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Defense Presentation - Master Thesis

Transcript: Introduction Developments in Labor Governance Approaches to the Study of Compliance with International Labor Standards Literature Review state hybrid Theory and Hypotheses Institute for Labor Studies Fostering Voluntary Compliance: An Assessment of the Labor Laws Compliance System 2015 Theory: Performance Assessment of Labor Governance Regimes Historical Comparison Research problem and objectives Relevance and importance of the study Summary and Conclusions "Why do firms comply (or do not comply) with international labor standards?" Developments in Labor Governance Findings and Analysis Approaches to the Study of Compliance with International Labor Standards Normative Framework on Workers' Rights and Labor Standards Methodology SINGLE CASE STUDY The operation of the normative framework tightens the network of rules and reduces labor laws circumvention... However, it has not yet fully pushed enforcement of ILS to a regime that goes beyond self and voluntary regulatory strategies as typified in the Philippines... The Changing Behavior of Firms Findings and Analysis self Literature Review Limitations Anke Hassel and Nicole Helmerich Institutional Change in Transnational Labor Governance: Implementing Social Standards in Public Procurement and Export Credit Guarantees 2016 Performance Assessment of Labor Governance Regimes Research hypotheses Rationale (Relevance and Importance of the Study) How the behavior of firms changed in the points of transition to a new labor governance regime despite the existence of international labor standards... even with sophistication of compliance systems... the horrors of the Kentex tragedy still continue to haunt workers under precarious working conditions... Hypotheses Research Design Hypothesis 2 The Philippine government transitioned to a voluntary labor governance regime because of the increasing pressure from transnational standard-setting institutions. This served as a window of opportunity for the ruling administration at the time of transition to re-establish its credibility and relevance in labor governance. Further, contrary to theory (Hurd 2003, Hassel 2008), firms comply more with the traditional regime of labor regulation than the private regime. Further Research Further research should look at the use of other methods Observational methods can be used to establish a causal link on the effect or impact of labor governance regime (mandatory, voluntary or hybrid) to the behavior of firms A transition to another regime may provide the opportunity to use econometric tools such as difference-in-differences to establish the effect of transnational regime (treatment) to the behavior of firms versus the effect of voluntary regime (control/counterfactual). Researchers can also look at the aspect of corruption in analyzing why labor laws compliance systems fail to protect the rights of workers. Rapid evolution of the labor market due to technological change and the consequent increase of non-standards forms of employment (worthwhile field of further research: labor laws compliance) THANK YOU Hypothesis 1 The normative framework on workers’ rights and labor standards demands different levels of commitment from firms addressed at so many levels – global, national and firm – that tightens the web of rules and reduces the possibility of circumventing labor laws. However, this normative framework did not push state enforcement to a regime that goes beyond self and voluntary regulatory strategies. Contributions Different factors induced the transition from one labor governance regime to another. Firms comply more with the traditional regime of labor regulation than the private labor governance regime. Literature Review How do international and domestic level standards, rules and regulations affect labor governance at the level of state enforcement? Anke Hassel The Evolution of a Global Labor Governance Regime 2008 Case Selection 1. The extent the country has mainstreamed ILS to the national level 2. Prevalence of work-related accidents 3. Transition from a mandatory to a voluntary labor governance regime How international and domestic level standards, rules and regulations affect labor governance at the level of state enforcement Summative Assessment of Firms' Compliance with International Labor Standards Normative Framework on Workers' Rights and Labor Standards The Evolution of Labor Governance and the Changing Behavior of Firms Mechanisms of Enforcement and Compliance with International Labor Standards: What Do They Demand from and Offer to Firms? Summative Assessment of Firms' Compliance with International Labor Standards Miguel Luis U. Arias Why do firms comply with international labor standards? How the mechanisms induced compliance with ILS Theory and Hypotheses Case Selection and Limitations How the demands of the mechanisms correspond with the behavior of firms Unit(s) of Analysis: Labor governance regimes (VEF, LSEF and LLCS) Research Design The Evolution of Labor

