Transcript: The monotheistic religion of the Jews. They belive there is only one God the God of Moses and Abraham. Judaism`s Impact Modern Judasim Impact A polytheism religoin, and a ancient reilgion physically. Also a relgion that that thier home and people havent went threw hard times. Well it started with the old testament of the Holy bible which was the time you would go to heaven then in the New Testament people were misbehaving. So their God sent out Jesus and he died for our sins. However some Jews didn`t become Chirstians because they didn`t think Jesus did he part as the Messiah. During world war two things happend to Jews. Judaism started in the beginning of human kind. Then in the New testament of the Holy bible that is were the giagantic differnece is between Christians and Jews. Jews believe that the Messiah Jesus Christ did not fulfill his duties as the Messiah and do not look for Jesus for strength. They reject Jesus as God and only believe in God the father and God the Holy Ghost. Ancient and Modern Judasim`s Effects Ancient Middle East Judasim Impact $FREE Tuesday, November 17, 2015 By: David-Chuku Agwu YouTube, Watchmojo .com. "History of World War II: The Camps." <i>YouTube</i>. YouTube, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 23 Nov. 2015. < What are the beliefs of Jews Their story Credits Well first of all some figures that the lord has used that both Christians and Jews know Abraham and Sarah were from Mesopotamia. Jewish roots mostly started in the middle east so a lot of jewish holidays are celebrated in the ancient middle east. What is Judaism? Since a lot of Judaism was started in the middle east in the ancient times there are still a lot of jews in Middle east even though Isreal is the home of jews. So of that it spread and now jewish culture is there. Definition of Judasim The Foundational Beliefs of Jews The story of Modern Jews What Judaism isn`t Vol XCIII, No. 311 Judaism Presentation Antonyms of Jews
Transcript: Religious Literature and Sacred Writings Origin of the term Judaism The People Who Practice Judaism Key Beliefs of Judaism Background on Judaism Judaism has evolved, and currently shares more secular ties compared to its ancient version. Modern Judaism is referred to as Orthodox Judaism and seeks to merge the core Jewish values of the Torah with the belief systems of the secular world. Today there are approximately 600,000 Orthodox Jews in the United States, plus another 850,000 in Israel, and perhaps another 750,000 committed Orthodox in the rest of the world. This means that there are approximately 2.2 million Orthodox Jews who are indeed Orthodox - that is to say, wholly committed to Orthodoxy. Modern Judaism Original Practice of Judaism Abraham - Father of Judaism Moses - Lead Jews out of bondage; Wrote the Torah; Was given the 10 Commandments by God King Saul - First Jewish King King David - Establishes Jewish nation as God's powerful nation. King Solomon - Builds temple in Jerusalem to honor God; wisest man to live. The Maccabees - Founded Hasmonean dynasty; Reasserted Judaism and expanded Israel Jesus of Nazareth - Redefines God's will for man and brings a religious revolution to Jews and Judaism. Judaism has followed the same set of laws since they were formed at Mount Sinai - at the time of Moses. (Exodus 34:28) The major practical difference is that from the time of Moses to the time of the Babylonians there was a Temple where a number of Temple-related centered practices took place, and there was the land of Israel -- and a good number of Jewish laws applied specifically to the land. ( Exodus 20 – 31:11) Sivers, Peter Von, Charles Desnoyers, and George B. Stow. Patterns of world history. New York: Oxford U Press, 2012. Print "Judaism." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Feb. 2017. Web. 16 Feb. 2017. "BBC - Religion: Judaism." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2017. "BBC - Religions - Judaism: Moses." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2017. Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2017. According to Rabbinic Judaism, a Jew is anyone who was either born of a Jewish mother or who converted to Judaism in accordance with Jewish Law. God created the universe without help God is omnipresent: God is everywhere, all the time. God is omnipotent: God can do anything at all. God is beyond time: God has always existed God will always exist. God is just, but God is also merciful God punishes the bad God rewards the good God is forgiving towards those who mess things up. God is personal and accessible. God is interested in each individual God listens to each individual God sometimes speaks to individuals, but in unexpected ways. In-Depth Analysis of Judaism Judaism was the first tradition to teach monotheism, the belief that there’s only one God. As Judaism evolved, the idea of God evolved, too, focusing on One unknowable, universal, image-less Being, Who, because the universe is framed in Love, requires justice of human beings. The Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). God exists. There is only one God. There are no other gods. God can't be subdivided into different persons (unlike the Christian view of God) Jews should worship only the one God God is Transcendent: God is above and beyond all earthly things. God doesn't have a body Which means that God is neither female nor male. by Chad-Seth Greenidge Changes