Transcript: Microbial Genetics -A Brief Introduction 24/11/2020 Introduction Introduction The internal makeover of any organism is important to understand how it continues successive generations, and how its metabolic machinery works. In Genetics, we further study the genetic differences of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotes are organisms that have no defined nucleus, and thus their reproduction process is quite simple. This group consists of Kingdom Monera; namely Bacteria. DNA Synthesis DNA Synthesis (Replication) Definition: DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. DNA replication occurs in all living organisms acting as the most essential part for biological inheritance. It is the first step in the process of continuation of generations. Importance: DNA is a blueprint of life. It stores, transfers, and expresses biological information within organisms. Therefore, maintaining its integrity is crucial for an organisms survival, including the simplest forms of life such as prokaryotes. Process (Step 1) PROCESS 1. Role of DNA Helicase: An enzyme, DNA Helicase, acts like a molecular scissor and separates or disassociates the two strands of DNA, splitting them into two separate strands, which become templates for replication. 2. DNA Polymerases: These are three enzymes namely DNA Polymerase I, II and III, out of which DNA Polymerase III is the main enzyme that catalyzes the replication of DNA strands and is relatively larger and more complex. While DNA Polymerase I play only a supportive role in replication and DNA Polymerase II is responsible for fixing any errors during replication. Special characteristics of DNA Polymerase III include its rapid replication rate (1000 nucleotides/ second) and inability to initiate or start DNA synthesis. 3. RNA Primer: An enzyme, Primase constructs a sequence of 10 RNA nucleotides that are complementary to parent DNA template. This Primer is responsible for initiation. DNA Polymerase III recognizes the primer and adds DNA nucleotides to the the primer. The RNA nucleotides are also replaced by DNA nucleotides. 4. Continuation: Another important thing to note is that DNA Polymerase III only adds DNA nucleotides in the 5' to 3' direction of the DNA strand. As the two parent DNA strands are anti-parallel, the new strands are oriented in different directions, and we get two categories: Process (Step 2) 5. Leading Strand: It elongates towards the replication fork, thus DNA Polymerase III simply adds nucleotides to it's growing 3' end. 6. Lagging Strand: Since it elongates away from the replication fork, it is synthesized discontinously as short fragments known as Okazaki fragments. They are 1000-2000 nucleotides long in prokaryotes. Once the nucleotides reach the 5' end, an enzyme DNA Ligase connects the fragments. The process is continued, more of the parent strand is unwound and new DNA nucleotides are synthesized until two new complete daughter DNA strands are formed. DNA TRANSCRIPTION DNA Transcription Definition: The process in which an RNA copy of the parent DNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase is known as transcription. Importance: The goal of transcription is to make a RNA copy of a gene's DNA sequence. For a protein-coding gene, the RNA copy, or transcript, carries the information needed to build a polypeptide (protein or protein subunit). Important point to note is that prokaryotes have only one type of RNA Polymerase. Transcription is also the first step of gene expression. The RNA thus formed is known as Messenger RNA or mRNA. It is about thrice the length of the parent DNA. For example, a 1000 polypeptide DNA sequence requires a 3000 polypeptides mRNA. Process (Step 1) PROCESS 1. Template Strand: This stand, also known as antisense or anticoding strand, is the strand of DNA that is transcribed. 2. Coding Strand: The strand of DNA that isn't used in transcription is known as coding or sense strand. 3. Initiation: Transcription starts at a site in the DNA template strand known is DNA Polymerase Binding Site or Promoter. In prokaryotes, the two binding sites are TTGACA or -35 sequence and TATAAT or -10 sequence. These have affinity for the RNA Polymerase enzymes. 4. Sigma Factor: A subunit of RNA Polymerase known as Sigma Factor, is responsible for the correct initiation of transcription process. The DNA strands open up at the place where enzyme is attached to the template strand, forming transcription bubble. Once transcription starts, sigma factor is released and the rest of DNA Polymerase continues the transcription. Process (Step 2) 5. Elongation: The transcription bubble containing RNA Polymerase moves down the DNA, leaving a growing strand protruding from the bubble. 6. Termination: A unique set of stop sequences (which will be explained in the next topic) stop the transcription process. This is achieved by series of GC pairs followed by AT pairs. The RNA synthesized in this region forms a
