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Transcript: Students have difficulty learning curriculum (can't get through the whole thing in one year. Students have difficulty retaining information (forget prior lessons, making it difficult to build on those lessons to construct new knowledge). Individualistic nature of background knowledge Outside influences on student learning have a large impact on background knowledge The pace of schema and content acquisition Experiential learning Background knowledge Anecdotal evidence Lit review continued only 5/18 students read at grade level 11% passing rate on SOL reading 30% passing rate on SOL-prep test for math Reading and instructional interventions have been unsuccessful with this group for many years. increased instructional time has not yielded increase in testing scores. Context The Problem Findings Prior knowledge comes from experiences inside and outside the classroom. (Navarro 2007) Background knowledge makes accessing content and constructing new knowledge easier (Pulido 2007) It doesn't matter if background knowledge is in L1 or English (Collier, 2003). Marzano (2005) recommends a number of activities to build background knowledge: multimedia experiential learning with manipulatives/realia (structured and unstructured) cooperative interpretations solving puzzles/inquiry presentations Q: What can I do to build background knowledge? Title I school Low-income area (77% on free/reduced lunch) Concentrated immigrant population (100% ESL class) Lit review Revised Q: What are the effects of schema-building activities?


Transcript: WHAT TENSIONS COULD ARISE? Availability of India's top university graduated professionals is expected to decrease severely by 2010. Resulting wage inflation saw annual increases for India’s IT professionals increase 15% compared to China’s 8%, Eastern Europe’s 5% and Brazil’s The strengthening of the rupee (6.6% against the US dollar April-Jun 07) Decreasing profit margins as 2/3 Indian offshore clients pay in US dollars WHAT IS THE VALUE PROVIDED BY COGNIZANT? Businesses move processes abroad for cheaper costs Transform while we perform framework Frees up clients' resources - allowing for reinvestment Client Partner (CP) immerses themselves in the culture of the client organisation CP constantly liaises with delivery manager (DM) CP & DM are JOINTLY responsible - eliminates a sense of hierarchy Established TIB code of conduct - no finger pointing/blaming Managers were pulled out of the box if the chemistry did not work (this occurred 10% - 15% of times) Miscellaneous Inability to make quick decisions due to lack of transparency and authority punctuality and budget control (40%-45% of systems are developed on time, in budget and functioning to the client's satisfaction) offshore and onsite team - differing priorities communication is key opportunities are dormant and need to be stimulated be creative with model approach - vertical moving IT processes offshore now imperative to growth competitors beginning to simulate Two-In-A-Box... HOW DOES TIB EASE TENSIONS? cognizant has second highest employee growth rate lowest net profit margin lowest utilisation rate lowest revenue generation per employee 96% of business is repeat business = good retaining, poor considering employee growth rate unsustainable growth practise from cognizant COMPETITORS Cognizant IT offshoring services organisation recruit copiously from India Diversified into consulting Headquartered in New Jersey, USA Cognizant (share price leader) Tier 1 (firms accounting for 1/3 of India's IT revenues) - Infosys (innovator) Satyam Computers, TCS (cost leader) & Wipro Technologies (technology player) Tier 1 firms account for <5% of global IT outsourcing. Far less than global players like Accenture and IBM Good access to top Indian university students Unsustainable competition for talented Indian workforce Q&A What lessons can be drawn from this case for managing service activities across borders? ECONOMY what are the tensions that arise? This TIB model empowers Cognizant with the ability to overcome the problem of culture preservation by organizing events to bring onsite professionals together with their central office colleagues. The TIB model ensures that the common goal of meeting clients' expectations is met when seeking optional solutions and win-win results between onsite and offshore teams. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE WHAT ARE THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF COGNIZANT'S EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT? TO WHAT EXTENT DOES COGNIZANT'S 'C2' PROGRAMME FIT THE FIRM'S ENVIRONMENT AND WHAT PROBLEMS MIGHT IT ENCOUNTER IN DEVELOPING THIS PROGRAMME FURTHER ? fits the firm’s environment in that it ensures that there is: - real-time knowledge management real time workflow (CP & DM could track the progress of globally dispersed teams) real-time collaboration (WEB 2.0) uncovered unknown talents (expanding Cognizant Business Consulting (CBC) ) company culture where professionals from different geographies, verticals and cultures come together in a virtual workplace - potentially a problem Loyalty of employees as well - possibility of going exiting for another organisation, taking with them the IP of Cognizant. Competitor’s may emulate their C2 technology if an insider divulges information HOW DOES THE TWO IN A BOX (TIB) STRUCTURE EASE TENSIONS BETWEEN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF EMPLOYEES THANKS FOR LISTENING