in Judaism Through the death of Jesus Christ approximately 2500 years ago, the sacrifices and land laws of original Judaism were no longer needed. Jesus Christ had created a new form a Judaism referred to as "exile Judaism". Exile Judaism is a form of Judaism that does not incorporate sacrifices and land rituals. History also suggests that Christianity has stemmed from the core beliefs of Judaism. This is suggested due to Christianity being based on the example of Jesus Christ who was a Jew. Founder of Judaism Jewish history begins with the covenant established between God and Abraham around 1812 BC, during the Bronze Age, in the Middle East. Abraham is considered as the father of the family of Jews. Moses, is also an important figure as he gave the Jews the Torah around 1250 B.C. The Torah contains the laws of God. The term Judaism derives from Iudaismus, a Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός or Ioudaïsmos (from the verb ἰουδαΐζειν, "to side with or imitate the [Judeans]"), and it was ultimately inspired by the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת, Yahadut. Major Jewish Leaders 10 Commandments: Can be found in Exodus 20 Torah: First Five Books of the Hebrew Bible Jews associate the origins of Judaism to Palestine, a land that is considered the crossroad of trade between Asia, Europe, and Africa. The core beliefs and knowledge of Judaism were given to Abraham, by the God of Heaven. Historians suggest that Abraham was given enlightenment in his home city of Ur, and spread his beliefs during his journey to Canaan (Palestine). Bibliography
Transcript: Judaism Prezi By AJ Bohlender Moses Receives 10 Commandments Moses Receives 10 Commandments The 10 Commandments are the Holy Principles of Christians, Catholics, and Muslims. Moses Went on Mt. Carmel. Moses Went on Mt. Carmel Moses got the Israelites out of Egypt and went on Mt. Carmel to get the 10 Commandments from God. Moses Threw the Commandments. Moses Threw the 10 Commandments The Israelites noticed that Moses was taking a while so they made an idol. Moses came down from the mountain, saw the idol, and threw the commandments on the ground. Moses' Face Becomes Radiant Moses' Face Becomes Radiant When he came back from the 2nd time on the mountain with another set of commandments his face was radiant because he was filled with God. King Solomon built the temple because his father David couldn't, because he had blood on his hands. King Solomon Builds First Temple King Solomon Builds First Temple The Ark of the Covenant was kept in the temple. It housed the 2 tablets of the 10 commandments, Aaron's staff, and manna. The Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant The location is unknown, but thought to be on Temple Mount. Location Location The Assyrians conquered Israel and when Israel fell, 10 tribes left. Assyrians Conquer Israel; Disperse 10 Tribes Assyrians Conquer Israel; Disperse 10 Tribes The tribes were: Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, and Ephraim. The 10 Tribes that got Dispersed The 10 Tribes that got Dispersed The king who conquered Israel was Shalmanser V. He was king or Assyria for 5 years (727 - 722 BC), The King who Conquered Israel The King who Conquered Israel The Babylonians attacked Jerusalem and saw the temple, looted it, and destroyed it. Babylonians Conquer Judah; Destroy the First Temple Babylonians Conquer Judah; Destroy the First Temple The Jews went to Babylon and were persecuted by: being thrown in a lion's den, thrown in a furnace, enslaved, etc. The Jews Persecution in Babylon The Jews in Babylon The current Hebrew alphabet was made during the exile to Babylon. Before the exile they were split into tribes, but afterward they split family groups. Impact the Exile had on Judaism Impact the Exile had on Judaism This is the second temple of Israel. It was built by Herod the Great. Second Temple Built Second Temple Built The Temple was to be built on Temple Mount (Mount Moriah). Location Location The Torah is the Holy Book. It got completed on 400 BC. Torah is Completed Torah is Completed The Torah, unlike other holy books, ends with the death of Moses. When the Torah Ends When the Torah Ends It is thought that the Torah was written by Moses except for the last 8 verses about Moses death. These verses were written by Joshua. The Author The Author The Greeks demanded people worship the Greek gods and the Maccabees led a revolt by not worshiping there Gods. Revolt Against Greek Rule Revolt Against Greek Rule The temple was lit for 8 days on only a day's worth of oil. The Miracle of the Oil The Miracle of the Oil They revolted by destroyed Greek alters, circumcised boys, and they forced Greeks into exile. How They Revolted How They Revolted In 70 A.D. the Romans took and destroyed Jerusalem and the temple. Second Temple Destroyed Second Temple Destroyed The Arch of Titus is a monument to commemorate Titus' victory in Judea. It shows a Roman victory with soldiers carrying spoils from the temple. The Arch of Titus The Arch of Titus Based on an inscription on the Colosseum, it was built in 79 A.D. from the remains of the 2nd temple. Temple Used for Colosseum Temple Used for Colosseum Jews were expelled from Spain because of the Alhambra Decree. Jews Expelled from Spain Jews Expelled from Spain The reason for the Alhambra Decree was so that Jews didn't spread there thoughts to the Converso population. A Converso