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Background literature _ Overview

Transcript: Lüdi, G., Höchle, K., & Yanaprasart, P. (2010) receptive multilingualism+ more precise evaluation of the language levels Instruments: T-test, repeated measures. Measurement: -time spent on each task, -number of words used, -number of turns used. -Procedure: 2 experiments: - first -ELF - second-RM+ Experiment time: 1-1.5 hours, with coffee break Type of tasks: -2 versions of story making task (one for ELF and one for RM+) -2 versions of jigsaw task (one for ELF and one for RM+) + L1 proficiency can be used equal communication scaffolding (receptive competence) Research Questions Selection of participants Which mode of communication is more effective RM+ or ELF? Smith, B. (2003) Alternatives: Which mode of communication is more effective RM+ or ELF? ELF problems Questionnaire Lüdi, G., Höchle, K., & Yanaprasart, P. (2010). Plurilingual practices at multilingual workplaces. In B. Meyer & B. Apfelbaum (Eds.), Multilingualism at work: from policies to practices in public, medical and business settings (Vol. 9, pp. 211 - 234). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. - difference in proficiency "neighboring countries" limited number of speakers mode of communication – CMC dyads languages- Spanish/French and English participants - MA international students:Spanish and - French native speakers with advanced level of English; international students, with intermediate level of Spanish/French and advanced level of English; total 30 to 40 persons. time spent abroad Mulken, M. van & Hendriks, B., Mulken, M. van & Hendriks, B. (submitted). Your language or mine? Comparing effectiveness of English as a lingua franca and L1-L2 dyadic interactions: an experimental study of communication strategies. Mulken van, M., & Hendriks, B. (submitted). English as a Lingua Franca or Receptive Multilingualism? Comparing effectiveness of alternative modes of communication in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). Rogerson-Revell, P. (2008). Participation and performance in international business meetings. English for Specific Purposes, 27(3), 338-360. general bio data Where to find potential participants? -International Office -Language Tandem organization on Thursdays -International dinner at Student church every Wednesday -Personal contacts -post information on Facebook page for International students via RIS organisation How to attract participants? -Information leaflet -Puffing advertisement -In our appeal emphasize the following: -Looking for people who always wanted to make a contribution on the science development and will not ask for any reward, lunch will be provided as our big complement for your participation! Background literature - Overview self-assessment (production & perception) The gap(s) Information sources receptive multilingualism: companies do not always work with neighboring countries Ribbert, A., & Thije, J. D. ten (2007). Receptive multilingualism in Dutch-German intercultural team cooperation. In J. D. ten. Thije & L. Zeevaert (Eds.), Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic Analyses, Language Policies, and Didactic Concepts (pp. 73-101). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Benjamins. Ribbert, A., & Thije, J. D. ten (2007) non-related languages Rogerson-Revell, P. (2008) + scaffolding L1 - L2 - dominance of one speaker insufficient proficiency knowledge of several languages required (production & perception) Elena Kashirina & Sarah Sievers IBC Research, Group 2 Methodology Smith, B. (2003). The use of communication strategies in computer-mediated communication. System, 31(1), 29-53. Thoms, J., Liao, J., & Szustak, A. (2005). The use of L1 in an L2 on-line chat activity. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 62(1), 161-182. total hours a language has been studied ... measure the same group of participants Evaluation of the English level –participants have to be MA students at English taught programs Evaluation of the level of Spanish/French language – emphasizing the hours spent on learning the language, also considering experience of study abroad Background Literature Receptive multilingualism

Background Presentation

Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. 2. 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week

