Transcript: nuclear warfare our journey https://drive.google.com/open?id=0Bw6_DNqcGNyPWGRXcnc1Umo5VEE https://drive.google.com/open?id=0Bw6_DNqcGNyPWGRXcnc1Umo5VEE Important Events history hiroshima and nagasaki 1st bomb test 1945 throughout nuclear war important events important event 1945 Timeline Timeline TIMELINE #1 #2 #3 #4 history of nuclear warfare first detonation was on July 16th, 1945. Hiroshima August 6, 1945. Nagasaki August 9, 1945. October 16-29 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Effects radiation deaths thermal energy/fire blast wave 15% 35% 50% Effects Effects of a Nuclear Bombing PHASE 2: PHASE 3: PHASE 4: PHASE 1: Effects of a Nuclear Bombing Blast, Fires, Flying debris. boils form on back from radiation contaminated air and water stining eyes and burning skin nuclear weapons who has what nuclear weapons United Kingdom Territories Russia France USA India China Pakistan United Kingdom Israel current Events North Korea Iran USA current Events ISIS Tunals The Dilivering of nuclear bombs The Dilivering of nuclear bombs 1. 2. 3. 4. NATO jets Airplanes Submarines Suitcases and ICBM's FUN FACTS Russia has the biggest nuclear bomb the tsar bomb. North korea has been using all of their available money for their nuclear power. FATMAN and LITTLEBOY are our only bombs dropped on cities. The Manhattan project was the first atomic bomb project directed by leslie groves and Robert Oppenhiemer. FUN FACTS
Transcript: 1990 97% of nuclear waste can be recycled and sent back to customers. Reprocessing one tonne of nuclear fuel saves about 100,000 barrels of oil. It also helps conserve the world's uranium supplies, which are currently estimated to last 80 years. Super Critical Water Cooled Reactor Advantages of using a single reactor type Countries may be tempted to spend vast amounts of money gaining nuclear knowledge, diverting money which would have been spent solving problems within the country If the possibility exists for countries to join a 'nuclear club' measures need to be in place to ensure the country is actually mature enough before being admitted Commercial Power Reactors What are the advantages of reprocessing? MAGNOX Fermi 1 Shippingport Dresden Availability of Uranium Individually Should nations work closer together to develop a single nuclear fuel cycle that is accepted throughout the world? Costs shared Stronger position Arguably Safer AGR Generation IV Global Continental Individual nations CANDU Advanced BWR Development Independent Generation III Any alliances formed globally would likely be very difficult to maintain Sensitive information involved Global organisations do exist e.g. UN Global Alliances Current Reprocessing Countries Nations sharing technology and responsibilities means that they can keep tabs on each other and even share waste repositories if necessary Since there is a joint responsibility costs will be shared which means security and planning are likely to be better Disadvantages of a single reactor type Alliances 1950 Shippingport, USA - PWR Proliferation Fuel Type Reactor Type Open Vs Closed Cycle Political Aspects Advantages/Disadvantages of Nations using the same Fuel Type Joint 2020 Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor AP 1000 (PWR type) European Pressurized Reactor PWR/LWR Trust is an important issue when sharing secrets Joint Development Availability of Uranium BWR The choice of fuel type is generally governed by the following factors: - Availability of raw materials - Reactor type (is the technology established?) - Existing infrastructure There are of course safety issues related to nations working independently or collaboratively Interpretation 2010 Fuel Types Regional Alliances Comparison of Reserves There are three main nuclear fuel types: - Uranium - Thorium - Plutonium Historically, uranium has been the most widely used fuel type Early Prototype Reactors Open Fuel Cycle Generation III+ Each nation is responsible for its own waste and ensuring it doesn't get into the wrong hands. This requires stricter controls on who has nuclear technology Countries need to be more mature to guarantee they can be responsible for the waste over the extremely long time periods necessary Very High Temperature Reactor What are the disadvantages of reprocessing? 