is a Jew who became Catholic or Christian. The Spanish wanted them to stay that way, so they sent the Jews away. The Reason The Reason Jews emigrated to America because of persecution in Europe. Mass Emigration to America Mass Emigration to America Most Jews are Ashkenazi (from Germany or Eastern Europe), although the first Jews to come were Sephardic (from Spain or Portugal). Ethnicity of Jews Ethnicity of Jews The two main points of entry for the Jews were Ellis and Angel Island. Where They Got In Where They Got In The Holocaust was a huge part of Judaism because if they admitted to be a Jew they could've been murdered on the spot so they had to have lots of faith. Kristallnacht begins the Holocaust; 6 million Jews are murdered. Kristallnacht begins the Holocaust; 6 million Jews are murdered. The word Holocaust comes from the Greek words "holos" which means whole and "kaustos" which means sacrificial offering. Historically, the word "holocaust" was meant to describe a sacrificial burning on an alter. Holocaust Holocaust Adolf Hitler wanted to eliminate the Jewish race because he wanted to create German racial purity. Racial Purity Racial The
Transcript: Key Beliefs Origins Islam One god and his prophets Especially respect Moses More concerned with actions Key Teachings God created the universe God is one, unique, eternal There can be no other Torah Prayer directed only to God house of god --> feel god's prescence and worship together as a community Torah service --> reading 3 or 4 chapters Synagogue Keeping kosher Practice the mitzvot (commandments) Christianity Oldest surviving religion Monotheistic Abraham: first Patriarch of the Jewish people What is Judaism? Key Practices Serina & Marina Judaism?
Transcript: Diffusion of Judaism Life and Marriage Jewish Holidays Basic Principles Judaism's founder was Abraham, who made a covenant with God in which Abraham's son Issac would inherit the land of Israel and that Abraham's descendants would become the Hebrews, God's chosen people. The Hebrew God is different in that He is interested in earthly events, specifically with the Hebrews themselves. After the Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 CE, Jews scattered far and wide. Those who went into Central Europe became Ashkenazim. Those who went into North Africa and Spain became Sephardim. Death and Stages of Mourning Who is a Jew? The 13 principles of Faith by Moses Maimonides: Major Events in Jewish History Jewish Holidays Continued A place of worship 13 Prinicples of Faith Purim is a celebration of the victory of Mordecai over the evil Haman, who sought to exterminate the Persian Jews. Every year people read the Book of Ester and children eat small cream cheese cookies called hamantashen and stamp their feet when they hear "Haman." Hannukah is a celebration of when the Macabees rededicated the Temple and 1 day's oil burned for 8. A Holy Book Judaism arose on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean over 3,000 years ago, making it one of the world's oldest religions. Children engage in holidays like Hannukah, Purim, and Passover. At Hannukah they pray and get small toys. At Purim they eat hamantashen and stamp their feet when they hear "Haman" at the reading of the Book of Ester. At Passover they ask 4 questions (look up "Passover: 4 questions"). Judaism is one of the first monotheistic reigions, with it's followers believing in one God who protects and blesses His chosen people, the Hebrews. There are three sects: the Orthodox who believe in preserving the old ways, the Reform who believe in adjusting Judaism to fit the modern world, and the Conservatives who are in the middle. Worldwide Density Map Timeline Like Christians, Jews have a weekly day of rest going from just before sunset on Friday to when 3 stars are out on Saturday. 39 things are prohibited on Shabbat such as lighting a fire or plowing. If someone life is in danger, a Jew isn't simply allowed but required to break any law necessary to save them. Passover is a 7 day holiday comemerating the exodus from Egypt. Matzo is eaten instead of leavened things. A seder or home service is conducted, with each food symbolizing an aspect of Egyptian slavery. Founder Synagogue Pictures Shabbat The Jewish temple is called a synagogue. It is usually comprised of a large prayer hall with smaller rooms of study. The prayer leader is called a hazzan and stands at a desk called a bimah. A Jewish marriage is a contract between the man and woman, with the 2 souls becoming 1. Engagment is a contract signed by either the couple or their parents. Marriage occurs in 2 ceremonies that originally happened separatly: a betrothal (a ring or other object) and the ceremony itself. The groom stepping on the glass symbolizes the destruction of the Temple. A complete set of Tanakh scrolls Aninut is "intense mourning" when the person is still disoriented with shock. Avelut has 3 stages as well: shiva, a 7 day period of recieving visitors; shloshim, a 30 day period where mounrers don't attend marraiges, religious festival meals, and men don't shave or get haircuts; and shneim asar chodesh, a 12 month period observed by those mourning a parent. According to tradtional Jewish law, a Jew is anyone who has a Jewish mother or who has converted to Judaism. The requirements for conversion are: circumcision for men, immersion in a ritual bath, and offering a sacrifice to God in the Temple. These acts need only be observed by 3 Jewish men (aged over 13). Judaism High Holy Days are days that center on forgivness. Rosh Hashanah is the 10 days leading up to Yom Kippur where Jews are commanded to attempt to atone for sins they have commited through the year, whether voluntary or not. Yom Kippur is when Jews pray and fast for forgivness. Monotheism or Polytheism? The Jewish holy book is the Torah, which is part of the larger Tanakh, or Hebrew bible. It states that Abraham made a covenant with God where the Hebrews believe in only 1 god and He protects them. Origins The Great Synagogue in Florence Children in Judaism