Background Presentation

Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity

The background literature

Transcript: What does the current policies mean for my subject? Analysis of observations: practitioners used some mathematical language in their observations e.g. counting, descriptive language: long, short, ordinal numbers, sequencing, shape and measurement language. one observations (tidy up time) practitioner kept on posing mathematical problem solving Language used in these interactions refered to simple language of quantities like: more of, enough, and language of size: middle, too big- language used was correct but simple and minimal. Potential of using some teachable moments missed Adult's role could be extended to supporting child through Vygotsky's ZPD. Practitioner could contribute to the thinking of a child by for example extending language-'too big' could be replaced with 'large'. Following Sustained Shared Thinking and Emotional Well-being (SSTEW, 2015) recommendations of excellent practice in supporting and extending language and communication (page22) practitioner could scaffold language that is slightly above child's level to develop child's learning and improving how did my theoretical understandings helped me shape my practice in classroom? how did it help me understand my findings? how my practical experiences helped me understand theory? Rationale for my interest in this subject. Critical incident in my teaching career (Tripp 1993): I have been allocated role of Maths Coordinator Prior to this Maths on top of the School's Improvement Plan-No pressure!!! Clear need to improve practice and classroom environment (Brookfield 1995) continuous professional development-practitioners conducting action based research engage in a form of professional development (Zuber-Skerritt,1989; cited in Cohen) potential to improve outcomes for the children based on observations of the maths learning area activities offered are not very stimulating, low level analysis of Target tracker reveal that high % of children work below expected age in mathematics as a result need to create maths conducive environment in all learning areas encourage practitioners to actively engage in promoting high level maths policy documents According to the EPPE research pre-school education can have positive impact on helping children to succeed regardless of SES and as result offer to the children better start to school (Siraj-Blatchford & Sylva, 2004; Sylva et al., 2006) According to Goswani for children to be able to read , including reading numbers they need to have good level of language development, coupled with perceptual and spatial awareness (2015) Goverment initiative of 15 hours free child care for 2 & 3 years old with possibility of up 30 hours, offer made by David Cameron Williams Review 2008- characteristics of effective pedagogy, e.g. practitioners extend children's learning and thinking through sustained shared thinking and use of accurate mathematical language; making the most of everyday routines and spontaneous learning Mathematical learning opportunities in the Early Years Classroom-how to increase mathematical presence in the early years classroom? Research methods References: Strategies: 1. Informal collaborative reflections of myself and colleagues (Schon 1995, Boud & Solomon 2003) -repetitive, low level activities on offer, children's attainment in maths below age expectations 2. Small -scale enquiry aimed at finding out through use of questionnaires: practitioners perceptions on effective teaching mathematics to very young children looking at the importance of it how current classroom's environment supports teaching/learning mathematics. 3. Observations of practice-to collect data about interactions that are planned/unplanned (Morrison, cited in Cohen) It is going to be used as a catalyst for practitioners to reflect on our current practice (Brookfield 1995, Moon 1999) Questionnaire Exploring an aspect of my subject academic-Mulligan-Awareness of Mathematical Pattern & Structure; gap between children with good maths skills and children without is growing and begins in early childhood; early assessment may prevent learning difficulties in later life Clements & Sarama 2009 professional-quality of teaching maths in early years can secure success in future life Thomson, Rowe 2005-therefore very important role of myself and colleagues ; when child has strong structural understanding of 1 concept he will be able to transfer these skills to other concepts; Papic found that children provided with opportunities to engage with mathematical experiences are able to abstract complex patterns before they start formal schooling, Interestingly, there are no better gains accounted for in terms of full-time or part time attendance empirical studies-According to the research conducted in 3 different countries by Rogers (1996) children often in their play use literacy but not mathematical terminology; children's play being enriched by mathematical language only when adult is present (Young) dyscalculia & number deficit not given enough

Indigenous literature background

Transcript: Residential Schools Potlatch Law, 1884 " Two primary objectives of the residential school system were to remove and isolate children from the influence of their homes, families, traditions and cultures, and to assimilate them into the dominant culture. These objectives were based on the assumption Aboriginal cultures and spiritual beliefs were inferior and unequal. Indeed, some sought, as it was infamously said, “to kill the Indian in the child.” Today, we recognize that this policy of assimilation was wrong, has caused great harm, and has no place in our country." Prime Minister Stephen Harper, official apology, June 11, 2008 The objective behind the residential school system: The racist assumptions: The harm done to Indigenous peoples: The law banned potlatches & other ceremonies Potlatch: significant annual ceremony functions to redistribute wealth, confer status and rank on individuals, kin groups and clans, and to establish claims to names, powers, hunting/fishing rights How could a ban on potlatch ceremonies affect issues of community? Non-native officials saw potlatches as interrupting assimilation In 1921, 50 people were arrested at a potlatch; Jail term of several months, but reduced sentences for those who surrendered potlatch items (valuable masks, costumes, etc) Section 141 - outlawed hiring lawyers and legal counsel barring Indigenous peoples from fighting for their human rights through the legal system. Indian Act, 1876 Truth and Reconciliation Commission Canadian federal law passed in 1876 Defines how Canadian gov interacts with the 614 First Nation bands: gives the government power to determine where reserves are and define who qualifies as Indigenous (status) amended "over twenty major changes" by 2002 How could this law affect issues of "identity" (what law determines who qualifies as any other group - Polish, German, Nigerian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Russian, etc) Residential schools program: 1883 - 1996 Total number of schools: 139 Schools operated by the Catholic Church: 60% Total First Nations, Métis, and Inuit children: more than 150,000 Estimated number of residential schools student deaths: over 6,000 Odds of a student dying: 1 in 25 (Odds of dying for Canadians in WWII: 1 in 26) Former students living today: 80,000 Brainstorm task The narrator of Indian Horse is an adult reflecting on his childhood in a residential school. Using the background information, the text pictures and the synopsis on the back of the text, what predictions can you make about: a) the narrator’s point of view b) the “trouble” Saul Indian Horse is in c) the type of hero/heroic journey he is about to make Gradual Civilization Act 1857 Goal: assimilate Indigenous people into Canadian settler society by encouraging enfranchisement. Define enfranchisement: Define assimilate: also granted the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs extreme control over status Indians. For example, the Superintendent had the power to determine who was of “good moral character” and therefore deserve certain benefits Background to Indigenous Literature