Master thesis defense

Transcript: Master thesis defense Pricing process of other works of art How do specialists working at auction houses determine the price estimates of paintings? General conclusion Method Qualitative research method Semi-structured interview Interview questions Collection of data Empirical research Velthuis (2002, 2005) Hypotheses Hypothesis one: specialists working at auction houses use pricing scripts to determine the estimates of paintings. Hypothesis two: specialists pay attention to different price determinants to determine the price estimates of paintings. Hypothesis three: specialists pay attention to different price determinants when they need to determine the price estimates of Old Master paintings and Contemporary paintings. Hypothesis four: specialists pay more attention to artist- or artwork or market- or macro level factors. Hypothesis five: the personal taste of specialists has an influence on the price estimates of paintings. Hypothesis six: potential buyers have the biggest influence on the hammer prices fetched at auction. 'a set of routines which function as a cognitive manual for the variety of pricing decisions that a dealer needs to make in different stages of an artist’s career’ (Velthuis, 2002, p.52). Research questions Confirmed: Pricing scripts are helpful tools to determine price estimates, but potential buyers will always have the final word when it comes to the hammer prices fetched at auction. Hypothesis two: specialists pay attention to different price determinants to determine the price estimates of paintings. Hypothesis three: specialists pay attention to different price determinants when they need to determine the price estimates of Old Master paintings and Contemporary paintings. 1. Do specialists working at auction houses use pricing scripts when they determine the price estimates of paintings? 2. Do experts pay attention to different price determinants when they determine the price estimates of paintings? 3. Do specialists pay attention to different price determinants when they determine the price estimates of Old Master paintings and Contemporary paintings? 4. Which factor has the most influence on the price estimates of paintings according to the specialists? 5. Does the taste of experts has an influence on the price estimates of paintings? 6. How is it possible that hammer prices are not always in line with the price estimates stated by art specialists? Hypothesis one: specialists working at auction houses use pricing scripts to determine the estimates of paintings. Hypothesis five: the personal taste of specialists has an influence on the price estimates of paintings. Hypothesis six: potential buyers have the biggest influence on the hammer prices fetched at auction. Pricing scripts Primary art market versus secondary art market Limitations and recommendations for further research Socially and academically relevant Find out if these experts use ‘pricing scripts’ and if differences can be found in the decision-making process between specialists working at different auction houses. Hypothesis four: specialists pay more attention to artist- or artwork or market- or macro level factors. Determine estimates during the interview Limitation of the research Inspiration and motivation Not entirely confirmed: Priceless or worthless? A qualitative research on how price estimates are determined in the secondary art market Aim and relevance Manou Lourens 319142 Conclusion empirical research Provide a better insight in the pricing process that specialists run through to determine the price estimates, before a painting is put up for auction. Rejected: How do specialists working at auction houses determine the price estimates of paintings? Auction houses in the Netherlands Specialists Interviews Auction houses operating in the UK or China Thank you for your attention!