Background Knowledge

Transcript: Warm water temperatures are required for a coral reef biome to exist. That is why they are in the water that is shallow. In the deeper locations of water, the sun isn’t able to shine due to the depths of it. With the shallow water though the sun can get to the bottom of it and warm the area up. The characteristics of a coral reef biome will depend on if it is a hard or soft coral reef. With the hard coral reef you will find those limestone skeletons being left behind from brain coral and elk horn coral. With a soft coral reef though you won’t have that left behind. There are three different types of coral reefs that have been identified. Fringing reefs are those found along the coastline. They are along the shallow waters of the continental shelf. Barrier reefs are further out into the lagoon. They actually create a barrier between the sea and the lagoon area. Coral Reef Flora and Fauna Background Information Climate From 70 to 85 °F Plants Algae and sea grasses. Animals Jellyfish, crustaceans, sea turtles, sea snakes, sea stars. Location Indo-Pacific region, Australia, American and African west coasts. Coral reef conservation A coral reef already has a lack of nutrients in it so such contaminants can be a huge problem. The algae is often going to take care of such problems. However, if the contamination is in large quantities it will be too much for the biome to handle on its own. It can continue to prosper though due to how the reproduction occurs. Fragments that are healthy can break off and start over. However, it can take a long time for the coral reef to have coloration to it once again. Even though coral reef biomes are very important to us, they are in great danger. The risk of pollution to the water is the biggest problem. Even in areas where people don’t spend much time in the water, there are concerns. The run off from sewage and from agricultural efforts take a toll on the cleanliness of the water. Coral Reef Video Coral Reef Biome Coral Reef Characteristics There is no denying a very complex type of habitat exists in the coral reef biome. However, it also offers a structure that provides a great hiding place for many creatures. This includes sponges, an array of species of fish, jellyfish, and crustaceans. They include snails, turtles, and mollusks. You will find many species of birds living in the coral reef biome. This is because they can easily access different types of living creatures for food. The will dive into the water, get the food, and come back out. Other food sources will simply float to the top so they can rest on the water and consume them.

Background Knowledge

Transcript: Interesting Facts I chose Ansel Elgort because when I saw The Fault in Our Stars I fell literally in love with him. I feel like he really gets into whatever character he plays and really connects with it. Also he's super cute. He's just a rising star as of now but I'm sure he's going to make it far in his acting career. Known for: The first movie Ansel Elgort was cast in was Carrie (2013) in which he played Tommy Ross. He is also one of the cast of the movie Divergent, playing Caleb Prior. Mostly known for playing Augustus Waters in The Fault In Our Stars. Ansel isnt only an actor, he is also music DJ and model on the side and a classically trained dancer. His DJ name is ''Ansolo". He has been on the cover of Teen Vouge and Seventeen magazine in the past and has done many more spreads. Ansel Elgort Actor, disc-jockey, musician, singer, producer Born on March 14th, 1994 in New York City, NY He is the youngest of three siblings. His father Arthur, is a famous fashion photographer well known for his work on "Vogue" Magazine. His first movie was 'Carrie,' where he played Tommy Ross. He's a Pisces He's 6'4 Though he's one of the most popular young actors working today, he's appeared in only five films Education: Attended Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School Ansel Elgort Interesting Facts cont. Why I chose him? Background Knowledge Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie: Liplock MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss Young Hollywood Award for Best Onscreen Chemistry Young Hollywood Award for Standout Performance by a Young Actor - Male Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Breakout Star Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie: Chemistry Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actor: Drama Carolyna Cruz Period 6 Mr. Thompson Wins

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