Transcript: Basic Structure of DNA and RNA DNA A phosphate-deoxyribose polymer composes the backbone of the DNA adjacent sugars are connected by phosphodiester bonds nitrogenous bases are convalently bonded to the 1' carbon of the deoxyribose the two DNA strands are antiparallel the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine hydrogen bonds (base pairs) to thymine guanine hydrogen bonds to cytosine RNA Description of general bacterial genome bacterium's entire genetic information Description of general viral genome A virus has either DNA or RNA genes and is called a DNA virus or a RNA virus respectively. The vast majority of viruses have RNA genomes The nucleic acid comprising the genome may be single-stranded or double-stranded, & in a linear, circular or segmented configuration. Summay of steps of replication in bacteria The bacterial chromosome is circular. The replication process starts at a site called the origin. But instead of replicating in one direction around the chromosome, it replicates in two directions. This is called bidirectional replication as two replication forks move in opposite directions away from the origin. The forks will meet at the bottom of the chromosome and replication is terminated as the two chromosomes separate. The bacterial chromosome is also capable of initiating multiple replication forks. The processes of bidirectional replication and the concept of multiple replication forks are discussed in more detail in the replication laboratory. Summary of steps of transcription in bacteria 1.DNA unwinds/"unzips" as the Hydrogen Bonds Break. 2.The free nucleotides of the RNA, pair with complementary DNA bases. 3.RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms. (Aided by RNA Polymerase.) 4.Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA+DNA "ladder" break, freeing the new RNA. 5.If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA is further processed and then moves through the small nuclear pores to the cytoplasm Summary of steps of translation 1. Initiation •The small subunit of the ribosome binds to a site "upstream" (on the 5' side) of the start of the message. •It proceeds downstream (5' -> 3') until it encounters the start codon AUG. (The region between the cap and the AUG is known as the 5'-untranslated region [5'-UTR].) •Here it is joined by the large subunit and a special initiator tRNA. •The initiator tRNA binds to the P site (shown in pink) on the ribosome. •In eukaryotes, initiator tRNA carries methionine (Met). (Bacteria use a modified methionine designated fMet.) 2. Elongation •An aminoacyl-tRNA (a tRNA covalently bound to its amino acid) able to base pair with the next codon on the mRNA arrives at the A site (green) associated with: an elongation factor (called EF-Tu in bacteria) GTP (the source of the needed energy) •The preceding amino acid (Met at the start of translation) is covalently linked to the incoming amino acid with a peptide bond (shown in red). •The initiator tRNA is released from the P site. •The ribosome moves one codon downstream. •This shifts the more recently-arrived tRNA, with its attached peptide, to the P site and opens the A site for the arrival of a new aminoacyl-tRNA. •This last step is promoted by another protein elongation factor (called EF-G in bacteria) and the energy of another molecule of GTP. Note: the initiator tRNA is the only member of the tRNA family that can bind directly to the P site. The P site is so-named because, with the exception of initiator tRNA, it binds only to a peptidyl-tRNA molecule; that is, a tRNA with the growing peptide attached. The A site is so-named because it binds only to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA; that is the tRNA bringing the next amino acid. So, for example, the tRNA that brings Met into the interior of the polypeptide can bind only to the A site. 3. Termination •The end of translation occurs when the ribosome reaches one or more STOP codons (UAA, UAG, UGA). (The nucleotides from this point to the poly(A) tail make up the 3'-untranslated region [3'-UTR] of the mRNA.) •There are no tRNA molecules with anticodons for STOP codons. (With a few special exceptions: link to mitochondrial genes and to nonstandard amino acids.) •However, protein release factors recognize these codons when they arrive at the A site. •Binding of these proteins —along with a molecule of GTP — releases the polypeptide from the ribosome. •The ribosome splits into its subunits, which can later be reassembled for another round of protein synthesis. Basic concept of how an operon functions In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic material containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single regulatory signal or promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.e. several strands of mRNA that each encode a single gene product. The result of this is that the genes contained in