Master Thesis Defense

Transcript: 10 ' 5 putative lipolytic clones 10E2, 12C11, 14G2, 16G7 and 35H9 http://www.iml.rwth-aachen.de/index.php?id=rotes-meer A A p-nitrophenol 348 nm Thank You Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Conclusion and Future prospects Acknowledgements Inactive A p-nitrophenylbutyrate (C4) Culture supernatant Tris-HCL (pH 8.0) Sequencing and ORF detection Mining for novel biocatalysts from metagenomes Screening Metagenomic Library for Lipolytic Activity Further characterization of EstATII is required to understand its full potential as a biocatalyst (solvents, heavy metals, enantio- and regioselectivity, expand on substrate specificity). Cloning into an expression vector, followed by over-expression and purification. By Yasmine M. Mohamed Under the supervision of Dr. Rania Siam A Tributyrin agar 37°C 3 days Based on BLASTP analysis and domain search: EstATII is a putative novel lipolytic enzyme p-nitrophenol 410 nm End-repair and A tailing Dr. Rania Siam Dr. Mohamed Ghazy Dr. Ahmed Sayed Mr. Amged Ouf Mr. Hazem Sharaf Dr. Ari Ferreira Dr. Felipe Chambergo Dr. Hamza Al Dorry KAUST Al Alfi Foundation Friends from the Biotechnology Program and specially Rehab Abdallah Lamyaa Shaban Sara Al-alawi Ibrahim Farag Tamer Said Ayman Yehya Applications Atlantis II Deep Hydrolysis Leather Manufacture Waste Treatment Detergents Pulp and Paper Industry Ester Synthesis Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics Biopolymers Biodiesel Transformation 10 minutes Effect of NaCl on EstATII activity Traditionally, biocatalysts were obtained from pure microbial isolates. Less than 1% of microorganisms can be accessed through culture-dependant approaches. A huge potential lies within the majority of the prokaryotic community that is unculturable. p-nitrophenylbutyrate Signal Peptide Detection p-nitrophenylbutyrate Manually placed into 96-well plates Temperature pH NaCl Substrate Specificity p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16) p-nitrophenylpalmitate (C16) Sample collection and DNA isolation 0.78 0.713 0.72 Mean= 0.737 Dedication Effect of pH on EstATII activity My Family Mohamed Abouelsoud Confirmed by PCR and Sequencing http://www.chemnet.com/dict/dict--1492-30-4--jp.html Pyrosequencing and ORF detection The largest brine pool in the Red Sea and has a maximum depth of 2,194 m and has the highest temperature. Stratified into several layers; the brine-seawater interface, upper convective (UCL), middle convective (MCL) and lower convective layers (LCL). A Continuous demand for novel biocatalysts 10 minutes Culture supernatant Tris-HCl (pH= 8.0) Construction of Phylogenetic Tree 1. Exploring the diversity of microbial communities 2. Discovering novel genes, bioactive compounds and biocatalysts. Characterization of EstATII Substrate Specificity of EstATII MATERIALS AND METHODS Conserved three- dimensional structure A A EstATII Enantio- selectivity Sequence Analysis of EstATII Culture supernatant Tris-HCl (ph=8.0) http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SignalP/ Metagenomics p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4) The LCL is characterized by Temperature of 68.2°C. pH value of 5.3. Salinity of 270 psu Anoxia. High concentrations of heavy metals. Conserved motifs in the HSL Family Characterization of EstATII revealed: Its thermophilic and halophilic properties which reflect the environment from which it was isolated. It is an esterase not a lipase. Characterization of EstATII Phylogenetic Analysis of EstATII 3'- TC TGG CTG AGC CAT TCG ACT -5' (EstR) Functional Screening for Lipolytic Clones Construction and Screening of Metagenomic Fosmid Library Visualization of Phylogenetic Tree A p-nitrophenol 410 nm http://commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/ Molar concentrations tested: 0M, 0.5M, 1M, 2M, 3M and 4M Ligation Active p-nitrophenol 410 nm http://www.genome.jp/tools-bin/clustalw#clustalw.dnd Substrate Specificity http://asgpb.mhpcc.hawaii.edu/sequence/ http://krse.kaust.edu.sa/mission.html Effect of NaCl Concentration on EstATII Activity Multiple Sequence Alignment http://www.megasoftware.net/ Mining the Atlantis II Deep for Lipolytic Enzymes Effect of pH on EstATII Activity http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi A Family IV: HSL EstATII is a novel esterase isolated from the Atlantis II brine pool. It has thermophilic and halophilic properties. Extreme environments hold great potential for the discovery of novel biocatalysts. Catalytic triad p-nitrophenylbutyrate http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:DNA_ORF.gif 10 minutes Shearing (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr A Identification and Characterization of a novel thermohalophilic esterase from the Red Sea; the Atlantis II brine pool 0.013 0.015 0.008 Mean= 0.012 A http://www.chemnet.com/dict/dict--1492-30-4--jp.html Identification and Subcloning of Fosmid Harboring EstATII Classification of bacterial lipolytic enzymes into eight families by Arpigny and Jaeger, 1999. Regio- selectivity http://itol.embl.de/ 111 96-well plates 10,656 clones Sequence and Phylogentic Analysis A

