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PhD Dissertation

Transcript: Author: Massimiliano Cerciello Supervisor: Antonio Garofalo University of Naples Parthenope Spatial Perspectives on Local Labour Markets in Italy Introduction Theoretical Framework and Stylised Facts Labour Market Participation Labour Market Participation Labour Force (LF) Employed Workers (E) Inactive People Unemployed Workers (U) Participation P = (E+U)/LF Labour Market Participation in six EU Countries (1977-2015) Source: original elaborations on Eurostat data 20% Gender Gap Male and Female Participation in Italy (1992-2016) Source: original elaborations on Istat data Participation Gap in the EU Countries (2012) Source: original elaborations on Eurostat data Participation in Italian Provinces in 2012 Source: original elaborations on Istat data Remarkable North-South divide Institutions Institutions Institutions are the rules of the game in a society Institutions are the formal and informal constraints that shape human interactions The Institutional Quality Index Local Government Regulation Rule of Law Voice & Accountability Corruption Dimensions Source: Nifo & Vecchione (2014) The Institutional Quality Index in 2012 Source: original elaborations on data byNifo & Vecchione (2014) Do Institutions explain the Gender Gap? Research Questions Research Questions Q1: Does the quality of local institutions affect labour market participation? Q2: What is the effect of the EU Regional Policy on labour market participation in the South? Spatial Models Methods Spatial Spillovers Spatial Spillovers Economic Variables are related over space: Neighbour Imitation and Migration Flows Four Alternative Definitions of Proximity Endogeneity Endogeneity Unemployment Rates are likely to be endogenous (instruments: time lags, spatial lags and spatiotemporal lags) IQI might be endogenous as well (instruments: Local Languages) Spatial GMM Linguists identify 10 local language families featuring mutual intelligibility Language is related to culture (i.e. institutions), but not to labour market participation Regression results show that the IQI is exogenous Source: Tagliavini (1964) Local Languages in Italy Dataset Data 103 Italian Provinces 2004-2012 Timespan Data on Participation rates, Institutions, socio-economic covariates and Policy Instruments Results Results Q1: Local Institutions The results hold for each contiguity matrix The Sargan test excludes overidentification The first stage F statistic indicates relevance Spatial Lag of X Model Istitutions Matter for economic growth. They attract investments and create jobs Childcare Facilities in the South need more funding. Revise the historical expenditure criterion Policy Implications Q2: EU Regional Policy 180 Billion Euros spent in 2007-2013 for 86 Convergence Regions Second largest item it the EU budget (1/3 of the overall EU expenditure) Substantially larger funding than in the previous six years EU Regional Policy Source: European Commission Spatial Diff-in-Diff Spatial Arellano-Bond estimator Treatment: 2007-2013 EU Funding Treated Group: Southern Regions Labour Market Participation Source: original elaborations on Istat data Poor Targeting/Monitoring Centralised Planning vs Local Handling Co-financing and Distortionary Taxation Strategic Behaviour of the National Government The Caring Hand that Cripples The EU Funding is not a free meal