Transcript: People will develop more diseases as bacterias can mutate and be even more dangerous since there are no vaccines for it. And creating a vaccine for one person can take a months nor years if it succeeds. If creating a vaccine for one person is taking a long time how would it be if you are producing vaccines for billions of people. However, there are some bacterias that can help Importance Mutation (mutation) technology, gene recombination technology, gene replacement, amplification technology A series of genetic modification techniques such as Atractylodes macrocephala, transfer, recombination and modification of extrachromosomal genetic materials, and the structure and properties of some biological genetic materials (chromosomal DNA, RNA, plasmid DNA) Reasons: Found and confirmation : Screening and constructing transforming and degrading microorganisms, improving genetic stability of Engineering bacteria, providing more scientific, rapid, accurate and diverse environmental monitoring and assessment techniques, and helping to synthesize biococoa Screening and construction of transformed microorganisms Industry and Environment Microbial genetics will be helpful to increase these(antibiotics or medicine related to microbes) products productivity by microbial technology. This means that the health industry are earning heaps of money because of the fact that people are needing so much treatment and researches to be able to cure. Citations Microbial genetics is a branch of genetics that studies viruses, bacteria, small fungi, single-celled animals and plants.Microorganisms are good materials for genetic research because of their small size, short life cycle, rapid propagation on simple synthetic media, and the ability to process large numbers of individuals under the same conditions One is to use the traditional mutation breeding and cross breeding technology to screen and cultivate highly effective strains of microorganisms.The strains have been used in the treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater, pesticide production wastewater and tailings wastewater, as well as in the removal of petroleum pollution and garbage degradation. Microbial Genetics Provide more scientific, fast, accurate and diverse environmental monitoring and environmental protection. Environmental assessment techniques In this field, biodegradable materials synthesized by microorganisms have attracted wide attention and have broad application prospects. For example, microbial fermentation is the main way to obtain biodegradable plastics at present. The materials needed for production in such techniques are obtained from the fermentation process of a particular microorganism, which is the fermentation product of a microorganism and a specific substrate. Relevant microbial genetic techniques help to screen, cultivate, domesticate and recombine engineered fermentation bacteria in such technologies, thereby introducing new metabolic pathways, synthesizing novel polymers, broadening the use of substrates, increasing production speed and reducing production costs. Selecting and construction the degradation and transformation.Microorganisms are good materials for genetic research because of their small size, short life cycle, rapid propagation on simple synthetic media, and the ability to process large numbers of individuals under the same conditions Health/Care and Diseases "Microbial Genetics." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Encyclopedia.com. 27 Aug.2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com> Holmes, Randall K., and Michael G Jobling. “Medical Microbiology.” Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 1996. Mori, Hirotada. “Microbial Genetics, Genomics, and Proteomics.” Bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com, BMC Microbiology, 2018. And because of the mutations of some bacterias, people are being detained in a hospital or they may be unfortunately dead because of lack of treatment (such as vaccine, if its rare) and time (ran out of time to research, create, and produce a vaccine). How is gonna effect: By: Ashyley Xu & Mercy Yagao Genetic code, transcription, translation,messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) and so on are found or confirmed in microorganisms. Helping to synthesize biodegradable new materials Importance Another way is to use genetic engineering technology to construct efficient transformation and degradation engineering bacteria. Microbial genetics promotes the development of production. The principle of improving the final product by eliminating repression has been applied to the fermentation of amino acids and nucleotides with remarkable yield increase. The application of recombinant DNA technology in industry, agriculture and medicine is more difficult to estimate, and recombinant DNA technology is also the product of microbial genetics research. Microbial genetics research has also made an important contribution to medical and health services, especially in the detection of carcinogenic
Transcript: Genetics Basic Structure of DNA and RNA DNA Double Stranded Sugar Phosphate Bases - Hydrogen Bonds Adenine - Thymine, Cytosine - Guanine RNA Similar Structure Uracil (Thymine) Ribose (Deoxyribose) Adenine - Uracil, two hydrogen bonds Description of General Bacterial Genome Collection of bacterium's entire genetic information. Information organized into genes then encoded in the organism's DNA. Genes organized into chromosomes. Bacteria only has one chromosome Description of General Viral Genome Genetic information of a virus. Difference with bacterial genome is that information can be encoded into both DNA and RNA Summary of Steps of Replication in Bacteria Summary of Steps of Transcription in Bacteria mRNA synthesis. Process which a strand of RNA is produced against a DNA template Summary of Steps of Translation in Bacteria Translation: Protein synthesis; the process of decoding the messenger RNA code into a polypeptide Basic Concept of How an Operan Functions A genetic operational unit that regulates metabolism by controlling mRNA production Example of Conjugation Transduction: The transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by means of a bacteriophage vector Example of Transformation
