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Nuclear Presentation

Transcript: Control rods are made of a material that absorbs neutrons. This slows and eventually stops the chain reaction. Some control rods are always left in to prevent a catastrophic chain reaction. Other control rods are ready to be inserted in case of emergency. Chernobyl was a nuclear reactor in the Ukraine. The explosion of the nuclear power plant happened on April 26th, 1986. The city of Pripyat and other cities were evacuated following the explosion. These cities today are uninhabitable because of the extreme amount of radiation. One reason that caused the explosion was untrained people working on the equipment. The day before the incident, the workers at Chernobyl were preforming an unauthorized experiment causing the system to overheat. The day of the explosion, the system was completely overheated and exploded. The people that were operating the system did not realize that what they were doing would cause the explosion. Another reason was the design of the equipment. The equipment that was being used did not meet the standards of the 1986 nuclear requirements. The system the day of the explosion was not able to hold in the nuclear products being used and therefore led to the explosion. If the system had met the standards, the system would have had the ability to cool down the reactor. A third factor leading to the meltdown was the failure to insert the control rods. For the experiment, workers had to shut down the computer that regulated the control rods. When the chain reaction began, the workers had to manually operate the computer to insert the rods, and they weren't quick enough, causing the reaction to spiral out of control. Effects of Radiation on the Human Body Radiation is generally measured in units of millirem (mrem), a very small measurement of radiation. To put it in perspective, a chest x-ray gives around a 10-20 mrem dose. The average human takes a safe 360 mrem every year, but people who around frequently around radiation can easily take dangerous amounts. Once the human body's intake reaches around 100 rem (100,000 mrem), harmful effects begin to emerge. Dosage---->Effects Doses above 100 rems cause the first signs of radiation sickness, for example: nausea, vomiting, headaches, and loss of white blood cells, which would cause make the person susceptible to infection (mild radiation sickness). Exposure to doses of 1000-5000 rem would damage blood vessels causing heart failure, as well as brain and nerve cells, which would lead to seizures or even immediate death. Radioactive materials damage people through ionizing radiation, which is simply radiation with enough energy to strip away electrons from atoms and break chemical bonds. Any living tissue in the human body can be damaged by ionizing radiation. Usually, the body attempts to repair the damage, but it cannot be repaired or it is too severe and widespread. The Fukushima Nuclear Incident occurred when an earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 struck right off the northeastern coast of Japan sending a 15m tsunami into the island. The tsunami crashed right through the Fukushima nuclear plant and knocked out all three of the reactors that were currently active. When the water flooded into Japan, it filled the lower levels of the Fukushima reactors where the emergency generators (which were in use) were located. The flooded generators could not function so the coolant water pumps stopped functioning due to lack of energy. The three reactors then overheated and experienced meltdown. In the intense heat and pressure of the melting reactors, reactions between the nuclear fuel and the water surrounding them produced explosive hydrogen gas. While workers struggled to cool and shut down the reactors, several hydrogen-air chemical explosions occurred releasing dangerously high doses of radiation into the air. Only a few hundred people were actually irradiated by the disaster, most of them being workers attempting to prevent it. However, hundreds of thousands of people had to be evacuated out of the wide radius of the radioactivity. This disaster could have been prevented had the workers used seawater to cool the heating reactors, but the frugal company feared salt would corrode the expensive steel pipes and walls. A much more local partial nuclear meltdown occurred on March 28, 1979 at Three Mile Island power plant in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. THE END Although the meltdown was not catastrophic, it is the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history To understand how a nuclear reactor works you must first know what it is. Nuclear Incident Presentation A bypass valve simply did not open, and water stopped flowing to the main feedwater pump. The reactor preformed an emergency shutdown by inserted control rods into the core to stop the chain reaction, but the reactor continued to produce decay heat. The heat built up in the primary water loop. Water is heated by the energy released, and this water spins a turbine, which spins a

Background Presentation

Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. 2. 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week

Background Presentation

Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity

nuclear presentation

Transcript: Nuclear Arms An atomic weapon is a weapon that uses either fission or fusion, to create a gigantic release of energy that takes the form of an explosion. Their are two types of nuclear weapons, one of these weapons is the atomic bomb. Another is the Hydrogen bomb. The Atomic bomb works by using a nuclear reaction. Nuclear reactions occur when neutrons are shot at closely packed atoms with heavy nuclei (uranium or plutonium isotopes). These heavy nuclei break apart into lighter nuclei when hit by a neutron. In turn this generates more neutrons which bombard other nuclei, creating a chain reaction. This process is known as fission. (Another process known as fusion releases energy by fusing together nuclei rather than breaking them apart.) By breaking down the nuclei themselves rather than releasing energy through a conventional chemical reaction, atom bombs can release more than 80 terajoules of energy per kilogram (TJ/kg). The atoms do not release the energy as kinetic energy but release it in the form of large amounts of electromagnetic radiation. In an atmospheric detonation, this electromagnetic radiation, consisting mostly of soft x-ray, is absorbed within a few meters of the point of detonation by the surrounding atmosphere. Then it heats it to extremely high temperatures and forms a brilliantly hot sphere of air, the so-called fireball. Immediately upon formation, the fireball begins to grow rapidly and rise like a hot air balloon. Within a millisecond after detonation, the diameter of the fireball from a 1 megaton (Mt) air burst is 150 m. This increases to a maximum of 2200 m within 10 seconds, at which time the fireball is also rising at the rate of 100 m/sec. The initial rapid expansion of the fireball severely compresses the surrounding atmosphere, producing a powerful blast wave. A hydrogen bomb has the exact same effects as an atomic bomb except, in a hydrogen bomb the explosion is larger. A hydrogen bomb creates less radioactive fallout and instead of breaking uranium isotopes apart using fission, it fuses 2 hydrogen atoms together. There are curently five counties that are in possesion of nuclear weapons. These contries are reconized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The countries that are in possetion of nuclear arms are the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China. The nuclear tests in India and Pakistan done in May of 1998 caused them to publicly declare themselves in possession of a nuclear arsenal, but this status is not recognized by international bodies. Isreal has also deployed a nuclear arsenal but has not been acknowledged as a nuclear possesing country. In conclution Nuclear weapons are a necessary evil. Nuclear weapons are, and should be, a last resort in any type of warfare. The devistation that it causes is a terible thing and sould only be used in times of terible despiration. But it is still incredible that something that is so small that the human eye can not see, but can still create an explosion that can destroy a city. I believe that that is why nuclear weapons are incredible. Bibliography:

