Transcript: OKINAWA Geographical features Okinawa is the southern-most prefecture in all of Japan.It consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) long, which extends southwest from Kyūshū to Taiwan. Okinawa's capital, Naha, is located in the southern part of Okinawa Island. Okinawa has volcanoes (that are not active) and mountains.The island experiences temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) for most of the year. Okinawa and the many islands that make up the prefecture contains some of the most abundant coral reefs found in the world Architecture Despite widespread destruction during the war, there are many remains of a unique type of castle or fortress known as gusuku; the most significant are now inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List (Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu). In addition, twenty-one Ryukyuan architectural complexes and thirty-six historic sites have been designated for protection by the national government Religion Okinawans have traditionally followed Ryukyuan religious beliefs, generally characterized by ancestor worship and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world. Cities Okinawa Prefecture includes eleven cities. Okinawan names are in parentheses. Ginowan (Jinoon) Ishigaki (Ishigachi) Itoman (Ichuman) Miyakojima (Naaku) Nago (Nagu) Naha (Naafa) (capital) Nanj (Nanjoo) Okinawa (Uchinaa) (formerly Koza) Tomigusuku (Timigushiku) Urasoe (Urashii) Uruma (Uruma) BY VIVI AND ANETT
Transcript: - American and British forces fought against the Japanese forces Battle of Okinawa (Operation Iceberg) - Allies planned to use Okinawa as a base for air operations to invade Japan Why: April 1 - June 22 1945 - One of the largest battles in WWII
Transcript: Operation Iceberg Capture of the island of Ie Shima The Battle finally Ends April 6, 1945 Japanese Kamikaze June 17, 1945 Were Japanese suicide pilots The last American Attack On June 1, America attacks Yaeju-Dake and Yuza-Dake April 16, Navy planes fire rockets over Ie Shima June 22, 1945 The Pacific War battle had come to an end. http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-okinawa-operation-iceberg.htmhttp:// http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-okinawa Cowley, Robert. "Battle of Okinawa." Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. . <http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-okinawa>. Attack on Southern Okinawa By: Abby & Brittany April 1, 1945 Invasion of Okinawa General Buckner sends a message to General Ushijima Bloodiest battle fought in Pacific War, 240,000 American, and Japanese lives lost. Kamikazes Attack from the Air How this Event impacted the War : Works Cited Battle of Okinawa Marines pushed North to Yae-Take in Northern Okinawa Geography American Invasion of Okinawa Battle of Okinawa was the largest sea-land-air battle in the world, and it is also final battle of the Pacific War. Also known as "Operation Iceberg" On April 9, the 96th division began several attacks on Southern Okinawa. America Prepares to Invade The Battle of Okinawa started in April 1945. The capture of Okinawa was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East. Okinawa was to prove a bloody battle even by the standards of the war in the Far East but it was to be one of the major battles of World War Two Last and biggest of the Pacific island battles of World War II, involved the 287,000 troops of the U.S. Tenth Army against 130,000 soldiers of the Japanese Thirty-second Army. At stake were air bases vital to the projected invasion of Japan. By the end of the 82-day campaign, Japan had lost more than 77,000 soldiers and the Allies had suffered more than 65,000 casualties—including 14,000 dead Six weeks after President Truman ordered the use of the atomic bomb. Attack of Northern Okinawa Background On April 1st, US Navy bombarded Okinawa
Transcript: Festivals & Traditions Aaron Sualog Deanna Wong annual celebrations open to locals and tourists focus of events: traditional okinawan culture WHY Orion beer festival Naha Tug-of-War Shuri Castle Festival Eisa Festival promote Orion beer new tradition built on commercial values announcements between performances promoting Orion beer Mayor: "Orion beer sales now constitute 0.8% of total beer sales in Japan" campain girls in short skirts history person who likely built Shuri Castle responsible for uniting Hokuzan CHuzan and Nanzan, creating the First Sho Dynasty Moved capital from Urasoe to Shuri, where he constructed a new castle town in which Shuri Castle was built destruction FESTIVALS held in various places around Okinawa, the biggest held in Okinawa City Marks the end of the Obon Holidays and the conclusion of summer o r i g i n s originated from group dance called "esa omoro" to which Buddhist songs and dances were later added originally had the religious function of putting souls to rest used to popularize Ryukyu music by replacing Buddhist prayers with folk songs all-okinawan eisa festival participants don brightly colored costumes traditional to Okinawa utilize the "shimedaiko," "paaranku," and the "sanshin" a competition between all the local cities in Okinawa. Judged on routine and creativity, and incorporation of the past and present "traditional" celebrations