Transcript: Microbiology & Parasitology Monica V. Garbida BSED-Sci3A Welcome Population Are you aware? Population Philippines as of 2021. Subtopic 1 World Population. On our Earth Living things Abiotic People Plants Animals Who loves dog? Dogs Pathogens Pathogens Tick (Suborder ixodida) Examples Figure3. Shows the image of Tick (Suborder ixodida) Is a parasite arthropods belonging to the order Ixodida Can lay eggs upto 1000 The whole life cycle depends on environmental conditions and the availability of hosts and lasts between 3 and 6 months and up to 3 years. In the absence of hosts, adult soft ticks can fast for several years. Lyme Diseases Symptoms: Fever head ache fatigue rash Can cause If left untreated, it can create infection in some: Joints Heart Nervous system According to McNeil United States, There are rapid spread of lyme diseases. Based on CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) almost 300,000 per year is the cases they encounter. Study Well, Maybe some of you now is speechless!! ? Grabe noh, Kalmahan naten!! Mm Main Topic Sex is X. MG Microbial genetics Microbial genetics is the study of the mechanisms of heritable information in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi. In bacteria & Archaea is not multiply through mating Human reproduce via VGT (Vertical Gene Transfer) While in Bacteria use HGT (Horizontal Gene Transfer). G VGT VGT vs. HGT HGT In addition, MG Medicine Agriculture Food Pharmaceuticals Title HGT or Horizontal Gene Tansfer HGT is the movement of genetic material between organisms. Also known as Lateral gene transfer Life and death BACTERIA and ARCHAEA adapt environment in HGT pattern rather by altering gene through Mutations. Gossiphers Sample Words associated with HGT Words related Donor Recipient Channel contact HGT has 3 Mechanism Conjugation Transformation Transduction Overlap Thank you !!! Your speaker today! Monica Garbida. BSED-Science3A T.Y References Microbial genetics - Latest research and news | Nature. (2023, September 19). Nature. https://www.nature.com/subjects/microbial genetics#:~:text=Microbial%20genetics%20is%20the%20study,and%20some%20protoz oa%20and%20fungi. Lyme disease home | CDC. (2022, January 19). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html#:~:text=It%20is%20transmitted%20to%20humans ,heart%2C%20and%20the%20nervous%20system. Libretexts. (2023). 3.1: Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. Biology LibreTexts. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Microbiology_(Kaiser)/Unit_2%3A_ Bacterial_Genetics_and_the_Chemical_Control_of_Bacteria/3%3A_Bacterial_Genetics/ 3.1%3A_Horizontal_Gene_Transfer_in_Bacteria McNeil, D. G., Jr. (2018, May 2). Tick and mosquito infections spreading rapidly, C.D.C. finds. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/01/health/ticks-mosquitoes diseases.html World Population clock: 8.1 billion people (LIVE, 2023) - Worldometer. (n.d.). https://www.worldometers.info/world population/#:~:text=2023%20World%20Population,the%20world%20population%20was %207%2C909%2C295%2C151 Title
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Cognition: - 25% of all cases - the embrio inherits both copies of chromosome 15 from the mother. - How does this happen? - This is more likely to happen in older women than younger women. - This can cause additional genetic problems or conditions - Sex hormone levels are typically low A disorder of Chromosome 15 Speech: Mode of Inheritance - delayed speech Appetite Disorder: Detecton - Their findings showed that heart rate variability, an indicator of ANS function, was not normal in people with PWS - in a healthy person, the time between one hearbeat and the next varies considerably during a meal because the ANS is actively regulating the body's response to food and body flow. - in people with PWS, hearbeates were far too regular after a meal. Other Common Concerns - have a high risk of cardiovascular disease - An Australian study reveals that people with PWS may have an impaired autonomic nervous system. This discovery opens up a new way of looking at their appetite issues. - autonomic nervous system: controls our inner organs, including our gut, heart, liver, and blood vessels. it responds moment-by-moment to the body's needs. Clinical Description of the Disorder - Motor milestones are typicallt delayed one to two years -Physical and occupational therapies help promote skill development and proper function Behavior Issues: Other interesting info. Weight and Behavior - IQs range from low to average - those with normal IQs typically have learning disabilities - Problem areas: