Transcript: Students have difficulty learning curriculum (can't get through the whole thing in one year. Students have difficulty retaining information (forget prior lessons, making it difficult to build on those lessons to construct new knowledge). Individualistic nature of background knowledge Outside influences on student learning have a large impact on background knowledge The pace of schema and content acquisition Experiential learning Background knowledge Anecdotal evidence Lit review continued only 5/18 students read at grade level 11% passing rate on SOL reading 30% passing rate on SOL-prep test for math Reading and instructional interventions have been unsuccessful with this group for many years. increased instructional time has not yielded increase in testing scores. Context The Problem Findings Prior knowledge comes from experiences inside and outside the classroom. (Navarro 2007) Background knowledge makes accessing content and constructing new knowledge easier (Pulido 2007) It doesn't matter if background knowledge is in L1 or English (Collier, 2003). Marzano (2005) recommends a number of activities to build background knowledge: multimedia experiential learning with manipulatives/realia (structured and unstructured) cooperative interpretations solving puzzles/inquiry presentations Q: What can I do to build background knowledge? Title I school Low-income area (77% on free/reduced lunch) Concentrated immigrant population (100% ESL class) Lit review Revised Q: What are the effects of schema-building activities?
Transcript: date active BCK Goal What is ABCK BIG definition: Background knowledge is a process that people make when reading. They make connections to understand better the text by relating things you already know, past experiences, or things that remind you of the topic. It increases your comprehension and focus. As you start using it more your brain makes it almost immediately and unconsciously. Strategy Strategy i GOT MY HORSES ON MY BACK Customer Profiles Customer Profiles Target Customer 1 Target Customer 1 Position Title Role Pains Needs Value Proposition Name Target Customer 2 Target Customer 2 Position Title Role Pains Needs Value Proposition Name Action Plan Action Plan Territory Plan Territory Plan North America North America EMEA EMEA Asia Pacific Asia Pacific Latin America Latin America Timeline Timeline 30 days 60 days 90 days Goals to Complete Sales Target Goals to Complete Sales Target Goals to Complete Sales Target
Transcript: Assemble your C.A.L.S by choosing a topic from your curriculum and gathering samples of related materials to keep students engaged and excited. For example... Background Knowledge Create a summary of the text, and read it before the lesson begins. The reading of nonfiction texts will assist in the building of background knowledge. help build background knowledge tell main ideas & vocabulary show text organization point out text features help make connections help make inferences This increase in background knowledge therefore will increase comprehension of a text. Teach students how to read inormational texts. A synopsis text is a short written summary of a text that is planned to be read to the class. Read a simpler text on the same topic before reading the more complex text, in order to help with understanding. Select High-Quality texts to read in your classroom. Fiction Poetry Booklets to write in Writing and illustrating tools Puzzles, games, stuffed animals, and other objects related to the topic A synopsis text and presentation should... Read aloud: Gather enlarged texts and other tradebooks on social studies and science topics. Begin reading these aloud when the unit is drawing near. Guided Reading: Likewise, begin gathering leveled readers on the unit's topic to use during small group. Independent Reading: Create a special collection of high quality, on topic texts for students to read and look at independently. Writing: In order to write about a topic, students will need to continue to read about the topic. This will help students solidify what they know and understand. Classmates can then read their friend's texts on the unit topic. The bags will give students easy access to related texts, while also allowing students to easily compare these texts with one another, by their organization, information, and text features. Effective Practices Use Companion Texts Students may read just the captions, read only a certain section, or only read a couple of sentences. Students can read the text based on their needs and abilities. Explain unknown topics before beginning to read. Help students see how to monitor when their reading makes sense and when it does not. Help students see the difference between subconscious (ones we do automatically) and conscious (ones we must stop for because something does not make sense) inferences. Help students see how it is important to bring all of your background knowledge to the surface before you begin reading on a given topic. Help students make inferences by thinking aloud as you read. Demonstrate the differences between what is in the book and what is in your head. Help students see that what is learned in a simpler book can assist a reader understand the more difficult book. Demonstrate how to use background knowledge This will give struggling students the scaffolding they need to be successful during whole group reading and discussion. Cluster Informational Texts Reading Non-fiction is not like reading fiction. Integrate content-area work into literacy lessons during... Informational texts in the classroom should be of the highest quality, in order to really assist our students in their building of background knowledge. Front Load Lessons as you follow this presentation, you will learn new ways to assist your students draw on their own background knowledge and thus deepen their coprehension. Half of the literature that students are exposed to daily should be non-fiction! Consider student's background knowledge before you read a text. Using storage bags, gather and store informational texts organized by topic. Comprehension and Background Knowledge Create Content Area Literacy Centers The Text One does not need to read nonfiction from cover to cover in order to gather and understand the book's information. The synopsis text should be shared with students