Dissertation PhD

Transcript: Gezim Turkeshi PhD Candidate Examining how segments based on motivation affect the relationship of destination personality in predicting tourist behavior: the case of Andorra Josep Rialp Director February 5 2018 Introduction Introduction Why this line of research? MAREB Thesis Consumer behaviour theories and concepts Motivation? Is destination a brand? Loyalty to a destination? Different perspectives when it comes to loyalty? Why this line of research? Why in Tourism Research Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce Develop better understanding of consumer/tourist behaviour To gain a successful competitive advantage. Why in Tourism Research Objectives Development Market Segmentation Demographics Motivation Seasonality Destination Personality Destination Loyalty Destination Satisfaction Destination Attachment Tourists Segments – Conceptual model Objectives Development First Objective Second Objective Third Objective Literature Review Literature Review Purpose of Literature Review Understand and explore the research questions previously raised Theoretical frameworks considered previously Concepts and measurement of the objectives Results of previous studies Research lines suggested by other researchers in this area Purpose of Literature Review Data & Methods ScienceDirect, EBSCO, SAGE, Taylor & Francis Wiley Library, Springer, etc. Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Scopus Electronic resources from 2010 until 2017 (Past 7 years) Keyword Search Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria (Theories, Data, Consturcts, Measurments, Language, Year) Seminal Works Mapping of web of science H-Index for leading author Data & Methods Paper Selection Segmentation & Motivation & Seasonality Satisfaction & Attachment & Loyalty Destination Personality Paper Selection Segmentation & Seasonality in Tourism Segmentation & Seasonality in Tourism Segmentation & Seasonality in Tourism Segmentation & Seasonality in Tourism Setting & Data Collection Setting & Data Collection Setting Andorra 77,000 inhabitants 7,796,770 tourists in 2015 80% of its GDP Ski resorts Pyrenees mountains Seasonality has a crucial role Setting Data Collection Online 15,000 emails Andorra Turisme Winter season of 2015 (November) up to the fall season of 2016 (October). Monkey Survey & MailChimp 794 people responded the questionnaire 638 were usable observations 305 had visited Andorra in the peak season (Winter), and 333 in the off-peak season (Summer). Data Collection Profile of the Respondents Profile of the Respondents Develop a market segmentation approach based on motivations and demographics in a seasonal tourism destination First Objective Market Segmentation What is market segmentation? Types of market segmentation Psychographic and Behavioral Motivation Market Segmentation Paper Analysis 42 papers focus on motivation Motivational Factors: Adventure and risk taking Contemplation and escape Physical activity Enjoyment of nature Self-development and learning Culture Lovers Socializing Paper Analysis 31 papers derived segmetns Nature seekers Culture Lovers, Leisure Lovers, Passive tourists Actives Relaxers Want it all Social tourists Hypothesis Development Seasonality Tourism marketing and management require an understanding of the existing market segments and determining if segments are maintained in different periods in the same context. Hypothesis 1: The segments generated are not homogenous in one season compared to the other Hypothesis Development Methodology & Results Variables - push and pull model 24 Motivational items adapted from the literature 5 Demographic variables (age, gender, education, occupation, and income) PCA - Factor analysis JMP 12 Methodology & Results Factor Analysis - Motivation Variance explained KMO Eigen Values Common Method Bias Summer Nature - 18.89% of variance explained Culture - 14.16% of variance explained Entertainment - 12.19% of variance explained Escape - the forth strongest explanatory power, however with the highest combined mean of the factors (4.05) Family - 'having a good time with family (4.10) Friends - lowest variance explained, lowest mean Winter Culture & Leisure - 18.89% of variance explained Nature - 16.86% of variance explained Skiing - 9,43% variance explained Family & Shopping - 9.36% of variance explained Escape - 8.86% of variance explained Cluster analysis Two step cluster analysis Hierarcical K-means ANOVA Segmentation Segmenation - Summer Summer Season (4 segments): Escape in Nature Want-it-all Social Group Entertainment Seekers Segmentation Summer Demographics Segmenation - Winter Winter Season (3 segments): Passive Group Ski Seekers Family Shoppers Segmentation Winter Demographics Hypothesis 1 Examine the relationship between destination personality, destination satisfaction, destination attachment, and behavioral intentions, respectively destination loyalty Second Objective Brand Personality Developed by Aaker (1997) - brand personality can be defined as a set of human Ekinci &