have evolved remembering traditions as well as "selling" them traditional aspects promoted for enjoyment, remembering, tourist attraction current purpose: "to maintain peace and order in a society, to promote mutual understanding of Okinawa-citizens, to progress tourism industry, and to preserve the cultural inheritance of Okinawa" CHANGES Shuri Castle Festival Shuri Cultural Festival tradition? official residence of kings and seat of gov. for more than 500 years monarchy began with First Sho Dynasty (1405-1469) and continued into the Second Sho Dynasty (1460-1879) Although this festival does incorporate many traditional customs of celebration (eisa dancing, traditional Okinawan music), it is actually just an extravagant way of promoting a commercial product—Orion beer. PURPOSE Ankoku sanju kamoku kihi written 1427 King Sho Hashi Banquet for Traditional Performances CONCLUSIONS or SHURI CASTLE EISA Ufunnasununei - "Parade of Flags" ORION BEER FESTIVAL attraction? NAHA TUG-OF-WAR Battle of Okinawa in 1945: Destroyed to reach Japanese Army headquarters Rebuilt in 1992 and designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000 solo artists annual event FREE Shinei Park (Ishigaki) cheap beer food entertainment Ryukyuan dance, traditional performing arts, and classical music born at Shuri Castle during time of Ryukyuan Kingdom Take place at reconstructed Shuri Castle Ryukyu Dynasty Parade foreign/local bands CONCLUSION New Year's Banquet only important celebrations annual event traditional Okinawan dance/music re-enactment of ceremony to pray for prosperity for Ryukyu Kingdom complimentary alcohol and tea served for longevity and happiness over 1500 participants parading down International Street Chance to see Ryukyu King & Queen Experience traditional Ryukyu attire
Transcript: The island is rocky, hilly and muddy The Japanese knew this was there last stand before an American invasion on the main island of Japan. "most miserable of all places" personal accounts Background photo by t.shigesa The Battle of Okinawa Many historians believe that the Atomic bombs were dropped because of the ferocious fighting on Okinawa Turning Point Success Okinawa Outcomes Because the Japanese were so desperate, they turned to Kamikaze attacks. After 82 days of fighting, the might of the American military's production and firepower prevailed. Although the U.S. won the battle, we lost nearly 13,000 men Okinawa was the bloodiest battle of the Pacific Campaign 183,000 allied forces fought against 120,000 Japanese soldiers
Transcript: OKINAWA, JAPAN Okinawa Census -- http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/jinsui/2011np/ Okinawa's Flag As stated in the last slide, Okinawa is a Prefecture of Japan, it is bordered by both the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Both form the natural boundaries of the 160 islands that make up the Okinawan chain of islands. Internally on the island the smaller cities and towns are also broken down by borders creating even smaller prefectures. as notated on the maps. Okinawa relative Location -- http://www.kadena.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=7287 Sorry to say, your Tour of Okinawa has come to a conclusion. Okinawa maps -- http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-C-Okinawa/ This Population Pyramid is from 2011, it is interesting to see how the mid-teens to mid 60's is called the productive age. from this chart you can see how everyone contributes in the society and when they reach the age of 65 they have earned their time to rest from all the hard work. there seams to be a steady climb until the age of 45 where there is a drop off and then picks back up until the retirement age of 65. Okinawa Population chart -- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:Population_of_Okinawa_prefecture,_Japan.png Okinawa took a great hit to its population in 1945 with the death of over 250 thousand people during WWII. Once the island was liberated by the U.S and was renovated to accommodated the military forces with multiple bases, The population started to grow steady with the need for workers and help with the military. The economics growth came due to the soldiers that lived there and the families that trailed behind making the island home. With the island's military tool protecting the Eastern Asia area,the population has expanded to close to 1.5 millions overloading the island and leaving the locals to plea for their land back that the bases have engulfed. The future of Okinawa is under construction, talks are in work to give back some of the military base land back to the Okinawan government. Centrifugal Forces Finding Okinawa and its Relative location, The Push Factor The island of Okinawa is a Prefecture that encompasses 160 or so islands, is often referred to as the "Keystone of the Pacific" or the Ryukyu Islands translated means "String of Pearls". The island is located about 900 miles from Tokyo, Manila, Seoul and Hong Kong, and about 1,200 miles west of Guam. It is 67 miles long and varies from 2-17 miles wide.1. Bordered by the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Okinawa can be found on the map at 26°30′N 127°56′E http://www.kadena.