Master Thesis Defense

Transcript: Master Thesis Defense Common points of Agreement: - World consisting of two kinds of states called “center/periphery”, “dominant/dependent”, or “metropolitan/satellite” states. -External forces are the most important factors when it comes to economic activities in the underdeveloped nations. -Each state has its own individual “clear, national economic interest”, which can only be satisfied by meeting the needs of the poor, and not the private interest of the elites and government Aim of the Thesis: - Better understanding and a clear overview of the dependency theory in general. - Discover the reasons of the evolution of the theory both in Latin America and Africa. - To reveal some of the consequences of the dependency thinking in the developing world. Poverty after decolonization Chilean sociologist HISTORICAL BACKGROUND General Definition: - A developmental theory from the 1950-60s. - The existence of a “core-periphery”, North versus South world system view. - Developed countries modernizing at the expense of under-un-developed countries. American-Marxist Economist Brazilian economist and socialist Research Methods: - Extensive review of current and short-past literature, including relevant books, academic articles, international organization program schedules and presentations. - Review of statistical data regarding the subject. I. 16th-19th century colonization introducing: - First the ideas of developmentalism, progress, and modernity, -Then the ideas of free trade, and national sovereignty Created By: Renáta Bacsó Mentor: Johannes Maerk Vienna, 2012.10.25 CHILE II. 20th century US slowly expanding over Latin America. III. Cardoso's "new dependency" evolving because of the technological dependency. MY CONCLUSION - Overdrawn attention given to capitalist imperialism -Typology of “exploiter and exploited” exaggeratedly simplifies the global world’s participants -Ignorant towards important internal factors like culture, and population demographics PAUL BARAN ANDRÉ GUNTER FRANK Enzo Faletto KENYA American political sociologist - Underdevelopment is a result of international capitalism. - Political, economical, and social structures of the poor states are shaped externally. - "Development of Underdevelopment" -Difference between “underdeveloped” and “undeveloped”. A need for a 2nd decolonization HISTORICAL BACKGROUND - "Economic Surplus" -Backwardness of countries is due to the misuse and waste of this surplus. -Critical approach towards colonialism. FOLLOW-UPS - Part of the region of "Africa of the labor reserves” - Holds features of "classical dependency" as well as "dependent development" - The economic system's road to independence. Efforts being made The Dependency Theory - The host country of ECLA -Experiment for the new reforms -Brief time of success, then huge decrease of growth -Frank's theory of a "satellite-metropolis" system was also based on a case study of Chile One big project for 3 different regions: (Samir Amin's division) - "Africa of the colonial economy" - “Africa of the concession-owning companies” - “Africa of the labour reserves” The Latin-American Perspective CRITICISM HISTORY OF THE THEORY - Modernization Theory: "evolutionary stages" of development Criticized not only by Dependency Theory, but: -World System Theory (as well): Only one kind of social system in the World -- The Capitalist World Economy. - Early 1950s, Santiago, Chile, ECLA - Raúl Prebish - First became popular as a critique Overview: - 1st theoretical part: main elements, protagonist and critical points. - 2nd applying part: Case studies from South-America and Africa. - Final Part: relevance of dependency theory today. PETER EVANS -"Associated dependent development"- Development IS possible withing dependency. - Typology of existing national societies. - 3 stages of economic history of the periphery. Thank you for Your Attention! FOLLOW-UPS 18th century colonization: - cheap labour, raw materials, and free land for industrialization - Africa as part of, but also the file-closer of the World economy -Rural areas, not valuable were ignored THE SUB-SAHARAN-AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE -Establishment of African Union - Announcement of NEPAD -Establishment of the Commission for Africa Fernando Henrique Cardoso - High hopes in the beginning - Negative turn in the 1970s -Forgotten in the 1990s 2 Eras of Dependency: -Radical Marxist influenced stream -Non-Marxist, Structuralist stream German-American Historian and Sociologist Wars and organized violence