Background Presentation

Transcript: Death rate 2012: 12.84 deaths/1,000 population (World ranking: 22) Infant (Child Mortality) Total: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births (world ranking: 10) HIV/AIDS (2) Appropriate Technology Landlocked country Great African Rift Valley system: East – Lake Malawi South – mountains, tropical palm-lined beaches Mainly a large plateau, with some hills Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) Almost 1 million people have AIDS 60% of these are female Declining in urban areas, Rising in rural areas Leading cause of death amongst adults Contributes to the low life expectancy: 54.2 years 209th ranking (One of the lowest) 500,000 children have been orphaned due to AIDs Micro-finance Policy Framework and Strategies (Health SWAp) increasing the availability and accessibility of antenatal services; utilization of skilled health personnel during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period at all levels of the health system; strengthening the capacity of individuals and institutions to improve maternal and neonatal health; increasing the number of skilled health personnel; constructing and upgrading health facilities to offer essential health services particularly focusing on rural and underserved areas; and provision of ARVs and micronutrients during pregnancy. Geography of Malawi CCST 9004 Appropriate Technology for the Developing World Indicator 3: Literacy Rate of 15 – 24 year-olds According to the World Bank, microfinance is defined as: Microfinance is the provision of financial services to the entrepreneurial poor.This definition has two important features:it emphasizes a range of financial services—not just credit— and it emphasizes the entrepreneurial poor. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Appropriate Technology: SIRDAMAIZE 113 Population: 16,777,547 (estimated in July 2013) Population growth rate: 2.758% (2012 est.) (World ranking: 18) Age structure Children: 50% of total population HIV/AIDS Human Resources Education Poverty Food Insecurity Erratic Rainfall Patterns/Droughts Corruption Lack of Foreign Investment Languages Indicator 5: Proportion of seats held by women in National Parliaments Central Region: 1-9 (Yellow) *Capital: Lilongwe Northern Region: 10-15 (Red) Southern Region: 16-27 (Green) Lake Malawi (Blue) Land surface area 45,747 square miles Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leadinto absenteeism, especially among girls who take care of the sick · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. Malawi – Climate/Agriculture Trading partners: South Africa, Zambia, China, US Challenges: · shortage of qualified primary school teachers; · inadequate physical infrastructure; · poor retention of girls mainly from standard five to eight; · high disease burden due to HIV and AIDS consequently leading to absenteeism especially among girls who take care of the sick; and · poor participation of school committees and their communities in school management. · Poverty levels are high in rural areas. 1 Doctor per 50,000 people Hinders the ability to deliver medical services to people in need Reason: Emigration Lack of access to education Aggravated by AIDS > 4 nurses are lost each month This also affects other sectors: Government Business Farmers Human Resources HIV/AIDS - Contemporary GDP: US $14.58 billion (2012 est.) (World ranking: 142) Labor force: agriculture: 90%; industry and services: 10% (2003 est.) Countries main income Agriculture Main crops: maize, tobacco, tea, sugar cane, groundnuts, cotton, wheat, coffee, and rice Industry: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods Challenges: limited capacity in terms of human and material resources to facilitate adult literacy and continuing education; early marriages perpetuated by socioeconomic factors; socio–cultural factors that make people believe that men should be leaders while women are followers; and, poor learning environment which affects girls in primary and secondary schools e.g. sanitary facilities, long distances to education facilities, extra burden from domestic chores especially for adolescent girls resulting into high dropout rate. 1964: Independent from Britain Indicator 1: Maternal Mortality Ratio Malawi Demographics Problems - Outline Indicator 4: Share of Women in Wage Employment in the Non- Agriculture Sector measure of employment opportunities ( i.e equal proportions of men and women in formal employment) Yet, more women participate in the agriculture sector than in the formal wage employment especially in jobs that require professional qualifications. Due to: literacy levels, gender disparity and cultural values. Facts About the Product: Drought tolerant maize variant Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas 136 days to mature Normally: 150 – 180 days Able to mature under limited rainfall Suitable for marginal rainfall areas

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