Transcript: When Gerald's compassionate aunt dies he is forced to live with his mother, abusive stepfather, and young stepsister. Jordan's evil secret makes Gerald angry. Furthermore, he has to grow up and face the facts. This event affects Gerald because he's young therefore he doesn't know what to do in the situation without his mother around. I think this was hard on them. I think if there parents had of paid more attention maybe Robbie wouldn't have died. This affects Gerald in a tremendous way because he has to battle it out with Jordan. It impacted Gerald because he had to move with his mom, which she wanted him to do in the first place, and he had to change his whole life. Six years later Gerald got chosen for the Tiger Varsity Team and Jordan came out of jail. I believe that his mother should have let him go to his aunt sooner because she was hurting him, in addition to herself by keeping Gerald. Also she should not have left him alone all by himself. Chronological Forged By Fire is chronological order because it goes by age. At the beginning of the book on page 5 it states "Gerald was only three, but he had already learned such lessons." As the book progresses it gives more ages. One day while he was still at the age of 17 Angel came home from practice their neighbor wasn't at home so she went to her own house. Once she started cooking the hotdogs Jordan came in and Gerald saw fire coming from the apartment ,therefore he ran up the stairs. When he got there Jordan was trying to rape her. Gerald and Jordan fought. Jordan died by slipping on his boots. I think this helped because Gerald felt a little safer knowing that Angel wasn't being abused anymore. Also I think that helped so he can grow up not being abused and treated like nothing by Jordan. Objective: Swbat define and break down the format and authors uses to arrange a text, including how the major parts contribute to the total and to the development of the ideas. I fell that they are safer and having Monique there is better than Jordan. However, Monique should care about her kids more than some abusive man. This affects Gerald because that was one of his best friends, his teammate, and classmate. Gerald and Robbie's father were extremely close so this was hard on all of them. Gerald's Journey Dariana Martre Jan. 21, 2013 Language Arts 4th Period While Gerald was 11 he was dealing with Angel's situation therefore he went to school early and he got help and they put Jordan in jail. I think it was a happy ending because Gerald saved Angel from what Jordan was going to do. I think that it's great that Gerald has something else to keep his mind on. Also I believe it's great that they have friends. Gerald does need to watch out for Angel since Jordan came back because anything can happen. I think that was a big step for Gerald because he had to move to a new school and a new home with a different environment. However, I think it's good because he helps to protect Angel from that home. This affects Gerald tremendously because he has to watch out for Angel and play basketball. So he was extremely worried about everything. When Gerald was 3 years of age his house caught on fire. During Gerald's ninth birthday his mom came to visit and on that day his aunt Queen died. Also while Gerald was 17 Robbie died because there friends were drinking and driving. Organizational structure is when the author uses a motive to write any kind of text. You use this to see why they wrote it. It relates to literature because it explains why the author has written something.
Transcript: Chapter 6 Organizational Structure and Design By: The mechanistic organization (or bureaucracy) naturally results from combining the six elements of structure bulleted bellow. The organic organization is highly adaptive, loose, and flexible, which allows it to change rapidly as required. Challenges faced by today's organizations Adding 500 new workers to a fairly mechanistic company of 2,000 employees is not similar to adding to a small company. Organizational Structure and Design Formalization refers to how standardized an organization’s jobs are and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures. Organic structure works well when an organization is pursuing meaningful and unique innovations. Span of Control Chart on Page 134 Adding 500 employees to an organization that has only 300 employees, which is likely to make it more mechanistic. Chart on Page 133 Traditional and contemporary organizational designs Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed. Responsibility is when employees are given rights they also assume a corresponding obligation to perform and be held accountable for their performance. Mechanistic organization works best for companies wanting to tightly control costs. Departmentalization Keeping Employees connected. Understanding global differences. Designing a structure around the mind-set of being a learning organization. Looking for organizational designs with efficient and effective flexible work arrangements Chart on Page 136 The six key elements in organizational design. Size and Structure Matt Zimmermann and Joseph Estrella Jr. Centralization is the degree to which decision making takes place at upper levels of the organization. Decentralization is the degree to which lower-level managers provide input or actually make decisions. Learning Outcome Describe six key elements in org design. Identify the contingency factors that favor either the mechanistic model or the organic model organizational design. Compare and contrast traditional and contemporary organizational design Discuss the design challenges