyond the Earth's atmosphere. It has no air to scatter the light and so what we observe is a black emptiness spangled with stars and other extraterrestrial matter. People sometimes use the term "space" to describe this region beyond the Earth. However, space does include everything within the Earth's atmosphere as well as all of the land and water on its surface. A more accurate definition of the term "space" would be the continuous extension in all directions in which all matter exists. interisting fact what is outer space About Space Outer space is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles: predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, and neutrinos. Theory suggests that it also contains dark matter and dark energy. In the space between galaxies, matter density can be as low as a few atoms of hydrogen per cubic meter. The baseline temperature, as set by background radiation left over from the Big Bang, is only 3 Kelvin; in contrast, temperatures in the coronae of stars can reach over a million Kelvin. outerspace Our Galaxy – the Milky Way is spinning at a rate of 225 kilometers per second. In addition, the galaxy is travelling through space at the rate of 305 kilometers per second. This means that we are traveling at a total speed of 530 kilometers (330 miles) per second. That means that in one minute you are about 19 thousand kilometers away from where you were. Scientists do not all agree on the speed with which the Milky Way is travelling – estimates range from 130 – 1,000 km/s. It should be said that Einstein’s theory of relativity, the velocity of any object through space is not meaningful.

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