PhD Dissertation

Transcript: English speaking needs of students at an EFL university department: A case of Shiraz University Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics Introduction Chapter 1 Background English medium universities are enrolling an ever-swelling number of students whose first language is not English. The number of universities, particularly those in non-English speaking countries, which offer English language courses as part of their programs or graduation requirements has also dramatically increased. Many students who want to enroll in these universities struggle to meet the demands of their courses due to their inadequate levels of English language proficiency and, as a result, they face significant challenges in the course of their studies Responding to university students’ English needs setting specific admission requirements high-stakes gate-keeping tests post-admission English tests general English language proficiency courses optimal admission requirement? Needs analysis two issues to identify what students need to do in the target situations to estimate their present strengths and weaknesses in language skills (Dudley-Evans & ST John, 1998). Target Situation Analysis (TSA) and the Present Situation Analysis (PSA) Speaking academic English speaking is concerned with such communications occurring in university settings (Butler et al., 2000) A large body of research has focused on second language oral proficiency in which an important broad base of knowledge has been devoted to task-based communication. Task-based communication promoted the use of tasks for developing assessments or EAP courses. These tasks resemble the tasks that the students need to perform during their university studies. Research context a large number of students studying in language-related programs such as Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), English Literature and Linguistics which are delivered through English at bachelor (BA), master (MA) and PhD levels national English proficiency test as part of the national university entrance exam the university’s post-enrollment English proficiency test university intervention courses at the BA and MA levels or attend other language learning classes outside university or self-study at the PhD level Statement of the problem Statement of the problem (TEFL instructors and Ph.D. students, personal communication, September 16, 2017) suggesting that BA, MA and PhD students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics of Shiraz University lack the required oral proficiency to complete the tasks they need to do in their studies. Also, it is not unusual for students to still face significant language barriers as they pursue their university studies even if they score satisfactorily on university English admission tests (Condrey & Derico 2012). Reseach objectives Research objectives identify the speaking tasks and language functions that are frequently used at the BA, MA and PhD levels. It will the attempt to determine the ones which are considered by both the instructors and the students of all three levels. The study will also aim at exploring the English speaking difficulties that the students of all three levels experience during their studies at Shiraz University as well as the causes and solutions to these problems as suggested by the instructors at the department. Research questions: 1) What are the English speaking demands at the bachelor, master and PhD programs in the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics of Shiraz University? A) What speaking tasks and language functions are frequently used at the bachelor, master, and PhD programs? B) What speaking tasks and language functions are considered important at the bachelor, master, and PhD programs? 2) What English speaking difficulties do Shiraz University students have at the bachelor, master and PhD levels? A) What are the causes of the students’ English speaking difficulties? B) What are the best measures to address students’ English speaking problems? Significance of the study Significance of the study needs assessment is considered an on-going and endless process, as no process is perfect (Huang, 2010); needs assessment is context-specific and different contexts might have various language demands. according to Ferris and Tagg (1996), in needs assessment studies, factors such as the type of institution where the students are studying, the majors they are pursuing, academic disciplines, class size, teaching style, etc. should be taken into consideration. few, if any, studies have been conducted on English-majoring students’ English language needs during their tertiary studies Although a great deal of research has been done on oral communication and more general knowledge about language needs, the available research does not provide a firm foundation on students English speaking needs and academic speaking tasks in university contexts. Moreover, few studies have investigated the views of teachers and students to

PhD dissertation

Transcript: Wavelengths: 476, 543, 623 nm Smoke particles: soot Universidad Politécnica de Madrid “To pave the way for future devices relying on remote sensing to present the users with artificially generated images that increase their situation awareness and thus their safety while conducting exposed tasks in smoke, turbid water or other particle-filled atmospheres”. pencil Metamaterial and sub-wavelength reconstruction Related Work Explore possible application of Compressed Sensing techniques: Grow, but still in the pm-nm range ...how can we process it? (in an easy and meaningful way) Implementation constraints Activated pixels with power @time interval Frame burst: 240 fps Object Injection & suspension of particles using methanol Molecule & Particle Dynamics Smoke particles: soot Concept setup Media Validation overview Temperature: 25ºC Simulation 2. Aggregation Molecules and soot particles follow: Kinetic theory [<100m/s] 83% (where is a random variable following the scattering profile and generated by the inverse CDF method. Simulation results representing received pixels below sensibility threshold Concept: "synthetic smoke" MonteCarlo Calibrate Different output modes Creation of a visualization tool Generalization of the model to other particle-filled atmospheres Performance study: UVM vs. manual optimizations Pipe length: 0.4 m UVM (CUDA > 6.0) Receiver: 320x240 pixels @10x10 um Results and discussion (I) Emitter: pinhole, 10 um Visualization tool of "synthetic smoke" Arbitrary particle types* Measurements MFP: 50000, 100000, 200000 um Arbitrary environment conditions Self-consistency checks Power represented in false color scale Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Parametric design 3D printing Polystyrene calibrated homogeneous microspheres José María Nadal Serrano optim. 3D print Propagation [sub]model Simulations Concept Golden rule: Partition and balance load across multiprocessors Maximize concurrent active threads Optical [sub]model The model has been designed with performance in mind: it has been implemented in a highly parallel architecture to minimize runtimes. A number of studies have been conducted on parallel code performance optimizations and practical conclusions have been drawn. Setups: 1, 2, 3, 6 um + mix 1-2-6 Advisor: Marisa López Vallejo Dept. Ingeniería Electrónica & We have bridged the gap between microscopic and macroscopic worlds in some sense: making use of the computational power of GPUs, we could create a radiation propagation model at optical and infrared frequencies able to provide with macroscopic data aggregating individual particle-radiation interactions. This poses a truly challenging environment in the limit between Quantum physics, Electrodynamics and Thermodynamics. The model has been designed as a framework model: its modularity has made it possible to generalize it from smoke to host a wide scope of particle-filled atmospheres. Conclusions: Follow the golden rule Start with UVM Then go for "ninja optimizations"... ...but watch your cost optimization function Specific test data: Wavelength = 543 nm MFP = 200000 um Particle size = 1 um Temp = 25 ºC MFP: 50000, 100000, 200000 um UVM + "Ninja opts." They define the particular fire conditions for the simulation: Temperature, incident wavelength, mean free path, fuel Using the data above: Particle size distributions are obtained Scattering distributions are obtained for each particle type Other "physical data" is also fed into the model for simulation: environment, medium, emitter, sensor types and geometries... Nadal-Serrano JM, Lopez-Vallejo M: A Survey on Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Imaging Aids for Artificial Vision in Professional Environments. IEEE Sensors Journal 2015, 15(5):2719 – 2731. Nadal-Serrano JM, Lopez-Vallejo M: A time-resolved Monte Carlo smoke model for use at optical and infrared frequencies. Fire Safety Journal 2015, 71:299 – 309. Nadal-Serrano JM, Lopez-Vallejo M: A Performance Study of CUDA UVM versus Manual Optimizations in a Real-World Setup: Application to a Monte Carlo Wave-Particle Event-Based Interaction Model. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 2016, 27(6):1579 – 1588. [Two additional publications are currently under preparation] Big computational load Many concurrent "processes" (threads) No interaction between the threads (no interaction photon-photon) Model overview: conceptual blocks Reasonable Mie approximation using "equivalent spheres" under certain circumstances [P Hull et al.] Our model: Edge between micro- and macroscopic worlds q-static, short distance (tens of meters) Incorporates ideas from other models Conclusions III Registers < Shared < Global memory An in-depth multidisciplinary, top to bottom analysis of the problem of temporary loss of vision in harsh environments and its consequences on spatial perception has been conducted, leading to a subsequent analysis of the fundamental variables that take part on that process. A basic (low-level) study of the