who struggle with reading prior to reading the book aloud. Create a Synopsis Text These texts should be: Attractive: Colorful, include photos, illustrations, charts, maps, and diagrams Accurate: Up to date and from a credible source Accessible: Readable, understandable, and not overwhelming to a beginner reader of informational text Content Area Literacy Center Assets Read More Non-Fiction Books In order to help our students best understand a text, we must draw on what they already know. These centers help bring in nonfiction topics from other content areas into your classroom while bringing excitement back into your literacy centers at the same time. After a guided reading lesson, help students with their comprehension by pairing the guided reading text with a companion text that directly matches the guided reading book by topic or strategy. Students can then practice the skill or strengthen their knowledge on the topic with this easier text during independent reading. Based on Information Found in Chapter 7 of Sharon Taberski's "Comprehension from the Ground Up" 2011
Transcript: p. 95 learning cycle Quick Write A rare condition exists in which a person cannot feel pain. Is this desirable or undesirable? Explain your response. Information Involves each student listing what they know on paper and then each student reads off something they know while other students cross off what is already on their list. If all of your items on the list are read, you go and sit down, the last person standing gets some sort of reward. Whip Around Teacher creates a thought-provoking question and then asks students to write a brief (1-5 min) response. Background Knowledge Quick Writes Take 5 minutes to respond to the following prompt on your worksheet: Other Routines! Why is accessing student background knowledge import? Text Impression
Transcript: Effect on Poetry Why was she the way she was? Her father died at a young age Her husband left after marriage To self absorbed In High School and College, she always excelled as a student. She actually suffered from manic depression, unmedicated. At age 19, attempted suicide by swallowing sleeping pills. She was left with two children to care for which amped her to produce Aerial Background Info Background Knowledge Poetry By: Skye Odelehr Background Info Cont. Date of Birth- October 27, 1932 Boston, MA Date of Death- February 11, 1963 When she was eight, her father Otto Plath died. He was a strict father His death made her poems what they are Published her own work in high school Went to Smith College, always wanted to succeed, good student Went through depression, attempted suicide Graduated, moved to England on scholarship Discussion Questions Is it important to know who poet is? Does the poet’s background knowledge change the interpretation of the poem? What was the poet’s intended message when writing the poem? Images Explanation of Poet Through her depressions, she would produce poetry. The poetry produced was her obsession with death, which was brought on by her father's passing. Her father's death brought about the poem Daddy, because she felt betrayal after he died. At 19, her suicide attempt failed which brought about the fiction novel, The Bell Jar. She wrote about her experiences of breakdown and recovery. At 30, with the stress of a leaving husband and two children, she sucessfully commits suicide. Before death she wrote Aerial. Married Ted Hughes June 16, 1956 Published first poems, Colossus, 1960 Gave birth to her children Frieda and Nicholas, 1960 and 1962 Ted left, placing Sylvia in depression, she composed Ariel, most famous book 1963 she published novel, The Bell Jar Feb. 1963 she commits suicide by inhaling gas from her gas oven
Transcript: Warm water temperatures are required for a coral reef biome to exist. That is why they are in the water that is shallow. In the deeper locations of water, the sun isn’t able to shine due to the depths of it. With the shallow water though the sun can get to the bottom of it and warm the area up. The characteristics of a coral reef biome will depend on if it is a hard or soft coral reef. With the hard coral reef you will find those limestone skeletons being left behind from brain coral and elk horn coral. With a soft coral reef though you won’t have that left behind. There are three different types of coral reefs that have been identified. Fringing reefs are those found along the coastline. They are along the shallow waters of the continental shelf. Barrier reefs are further out into the lagoon. They actually create a barrier between the sea and the lagoon area. Coral Reef Flora and Fauna Background Information Climate From 70 to 85 °F Plants Algae and sea grasses. Animals Jellyfish, crustaceans, sea turtles, sea snakes, sea stars. Location Indo-Pacific region, Australia, American and African west coasts. Coral reef conservation A coral reef already has a lack of nutrients in it so such contaminants can be a huge problem. The algae is often going to take care of such problems. However, if the contamination is in large quantities it will be too much for the biome to handle on its own. It can continue to prosper though due to how the reproduction occurs. Fragments that are healthy can break off and start over. However, it can take a long time for the coral reef to have coloration to it once again. Even though coral reef biomes are very important to us, they are in great danger. The risk of pollution to the water is the biggest problem. Even in areas where people don’t spend much time in the water, there are concerns. The run off from sewage and from agricultural efforts take a toll on the cleanliness of the water. Coral Reef Video Coral Reef Biome Coral Reef Characteristics There is no denying a very complex type of habitat exists in the coral reef biome. However, it also offers a structure that provides a great hiding place for many creatures. This includes sponges, an array of species of fish, jellyfish, and crustaceans. They include snails, turtles, and mollusks. You will find many species of birds living in the coral reef biome. This is because they can easily access different types of living creatures for food. The will dive into the water, get the food, and come back out. Other food sources will simply float to the top so they can rest on the water and consume them.
