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Background Knowledge

Transcript: Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Educators engage together to make significant decisions about student learning Culturally Responsive Teaching Expand curriculum to reflect the diverse culture within the classroom Instructional Cycle Six steps to facilitate learning Current educational system Designed for different age Standardize testing Personal Connection New Learning Meeting Description Date: July 25, 2016, 6:00PM 18 minutes Meeting followed agenda Chairperson- Reggie Bowerman ran meeting Purpose: to accept or decline consent items Board members knew meeting agenda beforehand Not much discussion Mostly approving motions School Governance and Finance Background Knowledge School Governance and Finance Alyssa Craig Approved Certified Contract Approved hiring Assistant Principal of Shakopee High School Approved bid for High School expansion Decline six other bids for High School expansion Approved ice agreement with city of Shakopee Guest Presenters Call to order- roll call Recognition of visitors Consideration of agenda Consent items Old business action items Up coming meeting/ important dates Adjournment Agenda References School board and teachers have a direct relationship School board influences curriculum and material educators must teach School board makes decisions on hiring staff and contract salaries School board decides whether or not to do standardize tests State government oversees details of education through legislature State legislatures negotiate and pass state budget, which determines the amount of money districts receive School governance: decisions that impact students' education and the role of a teacher School Board Meeting Report: Shakopee School District Reflection As a future educator I will advocate for funding better materials and more technology to increase student learning I will also realize the impact of standardize testing and try to incorporate engaging curriculum to the students and not only "teach to the test." Shakopee School Board Meeting Linda Darling Hammond Under trained and under qualified educators in high need schools High stake testing is causing schools to not get proper supports Connect to learning and personally Scott Doran: Assistant Vice Principal Chris Ziemer: presented bids for Shakopee High School expansion Spending of funds Impacts teachers salary Available materials Technology Teacher monitoring Standardize testing Teaching to the test Can create disengaged students Performance evaluation Direct feedback Decisions Refection When school boards require standardize tests this influences what educators teach because they have to "teach to the test" to get higher test scores Scores may influence school funding and teacher salary In my professional actions as an educator I will keep in mind the influence the school board has I will be a teacher leader and be aware of what is happening within the district Public School Governance. (n.d.). Retrieved August 14, 2016, from http://www.essentialblog.org/public-school-governance/ School Board. (n.d.). Retrieved August 14, 2016, from http://www.shakopee.k12.mn.us/Page/115 School Governance and Finance: Part 1. (n.d.). Retrieved August 14, 2016, from https://stthomas.ensemblevideo.com/Watch/i2SLz6e7 Spring, J. H. (2016). American education (17th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Key to successful school board Educated and proactive members Able to admit to flaws in the system

Background knowledge

Transcript: Students have difficulty learning curriculum (can't get through the whole thing in one year. Students have difficulty retaining information (forget prior lessons, making it difficult to build on those lessons to construct new knowledge). Individualistic nature of background knowledge Outside influences on student learning have a large impact on background knowledge The pace of schema and content acquisition Experiential learning Background knowledge Anecdotal evidence Lit review continued only 5/18 students read at grade level 11% passing rate on SOL reading 30% passing rate on SOL-prep test for math Reading and instructional interventions have been unsuccessful with this group for many years. increased instructional time has not yielded increase in testing scores. Context The Problem Findings Prior knowledge comes from experiences inside and outside the classroom. (Navarro 2007) Background knowledge makes accessing content and constructing new knowledge easier (Pulido 2007) It doesn't matter if background knowledge is in L1 or English (Collier, 2003). Marzano (2005) recommends a number of activities to build background knowledge: multimedia experiential learning with manipulatives/realia (structured and unstructured) cooperative interpretations solving puzzles/inquiry presentations Q: What can I do to build background knowledge? Title I school Low-income area (77% on free/reduced lunch) Concentrated immigrant population (100% ESL class) Lit review Revised Q: What are the effects of schema-building activities?