PhD dissertation

Transcript: 64 / 5 in Colombia Source baseline Linked to the expert system and therefore to continous information of origin-destinations. (Home based trips, 6:30 - 7:30 am) Multi-paradigm Multi-methodology strategy (Robins, 2007) Housing demand analysis Added value chain As a function of agent's preferences of city services -accessibility, connectivity, distribution-. Related to the entire dominion. Decision Analysis Observed attractivennes factor >50% 74% What if? Urbanization Congestion of roads vs. population density Methodologies Consensus strategies Information management Intervention chain Disarticulation Aggregation Prospective potential for integrated decision making Greater descriptive and explicative power Externality evolution analysis Approximation to conflicts of interest / politicized agendas Insight of INTERVENTION derived futures Complex systems: Multithinking requirements Common use in practice...! 2008 *Territory driven Driving Actors Object of analysis Uncertainity inclusion Demand - Supply strategy Trip demand generation + Hard OR contributions CONGESTION as a driver of land use dynamics Extenality cycles Shortage/surplus conception Governability . . . Multi-paradigm Thinking. Discussion STATE-OF-THE-ART APPROACHES IN URBAN PLANNING Baseline Families demography Families by life cycle Families by estrato and life cycle Demanding families (vegetative, independence) by estrato Instrumental Construction of the urban problem ROLE Complexity / Uncertainity P a r a d i g m s Multimethodology Multiparadigm Platform Public space Discussion. Intervention possibilities and sustainability Shortage vs. surplus Political cost Millennium development goals Poverty cycle intervention Accessibility Modeling platform for integrated assessment of intervention proposals in localities. Case study: Medellín Metropolitan Area, Colombia novel planning instruments Intervention assesment Life cycles Socioeconomic accessibility Link with the territory' socioeconomic distribution Captures the revealed dynamic between surveys (calibration, validation) Allows prospective dynamic analysis Land use policy representation Location model Latin America Common Approach Indicator systems. Restriction oriented. Maximum occupation based on several assumptions. Low probability of occurrence in a "period" Discussion Polygons as self-contained cities Accessibility by motive City's baseline and vision Instrumental Networked analysis for city's services Regulator with normative role + social actors with politicized agendas Spatial and temporal scales required approaches Specific dynamic approaches + transaction articulation Information with added value as an overall strategy for decision making 21st century cities Housing/property feasible price by neighborhood (Agents by attributes vs. housing supply indicators) aggregated Methodological Strategy Design Revealed preferences of the city services (Agents by attributes vs. city services' indicators) Instead of approaches Goal programming type Social & spatial exclusion Externality cycles' reinforcement Conflicts of interest Implemented Approach Expert system, vector based Ad-hoc, flexible, modular. Can integrate all the information Multi-scale analysis Discussion Intervene in the SYSTEM to offer a network for citizen access Discussion Implementation problems Common residual method defines a cost structure as in an industrial approach. No speculation or uncertainity consideration. Land use prices are difficult to predict. Price analysis endogenizes the market's evolution for a practical approach. Preliminary but powerful. Articulated Dissagregated Medellín Metropolitan Area * Development capacity Traditional approaches don't consider preference changes nor from people's perceptions or territory configuration. Modeling Arena Network analysis by structuring / structured system Utilities, Facilities, Public space, housing and firms systems the configuration by steps prevent historical trends preservetation for socioeconomic parameterization of families and/or the location indicators Instrumental *Agents driven Conceptual Complexity Information gathering processing analysis Methodological temporal and spatial overlapping 19 Megacities (8.4%) / 14 Developing world / 4 "Must be" Distribution by system Urban Planning Multimethodology arrangement by polygon, UTA Urban densification indicator schedule Gracias Latin American cities Discussion: land use as a driver of distribution changes. Generator of structural changes. (vs. limits) Unicity by problem Regulator Social Actors City Transactions Derived Inherent >44% 65% Families Firms Developer Regulator (decision maker) Methodological Probable scenario for a period time Modules vs. Driving actors Bad budget? Bad project schedule? Uncertainty? Mobility demand formation City supply parameterization Transaction assessment City object multidisciplinarity t0 Microsimulation approaches Speculative attractivennes factor diasaggregated Information chain

