Transcript: Increases from late adolesence, peaks about 30 years Male > Female Normal aging --> decreased bone density Female = - 1/2-3%/yr Male = - 0.4%/yr Oestrogen promotes Ca absorption from GIT, stimulates bone formation + prevents removal from bone post-menopausal..? 'porous bones' loss of minerals (eg. Ca) from bones --> porous + brittle --> fractures Why does taking part in sporting activities during adolescence reduce the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures in later life? Cause, Pathology, Prevention + Treatment Explain why a high level of Ca intake is recommended for: (a) 9-18 years range (b) over 50s Vicious pathway! Weakened bones Low body fat What goes wrong? Pathology **FRACTURES** Osteoporosis Intensive Training Manage Risk, Prevention + Treatment? What is Osteoporosis Decrease Risk Ca + Vit. D HRT Weight bearing (brisk walking, jogging + dancing = mechanical stress) + resistance exercise (weights) Individuals with physically active lifestyles >> bone mass Cut alcohol + smoking S+Sx dynamic living tissue - renewed every 10 years honeycomb mesh of collagen fibres, hardened by minerals (Ca salts) rate of formation > breakdown --> denser, stronger bone Bones Breakdown > formation Post-menopausal women most common Dietary factors - Ca + Vit. D Lack of + excessive exercise Essentially irreversible - PREVENTION! Optimise diet, exercise + lifestyle for maximum peak bone density Risk Factors vertebral fractures --> decreased height, stooping, pain (spinal nerves) impact fractures - esp. femur/hip, wrist Bone Density Non-Modifiable Summary Loss of protective oestrogen effect Restricted diet + Intensive training Female Athelete Triad (a) Maximise peak bone density as it is increasing in this period. Also likely to be high levels of weight bearing activity to complement intake (b) Menopause occurs around this age, oestrogen decreasing as result (natural), lose bone mass rapidly (2-3% per year), osteoporosis most likely to start Modifiable Female Athlete Triad Smoking Excessive alcohol (B/loss) Low Ca diet Vit. D deficiency (sources? problem for Scotland? MS) Lack of exercise Low body fat Prolonged amenorrhoea Sex (female) Age Early menopause FHx Amenorrhoea Increases: bone mass bone density bone mineral density Therefore higher peak density before age-related loss, osteoporosis takes longer to develop
Transcript: Osteoporosis *Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D *Exercise *Not drink in excess or smoke. Gender. Women get osteoporosis more often than men. Age. The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Body size. Small, thin women are at greater risk. Ethnicity. White and Asian women are at highest risk. Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk. Family history. Osteoporosis tends to run in families. If a family member has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there is a greater chance that you will too. List of what you can do: Causes of Osteoporosis: Preventing Osteoporosis: *Walk *Hike *Jog *Climb stairs *Lift weights *Play tennis *Dance. Author: Sex hormones. Low estrogen levels due to missing menstrual periods or to menopause can cause osteoporosis in women. Low testosterone levels can bring on osteoporosis in men. Anorexia nervosa. This eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D intake. A diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss. Medication use. Some medicines increase the risk of osteoporosis. Activity level. Lack of exercise or long-term bed rest can cause weak bones. Smoking. Cigarettes are bad for bones, and the heart, and lungs, too. Drinking alcohol. Too much alcohol can cause bone loss and broken bones. (NIH January 2011)
Transcript: Due to the decrease in bone density, fractures can occur easily. Height will decrease Dowager's hump Pain **Age (50 and older) **Female Low Estrogen levels (cause an increase in bone break down) Menopause or Hysterectomy Low calcium and Vitamin D levels (Vitamin D has to be present for the Calcium to be absorbed in the bone.) Smoking Excessive alcohol intake Medications (Anticoagulants, corticosteroids, immunosuppresants, and anticonvulsants) What It Causes... When should you get a bone density exam? Increase Vitamin D Get sunlight for 10 minutes Take daily Vitamin D supplements Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is found in 1 out of 5 men 1 out of 2 women Living with it. 50% of people over the age of 80 are affected. Who's affected? Treatments... Thanks for watching! What is it? PREVENT FALLS TO AVOID FRACTURES!!! May need to modify life style in order to prevent hazardous situations. raise seats higher to you so they are closer or have a seat in the shower Avoid medications that make you drowsy or dizzy (Benadryl or any sedatives, blood pressure medications) Wear glasses if vision problems and avoid medications that cause blurry vision (anticholinergics) no throw rugs on the ground keep bright lights on to be able to see Use hand rails if stairs are a problem, may need to stay on the first floor Increase Calcium In diet (dairy, spinach, vegetables) Osteoporosis is when there is an increases in the bone break down causing the bones to become frail. Exercise yoga Swimming weight baring Taylor Warren IF you are at risk, you should be test at age 60! No risk women at age 65 men at age 70 Risk Factors