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=7287 Okinawa pictures -- Provided by google images and personal photos Okinawa's Boundaries Here is a quick video of some of the culture and the people, places and different faces around the city of Naha the Capital of Okinawa. Okinawa videos -- Provided by YouTube The island inhabitants are very multicultural. Japanese, Chinese, Thai and Americans make up the primary inhabitants of the island. With all these assorted cultures on the island making it a Relocation Culture bringing both western ideals and cultures with them influencing the local life and people of the island which could also be considered Expansion due to the fact that the natives welcome the western culture while still holding strong to theirs ideals. Okinawa and its prefecture as stated before is made up of 160 island. with these islands the boundaries are made up by the surrounding waters of the East China Sea and the Pacific ocean. Colonialism in Okinawa With the combination of so many cultures, there is bound to be something that may divide some. Here in Okinawa there is a strong Military presents between the Americans and the Japanese and with this comes protest from locals over the use of land, ownership of the land and safety of the public. Locals take to the streets in protest of the U.S taking over bases, soldiers breaking the law and aircraft that have crashed in the local area. Some locals do not participate in the protests and feel that the bases bring economic value to the island. Some of the major factors that may effect the push of Okinawa may be the tropical climate, with a high humidity factor and high temps and the tropical storms. Okinawa's typhoon season is a long one, about the same as our hurricane season and with that it may turn some away along with the temperatures and climate, then comes the wild life. There are many different types of insects and animals on the island that may take the appeal away as well. On the human side of the factor, the island is very over populated with multiple cultures and religions that may offend some. Along with the human factor comes military factor, the instability of the area with Korea and China, these are always factors that sit in the back of the mind. Both the United States and Japanese Military forces have had there hand in maintaining power over the island, Okinawa is prime real estate for the military
Transcript: After WWII Okinawa would stay in the control of the US. Under US rule Okinawans were encouraged to learn the Ryukyu language and practice the religion and traditions. In 1972 Okinawa reverted to Japanese control as the Okinawa prefecture. Some disputes still occur between the federal government and prefectural government with the issue of central power or localized power. Population Well, just because... Current Conflicts The last battle of WWII took place in Okinawa, lasting 3 months. The "Iron Typhoon" claimed the lives of 150,000 Okinawans. Places like the Okinawa Peace Memorial Park have been erected to remember the losses. The Okinawan People Okinawa became the main trading port for contemporary Asian powers In 1609 the Japanese warlord Satsuma invaded Okinawa to gain the islands' trade powers Okinawa maintained the tributary relationship with China but would remain a vassal state of Japan until WWII The Okinawans were originally called the "Ryukyu" people The earliest prehistoric sites date back to 30,000 BCE Scholars believe that the Ryukyuans have strong affinities with Indonesian and Melanesian cultures History Cont'd World War II in Okinawa The Culture of Okinawa Dying language Japanese not Okinawan American influence History of Okinawa There are just under 1.4 million people living in the Okinawa prefecture 90% of these people reside on the main island of Okinawa As a counter to other foreign powers laying claim on Okinawa, Japan officially annexed Okinawa in 1871 Under the Meiji government of Japan the Ryukyuan language and traditions were outlawed During this time an estimated 200,000 Okinawans escaped to other Asian countries, Hawaii, and some South American countries Why did I choose the Okinawan people? History Cont'd History Cont'd The Ryukyu Archipeleago The Ryukyu people remained divided and fought amongst eachother until 1416 when they were united During what is called the the Golden Age of the Ryukyu Kingdom they adopted architecture and dress similar to China Students would be sent to Beijing, China to study Consists of 170 islands stretching from Kyushu, Japan to Taiwan. The climate is subtropical and humid. The islands are subject to typhoons. The Okinawa prefecture includes Okinawa, Miyako, Yaeyama or Ishigaki, and other smaller islands and has been under the rule of Japan since 1972. Eisa Shisa Senzou Sukai
Transcript: Conclusion Casualties Okinawa Presentation (by Colin Gardner) This battle resulted in the most casualties in the PTO of WW2 Allies 183,000 initial assault force More than 12,000 killed More than 38,000 wounded Japan 120,000 initial assault force More than 110,000 killed More than 7,000 captured Largest amphibious assault in the PTO of WW2 Fought on the coast of Okinawa Supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air support Fought by the Allies and Japan
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