faced by today's organization Mechanistic or Organic Organizations The more Nonroutine the technology, the more organic a structure should be. Structure, Technology, and the Environment Work Specialization As an organizations' size increases so does the the need for a more mechanistic structure Centralization versus Decentralization Formalization Every organization uses some form of technology- Such as a standard assembly line- to convert its inputs to outputs Stable environments are better matched with mechanistic structures, but dynamic ones fit better with organic structures. The way jobs are grouped together http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/types-of-contemporary-organizational-designs-matrix-team-network-designs.html There’s considerable evidence that an organization’s size affects its structure. However, size has less influence on structure once an organization grows past a certain size. How many employees a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. The division of work activities into separate job tasks. http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/types-of-organizational-structures-functional-divisional-matrix-team-network.html Authority and Responsibility
Transcript: Organizational Chart - specialize in work *product departmentalization - divisional structure *made up of separate business units or divisions - run as a holding company *simplifying structure - creative company -> flexible structure *organic organization - cross: functional team Case study Responsibility & Unity of Command Organizational Structure - establish relationships among individuals, groups, and departments - establish formal lines of authority - allocate organizational resources 1. work specialization 2. departmentalization 3. chain of command 4. span of control 5. centralization and decentralization 6. formalization Structure of the company Human Resource Management "I won't mind how much I pay for talented staff, but I mind hiring a superfluous staff!" Chain of Command Centralization or Decentralization? - to discover people with capability and allocate them on suitable positions - won't employ anyone blindly without evaluating their abilities - no compulsive rule to stipulate the arrival time, dress code (meeting customers excluded), etc. - employees are free to raise any problem e.g. working environment Background of the company Why organizational structure is important to every company? define how employees of a company work together to support their mission What is organizational structure? Responsibility - managers: discuss with customers - employees: focus on the projects Unity of Command - employees in each project team should report their works to their team leaders - aim to decentralize some of the power to the lower part of the company - workers can directly give suggestions - mutual trust six key elements when managers create or change the structure: Organizational Chart 1. important for decision making 2. crucial for communication 3. evaluating employee's performance 4. achieving goals and results Acceptance Theory of Authority - relations between managers and workers are in trust - discuss everything except large amount of money - power of decision are nearly fair - centralize the power of deciding very importance things (only a small number) - decentralize the power of deciding most of problems - combine them to enhance advantages and avoid disadvantages Organizational Structure - divides work to be done into specific jobs and departments - assigns tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs - coordinates diverse organizational tasks - clusters jobs into units Formalization Leadership Style formal arrangement of jobs within an organization "I won't describe myself as a boss, because I'm not ordering jobs for my colleagues. I'm just a leader that lead the team work smoothly." Group 7 Tepheary Cheung 127063 Hammy Jiang 137001 Sherry Li 137003 Cindy Lau 137009 Serena Yuen 137012 Parry Chau 137014 Q & A
Transcript: An organizational structure formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company. Organizational design is the process of creating, selecting, or changing the structure of an organization. Made up of customers, competitors, ,suppliers, distributors, & other external factors that make an impact. Objectives and goals to make money. The method by which it transforms inputs into outputs. Number of employees and structure. By: Wendy Benavides Organizational Structure Organizational Structure Simple structures are the most common form because there are more small organizations than large ones. Common Organizational Forms Simple Structure Bureaucratic Structures How many employees is a manager responsible for. Formal authority relationships. "Who reports to whom?" Where decisions are made. Technology Funcional Milti-divisional Product Geographic Client Matrix Structure Has high levels of work specialization, formalization, centralization of authority and well -defined chains of command with narrow spans of control. Size Bureaucratic structure is an organization form that exhibits many ofacets of the mechanistic organization for efficiency. It's not large enough to have a high degree of formalization. Very basic differences in work specialization. Company Strategy Degree to which tasks are divided into separate jobs. Chapter 15 A flat organization with one person as the central decison-making figure. Elements of Structure Work Specialization Chain of Command Span of Control Centralization Formalization How much are rules and procedures used to standardize behaviors and decisions. Business Environment