Background Presentation

Transcript: Death rate 2012: 12.84 deaths/1,000 population (World ranking: 22) Infant (Child Mortality) Total: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births (world ranking: 10) HIV/AIDS (2) Appropriate Technology Landlocked country Great African Rift Valley system: East – Lake Malawi South – mountains, tropical palm-lined beaches Mainly a large plateau, with some hills Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) Almost 1 million people have AIDS 60% of these are female Declining in urban areas, Rising in rural areas Leading cause of death amongst adults Contributes to the low life expectancy: 54.2 years 209th ranking (One of the lowest) 500,000 children have been orphaned due to AIDs Micro-finance Policy Framework and Strategies (Health SWAp) increasing the availability and accessibility of antenatal services; utilization of skilled health personnel during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period at all levels of the health system; strengthening the capacity of individuals and institutions to improve maternal and neonatal health; increasing the number of skilled health personnel; constructing and upgrading health facilities to offer essential health services particularly focusing on rural and underserved areas; and provision of ARVs and micronutrients during pregnancy. Geography of Malawi CCST 9004 Appropriate Technology for the Developing World Indicator 3: Literacy Rate of 15 – 24 year-olds According to the World Bank, microfinance is defined as: Microfinance is the provision of financial services to the entrepreneurial poor.This definition has two important features:it emphasizes a range of financial services—not just credit— and it emphasizes the entrepreneurial poor. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Appropriate Technology: SIRDAMAIZE 113 Population: 16,777,547 (estimated in July 2013) Population growth rate: 2.758% (2012 est.) (World ranking: 18) Age structure Children: 50% of total population HIV/AIDS Human Resources Education Poverty Food Insecurity Erratic Rainfall Patterns/Droughts Corruption Lack of Foreign Investment Languages Indicator 5: Proportion of seats held by women in National Parliaments Central Region: 1-9 (Yellow) *Capital: Lilongwe Northern Region: 10-15 (Red) Southern Region: 16-27 (Green) Lake Malawi (Blue) Land surface area 45,747 square miles Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leadinto absenteeism, especially among girls who take care of the sick · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. Malawi – Climate/Agriculture Trading partners: South Africa, Zambia, China, US Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leading to absenteeism especially among girls who take care of the sick; and · poor participation of school committees and their communities in school management. · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. 1 Doctor per 50,000 people Hinders the ability to deliver medical services to people in need Reason: Emigration Lack of access to education Aggravated by AIDS > 4 nurses are lost each month This also affects other sectors: Government Business Farmers Human Resources HIV/AIDS - Contemporary GDP: US $14.58 billion (2012 est.) (World ranking: 142) Labor force: agriculture: 90%; industry and services: 10% (2003 est.) Countries main income Agriculture Main crops: maize, tobacco, tea, sugar cane, groundnuts, cotton, wheat, coffee, and rice Industry: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods Challenges: limited capacity in terms of human and material resources to facilitate adult literacy and continuing education; early marriages perpetuated by socioeconomic factors; socio–cultural factors that make people believe that men should be leaders while women are followers; and, poor learning environment which affects girls in primary and secondary schools e.g. sanitary facilities, long distances to education facilities, extra burden from domestic chores especially for adolescent girls resulting into high dropout rate. 1964: Independent from Britain Indicator 1: Maternal Mortality Ratio Malawi Demographics Problems - Outline Indicator 4: Share of Women in Wage Employment in the Non- Agriculture Sector measure of employment opportunities ( i.e equal proportions of men and women in formal employment) Yet, more women participate in the agriculture sector than in the formal wage employment especially in jobs that require professional qualifications. Due to: literacy levels, gender disparity and cultural values. Facts About the Product: Drought tolerant maize variant Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas 136 days to mature Normally: 150 – 180 days Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas

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