Background knowledge

Transcript: Background Knowledge It is our ability to arrive automatically at interpretations of the unwritten and the unsaid must be based on pre-existing knowledge structures. These structures functions like familiar patterns from previous experience that we use to interpret new experiences. The most general term for a pattern of this type is a schemata (plural, schemata) a schemata is a pre- existing knowledge structure in memory. How Can Parents Build Kids’ Background Knowledge? A As parents introduce the world to kids, they build kids’ background knowledge, helping them become better readers and better learners. Well, that can be done in several ways. One way is to build the knowledge before your child needs it, by exposing him to different things, talking to him about new ideas and reading lots of different material either with him or to him on a regular basis. Another way is to give your child the background knowledge that he may be missing, prior to him learning a new concept in school. For example, if your child is going to begin a lesson about the respiratory system, you can build his background knowledge by helping him connect the term respiratory system with the lungs and the act of breathing, by showing him pictures of the respiratory system, or by reviewing new vocabulary words and their meanings. Here are 7 chief advantages. Background Knowledge: 1.Makes learning easier. 2.Makes remembering easier. 3.Improves reading comprehension. 4.Improves reading speed, because you don’t have to re-read as often to understand the text. 5.Frees working memory space to learn even more. 6.Increases the accuracy of inferences you make from the text. 7.Improves your problem solving abilities. When students come into a classroom, they enter with a wide range of experiences and come from many cultures. They have ideas, knowledge and concepts that are already formed. Some of this knowledge may be incorrect and some might be right on target, but needs expansion. This prior knowledge is very important to acknowledge in order to motivate student learning. When teachers discount the previous knowledge that students bring into the classroom, they risk ostracizing them. Instead of discounting previously learned material, build upon it to increase knowledge retention Daniel Willingham “The more knowledge students accumulate, the smarter they become.” What Students Know Background Knowledge

Background Knowledge

Transcript: Assemble your C.A.L.S by choosing a topic from your curriculum and gathering samples of related materials to keep students engaged and excited. For example... Background Knowledge Create a summary of the text, and read it before the lesson begins. The reading of nonfiction texts will assist in the building of background knowledge. help build background knowledge tell main ideas & vocabulary show text organization point out text features help make connections help make inferences This increase in background knowledge therefore will increase comprehension of a text. Teach students how to read inormational texts. A synopsis text is a short written summary of a text that is planned to be read to the class. Read a simpler text on the same topic before reading the more complex text, in order to help with understanding. Select High-Quality texts to read in your classroom. Fiction Poetry Booklets to write in Writing and illustrating tools Puzzles, games, stuffed animals, and other objects related to the topic A synopsis text and presentation should... Read aloud: Gather enlarged texts and other tradebooks on social studies and science topics. Begin reading these aloud when the unit is drawing near. Guided Reading: Likewise, begin gathering leveled readers on the unit's topic to use during small group. Independent Reading: Create a special collection of high quality, on topic texts for students to read and look at independently. Writing: In order to write about a topic, students will need to continue to read about the topic. This will help students solidify what they know and understand. Classmates can then read their friend's texts on the unit topic. The bags will give students easy access to related texts, while also allowing students to easily compare these texts with one another, by their organization, information, and text features. Effective Practices Use Companion Texts Students may read just the captions, read only a certain section, or only read a couple of sentences. Students can read the text based on their needs and abilities. Explain unknown topics before beginning to read. Help students see how to monitor when their reading makes sense and when it does not. Help students see the difference between subconscious (ones we do automatically) and conscious (ones we must stop for because something does not make sense) inferences. Help students see how it is important to bring all of your background knowledge to the surface before you begin reading on a given topic. Help students make inferences by thinking aloud as you read. Demonstrate the differences between what is in the book and what is in your head. Help students see that what is learned in a simpler book can assist a reader understand the more difficult book. Demonstrate how to use background knowledge This will give struggling students the scaffolding they need to be successful during whole group reading and discussion. Cluster Informational Texts Reading Non-fiction is not like reading fiction. Integrate content-area work into literacy lessons during... Informational texts in the classroom should be of the highest quality, in order to really assist our students in their building of background knowledge. Front Load Lessons as you follow this presentation, you will learn new ways to assist your students draw on their own background knowledge and thus deepen their coprehension. Half of the literature that students are exposed to daily should be non-fiction! Consider student's background knowledge before you read a text. Using storage bags, gather and store informational texts organized by topic. Comprehension and Background Knowledge Create Content Area Literacy Centers The Text One does not need to read nonfiction from cover to cover in order to gather and understand the book's information. The synopsis text should be shared with students who struggle with reading prior to reading the book aloud. Create a Synopsis Text These texts should be: Attractive: Colorful, include photos, illustrations, charts, maps, and diagrams Accurate: Up to date and from a credible source Accessible: Readable, understandable, and not overwhelming to a beginner reader of informational text Content Area Literacy Center Assets Read More Non-Fiction Books In order to help our students best understand a text, we must draw on what they already know. These centers help bring in nonfiction topics from other content areas into your classroom while bringing excitement back into your literacy centers at the same time. After a guided reading lesson, help students with their comprehension by pairing the guided reading text with a companion text that directly matches the guided reading book by topic or strategy. Students can then practice the skill or strengthen their knowledge on the topic with this easier text during independent reading. Based on Information Found in Chapter 7 of Sharon Taberski's "Comprehension from the Ground Up" 2011