Transcript: Ch. 15 Organization Combines Functional and Product Departments Minimize risk and maximize profit by producing goods that have already been established as successful in the market by the original innovators. Aim to eliminate hierarchy and boundaries. Simple Structure Forever21 Formalized rules and regulations Kate Brull Matt Fogarty Marissa Laug Khush Sangha Organic Model of Organization Most Offices Innovation Strategy Strives to achieve meaningful and unique innovations, emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services Kim Cost-Minimization Trovata The Bureaucracy & Khloe Forever21 Betsy Johnson Square Apple is a modern day example of Innovation Strategy A good example of a virtual organization are small budget movies like Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Highly routine operating tasks Kate Moss for Topshop Virtual Organization A small, core organization that outsources major business functions Ryan Dempster Forever21 Walmart Mechanistic Theo Epstein Kourtney Matrix Structure Centralized authority Narrow span of control Follows chain of commands High Specilization Rigid Departmentalization Narrow Spans of Control Centralization High Formalization Jack Dorsey- Founder and CEO of Square, as well as Co-founder of Twitter Imitation Cross-functional teams Cross-hierachical teams Free flow of information Wide spans of control Decentralization Low formalization Boundaryless One Goal Wright Brothers
Transcript: 3 Cultural Attributes: Energy Resilience Openness 8 Traits found in ideal organizational cultures. Implementation of a positive organizational culture The different types of Organizational Culture defining and conceptualizing Organizational Culture Defining Organizational Structure. philosophies, practices and attitudes that define an organization. Emphasis on results is another notable characteristic of organizational culture . Conclusion & Questions Overview of Organizational Structure Ideal Organizational Culture 1) Multicultural 2) Hierarchy (Controlling) 3) Adhocracy (Creative) 4) Clan (family-like) 5) Market (Competitve) 6) Ethical
Transcript: ~ Wide span of control ~ Little formalization ~ Decentralized decision makingfdkkjds ~ Small span of control ~ Very formal structure ~ Centralized decision making Recommended Solution for X-Stream: ~ Formal policies and rules ~ Company mission, values and ethic statement Recommended Solutions for X-Stream: ~ Cannot remain decentralized ~ Production should be centralized ~ Marketing should be decentralized Recommended Solutions for X-Stream: ~ Functional structure ~ Divisional structure (based on products) Questions & Comments Not from Andrew! Please, ANY one but him!! ~ Wide span of control ~ Informal structure ~ Decentralized decision making Formalization Organizational Structure Departmentalization Dayna, Lesleigh & Nicole Coordinating Work Activities Division of Labour Team AWESOME Centralization ORGANIC STRUCTURE MECHANISTIC STRUCTURE Matrix Structure: Background information: ~ Grown to 72 employees ~ Have a functional organizational structure ~ Concerns that have arisen ~ Conflict ~ Negative Culture ~ Leadership Going to the X-Stream ~ A Case Study ~ Span of Control
Transcript: Organizational Structure What are we talking about? Organizational structure is: A system of tasks, reporting relationships, and communication linkages Departmentalization is the process of grouping together people and jobs into work units. Functional Divisional Matrix Team Network groups together people with similar skills, who perform similar tasks Admissions, financial services, marketing, academics, human resources groups together people working on the same product, in the same area, over the same customers Product Divisional Structure : groups together people working on a single product or service For example: Human resources Hospitality services Campus safety Maintenance Geographical Divisional Structure : bring together people and jobs performed in the same location For example: APU Academics: East Campus Wilden (Business) Wynn (Psychology and sociology) Ronald Center (English) West Campus Segerstrom (Science and math) Duke (Theology, philosophy, & art) Customer Divisional Structure : groups together people and jobs that serve the same customers and clients Example: APU Academics: Business, music, nursing, biology, theology.. just to name a few! Uses permanent and temporary cross-functional teams to imrpove lateral relations In Mexico, you have: Coordinator Medical, orphanage, prayer, construction, women's rehab Team Leaders Team Members Links a central core of full-time employees with surrounding set of networks composed of relationships to outside contractors and partners that supply essential services Social Networks Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In, G-mail, and Career Services Website People Networking Board of Trustees, ROTC, School of Business Mentorship Program, and sports Examples: Network Structure (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Combines the functional and divisional structures to try to gain the advantage of each doodles Divisional Structure notes Budapest San Francisco Example: Notes Stockholm (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Double click to crop it if necessary Matrix Structure Definition: Definition: Definition Structure! outlook Functional Structure Definition: photo frame Place your own picture behind this frame! (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr details Assets map Definition: Important Details Example: Team Structure
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