Transcript: How Osteoporosis is caused? The outcome of how healthy and strong bones are starts when you are young, which makes it critical that calcium is always being put in the body. Bones are always being broken down and replaced, and since the bone is mainly made up of minerals such as calcium it is important to get to right amount into the body so the bone building cycle can fully follow through, which happens every 100 days. This cycle is influenced by calcium and vitamin D, also by the hormones that are produced in our bodies, such as estrogen and testosterone. If the proper need of minerals is not going into the body, the bones will only weaken, and lower the bone mass which causes osteoporosis, this is why osteoporosis is more seen in elderly because with age the process begins to reverse and the bones start to deteriorate. Risks Not only do blood related families have a chance of getting it but also through ethnicities. People from European and Asian descent are at the highest chance of risk. Also people who are thin or “small boned” and those who have already have had a facture in the vertebrae have an increased chance of getting the disease. The main reason why women are diagnosed with osteoporosis more then men is because the mass of bone loss drops significantly after menopause, this is because the ovaries stop producing estrogen, which has a huge role in bone repair. Women who have anorexia nervosa and female athletes are at higher risk also, because the menstrual cycle gets disturbed or gets lost and a dramatic drop in estrogen levels for women who experience early menopause. A major role that affects being at risk for osteoporosis is having lack of calcium and vitamin D for all ages. Children, adolescents, and adults need to consume the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals daily. It is essential to maintain this because those minerals keep the bones strong and healthy throughout life, and prevent osteoporosis. While having the proper amount of exercise lets a person stay healthy and decrease the risk of developing osteoporosis, if a person has strong, healthy bones with aging they are less likely to lose strength with age. Excessive smoking, drinking, taking certain medications, and certain medical conditions can result in a higher chance of being affected with the disease. Symptoms How to prevent Osteoporosis Treatment Other treatments that are available in Canada that are used are: bisphosphonates that are used to prevent and treat osteoporosis, they slow down bone loss, help repair, and prevent fractures. Denosumab is an injection that stops the breakdown of the bone to help strengthen, and also decrease the chance of a fracture. Parathyroid hormone analogues is a class of medication that builds new bone faster then it is being broken down, it is usually treatment for severe cases of osteoporosis. Statistics 50% of surviors will have disabilities The two ways we can get our vitamin D is from the sun which has UVB radiation that we are able to absorb through our skin, and also from what we ingest, which in most cases is often milk. 8% of them was related to osteoporosis In a persons life in the ages between thirty and forty, it is common for the bone mass to decrease, especially if living an inactive lifestyle. This disease often runs in families, a person who has elderly relatives or even a parent who has had a hip fracture are more likely to have contact with osteoporosis. The hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was very common for awhile. It had very good results that in addition to recommending it for hot flashes and mood swings, doctors began to prescribe estrogen because the bone protecting qualities it gives. As we age we lose some of our height, reduction of height starts between ages thirty five to forty in men and women, which can be due to inadequate posture early in aging. Between the ages forty to fifty years in women and fifty to sixty years in men this disease can start to become a factor. Having osteoporosis reduces the quality of life for many people, it does not only affect the mobility and capability of those who have it, it also can lead to disfigurement, lowered self esteem, and by losing independence. Evista which is a treatment that works like estrogen but does not have the side affects, it will not affect the uterus or breats. One in four women have osteoporosis while only one in eight men have it. Primary Having the proper amount of vitamin D in your body is very important because calcium cannot be absorbed into the bones unless vitamin D is present. Vitamin D has other affects on the body as well, it can have a positive affect on certain types of cancer, and immune related diseases. Osteoporosis is a disease that occurs over time causing bones to become thin and weaken, making them more prone to fractures. Bones being more susceptible to breaking is caused by low bone density and deterioration of the bone. Osteoporosis is normally considered a disease of the elderly
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Causes *Low bone mass *Loss of bone tissue *Brittle, fragile bones Dull pain in the bones such as, lower back and neck pains. Sharp pains brought on by activity. May easily break bones. Breaking down bone faster than you are building it up. Lack of calcium can lead to this. Lack of certain hormones. (Estrogen in women and androgen in men.) Also, the lack of muscle use, overuse of corticosteroids, and genetic factors contribute to this disease. Signs/Symptoms Osteoporosis Treatment Calcium supplements By: Martin Rodriguez, Taylor Keller, Chelsea Caraway, and Iris Pittman
Transcript: First Person Story Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Risk Factors Osteoporosis By: David Mujica What Is Osteoporosis Prevention
Transcript: calcium supplements can slow the process of getting osteoporosis Breakfast: 1 cup oatmeal 0.5 cup fat-free milk 5 dried, chopped apricots 1 tbsp chopped nuts 0.5 cup orange juice (calcium fortified) Cause severe pain that may not go away, may lose height and become shorter, affect posture causing you to become stooped or hunched; it can also make you feel isolated and depressed Warning Signs Osteoporosis By: Lexis Muongnamvong, Lizzy Kuebler, and Brina Simpson Symptoms Snacks: choose from soy nuts, other nuts, or an apple Risk Factors Prolongs the disease and may prevent you from getting it. Increase of dietary needs Reasoning for increase of dietary need Age: the older you get, the greater risk of osteoporosis Gender: women are more likely to develop osteoporosis Family History: having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts you at a greater risk Diet Plan Thinned bones eat a balanced diet drink milk eat fruits, vegetables, beans, potatoes, yogurt, bread, lean meat, low-fat cheese, Lunch: 1 cup lentil soup 6" French Bread 0.5 cup fat-free yogurt 1 apple Dinner: 4 oz. canned sardines 2 cups mixed salad leaves 1 tbsp fat free dressing 1 large sliced tomato 8 oz baked potato Health Benefits to required diet
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