1980 Future Deployment Scale: There are political advantages to operating individually, or as part of a group of nations Generation II Collaboratively Combined In order for nuclear collaboration to work nations involved need to be able to trust each other. Weak links may be tempted to sell the information independently, or could lose it devaluing the information and undermining the process. Less trust required Look after own interests Can choose most favourable solution for them Maturity of a nation can be judged by a stable economy, good healthcare and by fair elections If countries develop nuclear technology solo it usually means the country is mature enough to possess the power and responsibility which comes with nuclear technology Background Political: There are advantages to collaborating with other nations However alliances which are too big are unmanageable Fuel Sourcing Increased knowledge of operations and troubleshooting. Quicker optimisation of chosen design. More efficient fuel rod construction. Easier management of nuclear waste. Generation I Topics Covered: Nuclear Terrorism Nuclear Proliferation Increases the volume of nuclear waste Very expensive Transporting and storage of spent fuels a problem Individual A separate political issue other than safety or security of assets 1960 Advanced CANDU Reactor Local alliances are generally more stable Several already exist e.g. NATO, EU, SEATO, ANZUS More manageable What Is Reprocessing? The graph shows that uranium reserves are more widely distributed between countries However, there has not been significant exploration of thorium reserves due to low demand Countries with significant uranium reserves generally also have large thorium reserves (eg. Australia, Kazakstan, USA) Loss of competition Some options might not be viable for newly developing nations Reliance on a single fuel/fewer suppliers Harder to change technology due less breadth of knowledge Gen IV reactors are dissimilar to currently viable reactor types Different Gen IV reactors will offer different advantages depending on circumstances Conclusion Group Individual Independent Development Political Gas Cooled Fast Reactor
Transcript: Go on Exchange present your country abroad Work with different mentalities Diversity Explore different cultures Be a Member Develop your skills Have an impact Enrich your knowledge AIESEC Be a Leader Lead your team Achieve your vision Coach others Be a mentor EXPERIENCE YOUR AIESEC JOURNEY Gives you a great experience
Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. http://lifehacker.com/5401954/programmer-101-teach-yourself-how-to-code 2. http://www.bluecloudsolutions.com/blog/cost-develop-app/ 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week
Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" http://www.stoprapenow.org/uploads/advocacyresources/1282164625.pdf Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-need-for-numbers-on-rape-in-warand-why-theyre-nearly-impossible-to-get Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity
Transcript: nesra's last day at kindergarten 2 years old 4 years old ( soon to be 5) NESRA- 3 YEARS OLD AT KINDERGARTEN NESRA'S FIRST DAY AT KINDERGARTEN NESRA'S FIRST DAY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL
Transcript: Death rate 2012: 12.84 deaths/1,000 population (World ranking: 22) Infant (Child Mortality) Total: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births (world ranking: 10) HIV/AIDS (2) Appropriate Technology Landlocked country Great African Rift Valley system: East – Lake Malawi South – mountains, tropical palm-lined beaches Mainly a large plateau, with some hills Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) Almost 1 million people have AIDS 60% of these are female Declining in urban areas, Rising in rural areas Leading cause of death amongst adults Contributes to the low life expectancy: 54.2 years 209th ranking (One of the lowest) 500,000 children have been orphaned due to AIDs Micro-finance Policy Framework and Strategies (Health SWAp) increasing the availability and accessibility of antenatal services; utilization of skilled health personnel during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period at all levels of the health system; strengthening the capacity of individuals and institutions to improve maternal and neonatal health; increasing the number of skilled health personnel; constructing and upgrading health facilities to offer essential health services particularly focusing on rural and underserved areas; and provision of ARVs and micronutrients during pregnancy. Geography of Malawi CCST 9004 Appropriate Technology for the Developing World Indicator 3: Literacy Rate of 15 – 24 year-olds According to the World Bank, microfinance is defined as: Microfinance is the provision of financial services to the entrepreneurial poor.This definition has two important features:it emphasizes a range of financial services—not just credit— and it emphasizes the entrepreneurial poor. