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Transcript: Survivorship Curve Before and After Influenza Vaccine Cady Houghton Procedure Background Experimental Design Methods Research Question 1) A data base of cemeteries was looked up to find death dates and information. 2) From the data base information was put into a google drive document. 3) 40 people dying before the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into one chart showing the ages of death. 4) 40 people dying after the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into another chart also showing ages of death. 5) Both charts of groups of people were converted into a life history table. 6) From each life history table the data was put into another chart to make two survivorship curve charts. 7) The survivorship curve charts were put into one survivorship curve chart to show the difference in curves. A laptop was used for this lab. If the influenza vaccine works then if we compare the survivorship curve of before and after the vaccine it will show people living longer because the vaccine will be decreasing the death rate. The independent variable in this experiment is the influenza vaccine. The dependent variable is the death rate in this experiment. The exponential variables in this experiment are the other disease epidemics during the time period the data was chosen from. The control is the survivorship curve before the influenza vaccine and the experimental is the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine. The survivorship curves of before and after the influenza vaccine was created are both Type I survivorship curves. They also have the caracteristics for K-selected species. While they are both Type I and K-selected species, the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine was created had a decrease in death rates between 20 and 70 years of age of about .5 #/1,000 surviving. Then, towards the 75 and 90 years range, the #/1000 surviving leveled out and became extremely similar in curves. Did people die younger before the influenza vaccine was created? In comparing survivorship curves a Log10 scale is used for its ability to show you greater numbers in a more readable way and to show same mortality with the same curve when two scales are put together. In a Log10 scale there are three Types of information. The first, Type 1, are mainly humans. Type I survivorship curves are characterized by high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life. Type 2 is mainly birds and Type 3 is mainly reptiles. Within these Types are two categories of species, K-Selected, or Equilibrium, species and R-Selected, or Opportunist, species. K-Selected species usually have stable resources and a stable environment, and this is usually what humans are categorized as. R-Selected species are usually whose population size tends to fluctuate greatly in reaction to variations in the environment. Comparing the survivorship curves, defined as a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species or group cohort, before and after the influenza vaccine was created will show if the vaccine helped increase the population. Before the 1940s when the influenza vaccine was created, the epidemic was particularly deadly in US Army training camps, where the death rate was as high as 80% in some camps. Death rate is usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. The US military was getting hit with influenza the most forcing them to developed the first approved vaccine for influenza, which was used in the Second World War. Studying this specific survivorship curve will also help to tell if their were more survival rates in the US military during the time. Results With the original research question in mind, before the influenza vaccine was created people were dying younger. This question was answered by the survivorship curve graph comparing the curves before and after the influenza vaccine. As the graph shows between 20 and 70 years of age there is a significant difference in curves, meaning that the death rate before the vaccine in that time period was increased more than after the vaccine was created. From that specific area of the graph it can be concluded that people were dying younger before the influenza vaccine was created, thus the hypothesis was correct. For future study it would be interesting to see the survivorship curve in the US military before and after the vaccine not just the population in general. Because the US military was the one who invented it because they were the one being impacted with the death rate from the influenza epidemic the most, the survivorship curve would have a chance of being more predominant. Graph Clear Digital Media, Inc. (1997-2011). Cemetery Records Online. October 1, 2013, Genealogical Gleanings. (1997-2004). Plagues and Diseases. October 3, 2013, Introduction