Transcript: Interesting Facts I chose Ansel Elgort because when I saw The Fault in Our Stars I fell literally in love with him. I feel like he really gets into whatever character he plays and really connects with it. Also he's super cute. He's just a rising star as of now but I'm sure he's going to make it far in his acting career. Known for: The first movie Ansel Elgort was cast in was Carrie (2013) in which he played Tommy Ross. He is also one of the cast of the movie Divergent, playing Caleb Prior. Mostly known for playing Augustus Waters in The Fault In Our Stars. Ansel isnt only an actor, he is also music DJ and model on the side and a classically trained dancer. His DJ name is ''Ansolo". He has been on the cover of Teen Vouge and Seventeen magazine in the past and has done many more spreads. Ansel Elgort Actor, disc-jockey, musician, singer, producer Born on March 14th, 1994 in New York City, NY He is the youngest of three siblings. His father Arthur, is a famous fashion photographer well known for his work on "Vogue" Magazine. His first movie was 'Carrie,' where he played Tommy Ross. He's a Pisces He's 6'4 Though he's one of the most popular young actors working today, he's appeared in only five films Education: Attended Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School Ansel Elgort Interesting Facts cont. Why I chose him? Background Knowledge Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie: Liplock MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss Young Hollywood Award for Best Onscreen Chemistry Young Hollywood Award for Standout Performance by a Young Actor - Male Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Breakout Star Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie: Chemistry Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actor: Drama Carolyna Cruz Period 6 Mr. Thompson Wins
Transcript: Background Knowledge for ELLs by Dr. Joie Austria Look for the traces of your own life in everything you read. “A story has as many versions as it has readers” (John Steinbeck). But why is this true? Every reader brings his or her own experiences to the story These experiences change the reader’s perspective and make each story personal to the reader. What is Background Knowledge? Do you remember a particular vacation you took that was especially great? Do you remember a family event that everyone in the family likes to talk about? Do you remember a specific movie that you enjoyed? All of these events, experiences, memories make up your own personal background knowledge Activating Background Knowledge When reading a text, make a personal connection: That reminds me of when…. That’s how my family…. My friend used to…. I tried to do something like that when I…. I act like that character when I… When you make a personal connection to a text, you are making a text-to-self connection. Text-to-self connections make the reading more real and more important for the reader. Text-to-Self Connections “A Child’s Laughter” One of a kind this cheerful sound A child’s laughter wherever it’s found From the giggling of a baby in a playpen To the laughter of a toddler again and again A child’s laughter can bring a smile To one who hasn’t done so in such a long while I know because that one was me Until my daughter’s laugh set mine free A child’s laughter can bring out the best Of most every man when he’s depressed Cause his spirit that’s fallen to soar Until at last he laughs once more Harry J. Couchon Jr. Poemhunter.com what does the poem remind you of? Do you remember a time when a child was laughing – maybe you as a child? Do you remember a time when someone was especially sad, but a child said or did just the right thing to change his or her mood? Do you recall a special child-parent moment that ended up in laughter? Answering any of these questions when thinking about the poem means you have drawn on your background knowledge to make the poem more real. Answering any of these questions means you have made a text-to-self connection. Accessing text-to-text connection Text-to-text connections involve linking two or more different texts you have personally read When making a text-to-text connection, you find what is similar and familiar in these texts. Finding the similarities makes learning and understanding easier. Background Knowledge:Text-to-Text Connections “Shopping at the Hospital” Mom and Dad were very excited – their new son had finally arrived. Like all parents, they thought Matthew was perfect. Today, 2 ½ year old Dawn would meet her new baby brother for the first time. Dawn dressed up in a fancy new dress to meet her brother. Mom, Dad, and Dawn all strolled down to the nursery to see Matthew. Dad lifted up Dawn so she could see all the babies. Mom beamed and said, “See that baby right here in front of us? That’s your new baby brother.” Dawn started to pout. She said, “But Mommy, I don’t want that one with no hair! I want that one with the pretty curly hair!” How Do the Poem and Story Connect? Text-to-text connections: Both the poem and the story are about laughing and happiness Both the poem and the story are about children and how they see the world Both the poem and the story show how adults react to children If you had read the poem first, you could use your background knowledge about children’s laughter and its effects on adults to understand the story. This connection is a text-to-text connection. The K-W-L Chart is a great way to access background knowledge and to track new learning. When reading about a new topic, brainstorm a list of what you already know about the topic. Then brainstorm a list of what you believe you want to learn about the topic. After reading, brainstorm a list of what you learned that has added to your background knowledge for future reading. K-W-L chart A Simple Way to Build Background Knowledge Spend some time in the children’s section of the library! Important terms will be explained in simple language Important ideas will be presented Your background knowledge will be increased to make reading more difficult texts on the topic easier to understand References Anonymous. “The Puzzle.” http://www.classicreader.com/book/1409/1/. Couchon, Harry J. Jr. “A Child’s Laughter.” http://www.poemhunter.com/poems/laughter/. “Critical Perspectives: Reading and Writing about Slavery.” http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=1060. Zimmermann, Susan and Hutchins, Chryse. 7 Keys to Comprehension. NY: Three Rivers Press, 2003. What I've Learned What I Want To Know (cc) photo by Jakob Montrasio What i Know
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