PhD Dissertation

Transcript: Create a new theory or modify the existing one based on the different definition of power in the offensive realism theory by: Looking critically at the definition of power in the offensive realism theory Closely examining the aspect of wealth as the source of power Creating a new definition of power and deriving a new theory based on this definition Testing the derived theory against historical examples and liberal theories related to the economy What is the influence of wealth and economy on state's behavior in the international system described by the offensive realism theory? Is John Mearsheimer correct in his definition of power? What is the influence of wealth and economy on state's power? How does it affect state's decision making process? 1. A Realist Theory of International Politics. - Hans J. Morgenthau 2. Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma. - Robert Jervis 3. Dynamics of Political Economy. - Robert Gilpin 4. Economic Interdependence and War: A Theory of Trade Expectations. - Dale C. Copeland 5. Globalization. - David Held and Anthony McGrew 6. Political Structures. - Kenneth N. Waltz 7. State Power and the Structure of International Trade. - Stephen D. Krasner 8. Stigmatizing the Bomb: Origins of the Nuclear Taboo. - Nina Tannenwald 9. The Backlash. - Thomas Friedman 10. The Cold War. - Joseph S. Nye, Jr. 11. The Fact of Democratic Peace. - Bruce Russett 12. The False Promise of International Institutions. - John J. Mearsheimer 13. The Origins and End of the Cold War. - Henry R. Nau 14. Tragedy of Great Power Politics. - John J. Mearsheimer 15. Why Democratic Peace. - Bruce Russett Concept Presentation Background Research question Research Objective Bibliography PhD Dissertation Chapter Structure Introduction Methodology Five assumptions: International system is anarchic Great powers inherently possess some offensive military capability States can never be certain about other states' intentions Survival is the primary goal Great powers are rational actors Three patterns of behavior: Fear Self-help Power maximization Limitations of the Theory Applies only to great powers Limited definition of power Military power (more important) Latent power Definition of Power "Latent power refers to the socio-economic ingredients that go into building military force; it is largely based on a state's wealth and the overall size of its population [...] however, a state's effective power is ultimately a function of its military forces and how they compare with the military forces of rival states" "I define power largely in military terms because offensive realism emphasizes that force is the ultimate ratio of international politics" Bases for a new theory Wealth as the most important ingredient of power changes the dynamic and nature of the offensive realism theory New theory might be applicable to a larger number of states New theory might explain some of the processes that are being explained by liberal theories existing theories related literature case studies Theoretical work presents limitations to the research methodology In order to develop a theory I will conduct an analysis of: In order to prove the validity of my theory I will conduct an analysis of: historical examples (also the one provided by Mearsheimer) liberal theories 4. Analysis 5. Theory of Economic Offensive Realism Answering the research question based on the analysis from the previous chapter by developing a new theory or modifying the existing one 6. Historical examples Testing the theory against historical examples 7. Explaining Liberal Theories Testing the theory against liberal theories 8. Conclusion 1. Introduction Statement of the problem Research question Research objective 2. Literature Review 3. Methodology Research approach Research strategy Research limitations

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