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Appropriate Technology: SIRDAMAIZE 113 Population: 16,777,547 (estimated in July 2013) Population growth rate: 2.758% (2012 est.) (World ranking: 18) Age structure Children: 50% of total population HIV/AIDS Human Resources Education Poverty Food Insecurity Erratic Rainfall Patterns/Droughts Corruption Lack of Foreign Investment Languages Indicator 5: Proportion of seats held by women in National Parliaments Central Region: 1-9 (Yellow) *Capital: Lilongwe Northern Region: 10-15 (Red) Southern Region: 16-27 (Green) Lake Malawi (Blue) Land surface area 45,747 square miles Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leadinto absenteeism, especially among girls who take care of the sick · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. Malawi – Climate/Agriculture Trading partners: South Africa, Zambia, China, US Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leading to absenteeism especially among girls who take care of the sick; and · poor participation of school committees and their communities in school management. · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. 1 Doctor per 50,000 people Hinders the ability to deliver medical services to people in need Reason: Emigration Lack of access to education Aggravated by AIDS > 4 nurses are lost each month This also affects other sectors: Government Business Farmers Human Resources HIV/AIDS - Contemporary GDP: US $14.58 billion (2012 est.) (World ranking: 142) Labor force: agriculture: 90%; industry and services: 10% (2003 est.) Countries main income Agriculture Main crops: maize, tobacco, tea, sugar cane, groundnuts, cotton, wheat, coffee, and rice Industry: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods Challenges: limited capacity in terms of human and material resources to facilitate adult literacy and continuing education; early marriages perpetuated by socioeconomic factors; socio–cultural factors that make people believe that men should be leaders while women are followers; and, poor learning environment which affects girls in primary and secondary schools e.g. sanitary facilities, long distances to education facilities, extra burden from domestic chores especially for adolescent girls resulting into high dropout rate. 1964: Independent from Britain Indicator 1: Maternal Mortality Ratio Malawi Demographics Problems - Outline Indicator 4: Share of Women in Wage Employment in the Non- Agriculture Sector measure of employment opportunities ( i.e equal proportions of men and women in formal employment) Yet, more women participate in the agriculture sector than in the formal wage employment especially in jobs that require professional qualifications. Due to: literacy levels, gender disparity and cultural values. Facts About the Product: Drought tolerant maize variant Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas 136 days to mature Normally: 150 – 180 days Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas
Transcript: In this presentation... Military foreign policy Country case studies International trust Our opinion Better relations with neighbours eg Iranian sanctions Less chance of deployment Better public opinion and international image Yes because... ? World Association of Nuclear Operators Yes because... Conversely North Korea demonstrate the issues involved when not considering neighbouring states They are an isolated nation and considered a rogue state Their people suffer due to the rest of the worlds' lack of trust Recent deployment of a rocket claimed to be a satellite has resulted in the US halting all aid to the area North Korea Opportunity to share resources, infrastructure and technology Learn from experience, WANO Encourages trade and economic growth Reduces suspicion, builds trust Improves innovation - fusion Mission Statement: "To maximise the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information and emulation of best practice." Set up following the Chernobyl disaster, and as such, has potentially prevented such a disaster reoccurring. Demonstrates the success of international information sharing. Also demonstrates the positive influence that states can have on each other. EU states Civil foreign policy Civil nuclear foreign policy You can appear as a weak military force Can cause political tension between nations Reduces fear and proliferation provided weapons are kept secret No because... Yes! No because... Military nuclear foreign policy Should an individual state's nuclear policy be influenced by neighbouring states' policies? If so how? A presentation by Roisin Montague, Grace Hudson, Rosie Williams, James Black and Robert Jolly Information and technology sharing is successful Good safety records in civil programs where they exist Countries share nuclear energy Germany, Belgium, Turkey, Italy and The Netherlands share nuclear weapons, reducing defence costs EU members are a good example of the benefits resultling from considering other states No Companies lose commercial advantage Can inhibit development Potential to cause conflit ie if neighbouring state objects National identity and public approval affected Complicates all foreign policy Current state of world nuclear weapons International Trust So... should an individual state's nuclear policy be influenced by neighbouring states' policies?
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