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Transcript: Norway Main hotel chains ??? Oslo SUPERIOR Standard Hotel group Hotel name Hotel 1 (picture of hotel here) Allotment How many rooms in total Room types/how many if available Bathtubs/Kettles in rooms Other relevant information ROOMS Hotel name Hotel 2 Hotel group Allotment ROOMS Hotel 3 Infromation Hotel Name Hotel 4 Hotel group Allotment how many rooms types kettles/bathtubs other ROOMS SUPERIOR Superior Allotment Tumlare Scandic Copenhagen Located in central Copenhagen Stunning views over the water and Copenhagen city One of Copenhagen's largest conference centers 24h reception Garage Free wifi Tivoli amusement park, Nyhavn and Strøget shopping street are all within a walking distance from the hotel. Scandic Copenhagen 486 rooms 102 single 96 twin 95 family rooms Rooms for disabled Bathtubs/kettles??? All rooms include Ironing board and a safebox ROOMS 7 minutes by walking from the old city center Nearest train station Vesterport 1 min by walking Restaurant and bar Imperial Hotel Allotment Tumlare - ARP Hansen Hotels Imperial Hotel Hotel room capacity: 304 Air conditioning Free wifi The hotel has allergy friendly rooms Rooms have bathtubs with a shower Coffee and tea making possibilities ROOMS Copenhagen Island Copenhagen Island is situated next to the harbor Porter service available from 7 am to 10 pm Free WIFI and Air conditioning 24h reception A la carte restaurant & bar 2 km from the city center Allotment Tumlare - ARP Hansen Hotels Copenhagen Island Hotel room capacity 326 Standard twin rooms 61 Superior twin rooms 4 Executive twin rooms 6 3 junior suites and one junior suite de luxe The hotel has allergy friendly rooms bathtubs/kettles??? ROOMS DELUXE Deluxe New Scandic Hotel opens 7th Semptember 2018 Located on the ultra-hip meatpacking district of Copenhagen 2 km from the old city center Free wifi Nordic design interior Scandic Kødbyen Scandic Kødbyen Allotment Tumlare Exclusive Standard ?? superior ?? superior extra ?? junior suite ?? master suite ?? Bathtubs ?? Kettles ?? All with possibility for double or twin beds ROOMS Located close to water 1,6km from the city center Free WIFI Reception 24 hours Restaurant & bar Indoor Pool Tivoli Hotel Tivoli Hotel - ARP Hansen Hotels Allotment Tumlare Standard single/double ?? Superior single/double ?? Superior King ?? Executive ?? Junior Suite ?? Suite ?? Allergy- and handicapfriendly rooms Rooms with coffee/tea equipment Bathtubs ?? ROOMS SKT. Petri Hotel Skt Petri Located right in the middle of the old city centre Closest station Nørreport Porter service available 06:00-01:00 Full service spa Nordic Choice Hotel room Capacity: 268 Family rooms: 12 Standard rooms (20​-24 m²) feature a king sized bed and a street or a courtyard view.​ All rooms have a minibar safety box free Wifi iron board + iron hairdryer ROOMS Copenhagen has a large business district around the old city center. Our key hotels in the area are all well connected to the city, and offer facilities for events up to hundreds of people. City limit hotels City Limit hotels Standard STANDARD SUPERIOR Superior Allotment Tumlare Scandic Sydhavn Scandic Sydhavnen Located on the business district of Copenhagen 4 km from the city center Multiple buses and a regional train connect the hotel well to the city Free parking Meeting room facilities for up to 400 people Free wifi Hotel room Capacity: 391 Standard twin rooms with bath tube 10 Twin superior rooms with bath tube 57 standard family rooms 35 Superior family rooms 8 Kettles in superior rooms ROOMS AC hotels Bella Sky Bella Sky Allotment Kuoni Located in the modern design and business district of Ørestad 5km from the city center, 7 minutes in a metro. Hotel has its own metro- and bus stop 10 minutes to the airport One of regions largest conference center Bella Center is in the building 48 flexible rooms and auditoriums with capacities up to 930 people Shuttle service to-from airport Hotel room Capacity 812 Twin room capacity 540 Family rooms: None, but possibility for extra beds Handicap friendly rooms 7 Coffee maker / tea service Iron and ironing board Bathtubs??? ROOMS DELUXE Deluxe 3 minutes walking from CPH terminal 3 12 minutes to the city center by train or metro Conference center Bella Center is conveniently located two stops away Meeting and conference facilities for up to 500 people Clarion Airport Hotel Clarion Airport Nordic choice Allotment Tumlare Hotel room capacity 382 standard twin rooms capacity with bath tubs and shower 86 Family rooms 12 Handicap friendly rooms 4 ROOMS Denmark consists of the mainland Jylland, and many islands. Copenhagen is located on the most densily populated one called Sjælland. Smaller towns around the capital have a lot to offer, varying from history to business possibilities. Outside of Copenhagen Outside destination/other destination STANDARD Standard Allotment Kuoni Comwell Roskilde Comwell Roskilde Located in the historical town of Roskilde, the former capital of Denmark Close to small forests and water

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