Background Knowledge

Transcript: Background knowledge - all that you as a reader bring to a book - personal history - all you've read or seen - your adventures - the experiences of your day-to-day life - your relationships - your passions "Things do not change, we change." a book has as many versions as it does readers "points of contact" Why is it important? Making Connections Desolation River Guide (7 Keys to Comprehension, p. 50) Who understood that paragraph? Not only do you not understand it, but the new information does not "stick". The more background knowledge you develop and use, the more you can make sense of and remember new information. Text-to-World Think about where you are in life What's happening on in your world? Can you relate to any of the aspects you read about? If you re-read a few years later, do you relate to different things? Evoke your empathy Make sure the reader is ready to understand the purpose of why you are encouraging her/him to read. Pick text accordingly Model for students Have students and parents work together to read a short story. Both read and both respond with coordinating markers to the text. Parents are encouraged to explain the childhood memories Interruptions are okay and meaningful Crafting session Encourage students to make the text-to-text, text to world and text to self with questions. (more on hand out) Outcomes of Using Tips Making Connections Background Knowledge/ Making Connections What is background knowledge? Demonstration You make connections between what you've read and the broader world. These are often "bigger idea" connections. Tips for building & activating background knowledge Connections between something you are reading and something you have read, seen on TV or in a movie in the past Roth, V. (2011). Chapter 3. In Divergent Trilogy, Book 1 (Large print ed., p. 529). New York, New York: Thorndike Press, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. Zimmerman, S. & Hutchins, C. (2003). 7 keys to comprehension: How to help your kids read it and get it. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. Reference List Students will enjoy reading the book and see that they can relate to others and then the book is all of the sudden meaningful Child will pursue passion and motivated to learn Students are more intrigued by different books of different interest levels Students will start using phrases like "me too" and "I learned something new" EMPATHY!!!!!! Discussion about lives will be active Students will feel engaged by using their past memories and new memories Students will be able to connect their adolescent predicaments with the book and forsee their futures Students can be inspired by the characters and mimic what happend in the book Mindful and lively discussion throughout the classroom can start Thank you! Text-to-Text Text-to-World

Background Knowledge

Transcript: Effect on Poetry Why was she the way she was? Her father died at a young age Her husband left after marriage To self absorbed In High School and College, she always excelled as a student. She actually suffered from manic depression, unmedicated. At age 19, attempted suicide by swallowing sleeping pills. She was left with two children to care for which amped her to produce Aerial Background Info Background Knowledge Poetry By: Skye Odelehr Background Info Cont. Date of Birth- October 27, 1932 Boston, MA Date of Death- February 11, 1963 When she was eight, her father Otto Plath died. He was a strict father His death made her poems what they are Published her own work in high school Went to Smith College, always wanted to succeed, good student Went through depression, attempted suicide Graduated, moved to England on scholarship Discussion Questions Is it important to know who poet is? Does the poet’s background knowledge change the interpretation of the poem? What was the poet’s intended message when writing the poem? Images Explanation of Poet Through her depressions, she would produce poetry. The poetry produced was her obsession with death, which was brought on by her father's passing. Her father's death brought about the poem Daddy, because she felt betrayal after he died. At 19, her suicide attempt failed which brought about the fiction novel, The Bell Jar. She wrote about her experiences of breakdown and recovery. At 30, with the stress of a leaving husband and two children, she sucessfully commits suicide. Before death she wrote Aerial. Married Ted Hughes June 16, 1956 Published first poems, Colossus, 1960 Gave birth to her children Frieda and Nicholas, 1960 and 1962 Ted left, placing Sylvia in depression, she composed Ariel, most famous book 1963 she published novel, The Bell Jar Feb. 1963 she commits suicide by inhaling gas from her gas oven

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