attention, short term auditory memory, and abstract thinking Treatment - Compulsive eating and obsession with food usually begin before age 6. - The urge to eat is phsycological and overwhelming; it is difficult to control and requires constant watch. INTRODUCTION - the embrio has three copies of chromosome 15 - two from the mother (trisomy 15) - later the father's chromosome 15 is lost - has the same result as deletion --> the baby does not have the Prader-willi gene - although there are two copies of the mothers chromosome 15, the key genes in the PWS region are turned off - Currently, there is no cure for PWS. - Treatment is based on curing specific symptoms of the disorder as they arise. - Human growth hormone (HGH): Increases hight, deacreases body fat, increases muscle mass, improves weight distribution, increases stamina, and increases bone mineral density. it can also help behavioral problems - the inibility to control food intake is the biggest opstical that still has no cure; however, they can use anti-obesity drugs. - sleep problems can be helped with modafinil. Motor Skills: - Infants and young children with PWS are typically happy and loving, and exhibit few behavior problems. - Most older children and adults with PWS have difficulties with behavior regulation, manifested as difficulties with transitions and unanticipated changes. - The changes in behavior usually coincide with the uncontrollable need to eat Sexual Development: Scoliosis: can occur early; may be difficult to detect without X-ray. Diabetes mellitus, type II: Secondary to obesity; responds well to weight loss; screen obese patients regularly. Sleep disturbances: hypoventilation and desturation during sleep are common, as is daytime sleepiness Skin picking: a common, sometimes severe habit Dental problems: may include soft tooth enamal, thick sticky saliva, poor oral hygiene, and teeth grinding. GENETICS - less than 5% of cases - casued by an imprinting defect inhereited from the fathers chromosome 15 (region q11-q13). - This defect will not allow the normal expression of genes that are active on the chromosome 15 from the father and needed for normal development. - To identify imprinting defects on chromosome 15 requires specialized laboratory techniques available in ony a few genetic labs conducting research on PWS. Developmental Concerns Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) Birth - 2 years of age: - Hypotonia 2 years - 6 years: - Hypotonia - Developmental delay 6 years - 12 years: - continous developmental delay - Excessve eating with central obesity if uncontrolled 13 years - adulthood: - Cognitive disabilities; usually mild mental retardation - Excessive eating - behavior problems: temper tantrums, perseverative and compulsive-like behaviors Paternal Deletion ** Every case of PWS is due to the baby failing to recieve active genes from a specific section of the fathers chromosome 15 --> there are three different ways this can happen... - 70% of all cases - genes from chromosome 15 from the father is missing --> deletion. - common deletions are now classified as Type 1 or Type 2 depending on the size of the deletion. Maternal Uniparental Disomy (UPD) - 1:8,000; 1:25,000; most likely 1:15,000 - occurs in males and females equally - occurs eaqually in all races Autonomic Nervous System Sources: -http://www.pwsausa.org/syndrome/index.htm -http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/prader-willi-syndrome.php
Transcript: Small molecules that bind portions of mRNA Degrades foreign DNA and gradually creates bacterial immunity RNAi Translational Regulation Microbial Genetics Concept Map Also could be seen as regulating transcript levels Specific example of catabolite repression Bacteria can acquire new genes through Degrading mRNA by matching complementary pieces before translation Used by biologists to knockout genes Large scale control of transcription and translation When the end metabolite of a process represses genes or enzymes in the pathway Genes in between inverted repeats transfered to other bacteria Bacterial Genomic Regulation Used to up/down regulate enzymes involved in metabolizing sugars New DNA accepted into cell and merged into genome Feedback inhibition Bacteria regulate the translation of mRNA Genetic Acquisition trp Operon Donation of genes from one bacteria to another Translation controlled through tryptophan concentration Different sigma factors are used to transcribe different genes lac Operon Allow the attachment of Population evolution Used in regulating the transcription of genes for metabolizing lactose Riboswitches RNA Aptamers mRNA binds small molecules which changes its conformationg preventing translation Catabolite Repression Conjugation Transcriptional Regulation When activated, these turn off gene transcription Antisense RNA CRISPR Alternative Sigma Factors Transduction Introduction of new gene via bacteriophage Controls various growth/proliferation signaling in cell Inducers Control Networks When activated, these turn on gene transcription Bacteria can regulate how genes are transcribed Transformation Transposition Repressors Cyclic AMP
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