Master Thesis Defense

Transcript: 1. Introduction Breaking down BRIC co-movement Relevance Contagion is seen as a residual variable; no focus on different forms of contagion In the regressions where Russia is included, the financial crisis was the most important determinant. Hypothesis 2 - Stock market characteristics: No evidence found of a significant relationship Focus on other asset classes such as bond markets and real estate. The list of variables is not exhaustive Data: Price indices are used from the BRAZIL BOVESPA, RUSSIA RTS, SHANGHAI SE A SHARE, and INDIA BSE (100) NATIONAL Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) from IMF - import and export Datastream provided data on economic variables such as industrial production growth, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, and FDI for all four countries. Recommendations The correlation indicates co-movement and is ultimately the determining factor in how to diversify an investment portfolio. The BRIC’s strong global position can be attributed to: Large domestic markets, Industrial and technological diversification, Major governmental programs, and Liberalization of the financial systems in the early nineties. Thesis Defense - R. van Lomwel Hypothesis 2: Similar stock market characteristics have a positive effect on the correlation of BRIC stock markets. Trade relationship Literature is outdated; significant value in testing these determinants in a different setting with more recent data. 3. Methodology and Data Dependent variable: BRIC correlation Regional co-movement, such as on Asian or Latin American markets; Chowdury (1994), Masih & Masih (1999), Christofi & Pericli (1999), and Araujo (2009). Variables were analyzed by means of quarterly time series data; time period was chosen from 1996-2010 5. Conclusion Different growth rates would imply different stock prices. Special thanks to Prof. Ben Tims and Bernardo Lima for coaching me though this process. African continent Russian contagion one The trade relationship is the most important determinant in explaining BRIC co-movement. Findings Research question: What is the extent of co-movement that may be attributed to fundamental factors, and what is the extent that is attributed to contagion? BRIC countries Production growth 4. Results If country A does well, it will buy more from country B -> so then both economies do well and co-move. Investors try to create an optimal investment portfolio and therefore they need to know the returns, volatilities, and correlations of different assets. It would have been meaningful to conduct the regression analysis on both monthly and quarterly time-series data. three Limitations Consistent with prior research: Chen & Zhang (1997), Pretorius (2001), and Johnson & Soenen (2002). 5. Conclusion 6. Q&A 4. Results Hypothesis 1: The level of economic integration has a positive effect on the correlation of BRIC stock markets. Brazil, Russia, India, and China: 40% of the world’s population 25% of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) If you succeed in explaining the determinants you are better able to rebalance and optimize your portfolio, which ultimately leads to a better risk/return tradeoff. two The model succeeds in explaining about 40% of the variation of the dependent variable, i.e. co-movement. Limited research on co-movement of emerging stock markets across different regions. 1. Introduction A positive relationship between the industrial production growth differential and co-movement was found. Gap in the literature 2. Conceptual Framework Co-movement Hypothesis 1 - Economic fundamentals: Trade most significant determinant; 4 out of 6 regressions Russian co-movement is mostly driven by contagion and to a lesser extent based on economic fundamentals. December 6th, 2011 High growth rate in country A, may lead to increased dependence (trade) of other countries Research on co-movement for other emerging market groups: Determinants of stock market correlations; Roll (1992), Chen & Zhang (1997), Bekaert & Harvey (1999), Bracker & Koch (1999), Pretorius (2001), and Johnson & Soenen (2002) Investors trade Russia in the same basket as other BRIC stocks. Explaining variables: see conceptual framework Plausible explanation is that the variable is moderated by the trade variable. Agenda Thank you for your attention! 3. Methodology & Data Co-movement implies that different stock markets behave in a similar fashion so that investors have less benefits from diversification. My own research focused mostly on the determinants of co-movement: Economic fundamentals Stock market characteristics Contagion (investor sentiment) Newly industrialized countries MSc Finance & Investments Important to know the extent of correlations + the underlying factors Multiple linear regression analysis Contagion: The financial crisis variable was significant for 3 out of 6 regressions. 2. Conceptual Framework 6. Q&A

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