Transcript: Important Symbols Hanukkah Beliefs Reform Judaism least traditional flexible Orthodox Judaism most traditional strict on following laws includes dress and diet Conservative Judaism in between Reform and Orthodox Judaism Question #1 Origins/History What religions were based off of Judaism? a) Islam b) Buddhism c) Hinduism d) Christianity History of Chanukah Afterlife/Death What goes in the blank? Judaism is the first religion to follow _______. a) monotheism b) theocracy c) polytheism d) anarchy The correct answer is... a) Islam AND c) Christianity Branches Celebrations/Holidays Why is there eight candles on the menorah? a) Because eight represents the number of idols in Judaism b) Because eight represents the years the Jews were out of the temple c) Because eight represents each major event in Jewish history d) Because eight represents the number of days that their oil candle burned for Question #7 Question # 5 Jewish system of law is called Halachah “These laws regulate civil and criminal justice; social responsibilities, such as help to the needy, education, and community institutions; family relationships; and personal ethics and manners.” Sabbath: commanded by God Every week religious Jews observe the Sabbath, the Jewish holy day, and keep its laws and customs Such as no baking, sewing, or marketing items The correct answer is... c) Yag Chemaesh Which is NOT a Jewish holiday? a) Yom Kippur b) Hanukkah c) Yag Chemaesh d) Purim . When did Jewish history begin? a)about 1000 years ago b) about 2000 years ago c) about 4000 years ago d) about 5000 years ago Question #8 The correct answer is... TRUE No specific beliefs about what happens after death Burial of body is as quickly as possible Prior to burial, body is treated with great respect, washed, and enveloped in shrouds Body is buried without a coffin When the person is dying, family members come together and if possible, the dying person recites the Shema Shema: Jewish prayer that is a declaration of faith Dying person also confesses all his/her sins At death, person's eyes are closed Lit candle symbolizes person's soul Star of David Abram idols Issac Chanukah The religious observance usually includes lighting candles and saying the prayers that go along with it. Traditions include eating many fried foods because of the significance of oil (latkes!) and playing dreidel. All Jews believe in the existence of one everlasting and invisible God. Jewish people believe that their religion, Judaism, was formed by Abram. They believe the Messiah will come to perfect this world. Moses was given the Torah by God on Mount Sinai. The Six Days of Creation Zionism The Jewish people believed that men and women who led them were prophets Question #6 The correct answer is... c) about 4000 years ago Rosh ha-Shanah Yom Kippur Sukkot Simchat Torah Hanukkah Tu Bishvat Passover/Pesach Bar/Bat Mitzvah Fast of Ninth of Av (Tishah B'Av) Yom Hashoah . How is Chanukah Celebrated? The correct answer is... "that Jews were pushed around a lot and had no homeland". Question #3 Important Facts of Judaism Jewish history began ~4000 years ago First religion to to practice monotheism, meaning they worship one god Served as the stepping stone for Christianity and Islam Major Events in Jewish History: Babylonian Exile "Between 586 and 538 B.C.[E] when the Jews of the Kingdom of Judah lived in exile in Babylonia. After Nebuchadnezzar II captured Jerusalem and destroyed the first temple in 586, he deported the Judeans to various Babylonian cities..." (Glatzer) When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylonia in 538 B.C.E, he permitted the Jews to return to their homeland. Because the Jewish people have been pushed around for such a long time, the Jewish people are found all over the world, and many Jews speak different languages Culture/Customs When Moses was given the first five books of the Bible, what were these five books called? a) The Five Books of Moses b) Shlimazel c) Torah d) The Sacred Books True or false? When someone dies, their body is buried without a coffin. Hannukah Question #4 The correct answer is... d) Because eight represents the number of days that their oil candle burned for . The correct answer is... a) The Five Books of Moses AND c) Torah By: Maggie Li, Yulian Leshuk, Eugene Ko, Andrew Magid Why are Jews found all over the world? (short answer) Abram/Abraham founder of monotheism (belief in one god). Important person for Jews, Muslims and Christians. Moses Centuries after Abraham through Moses, God gave the first five books of the bible to the Jewish people. These five books are called the Five Books of Moses or the Torah Ezra Worst time in Jewish history was when the Babylonians invaded Israel destroyed Jerusalem, the Temple, and took away Jewish leaders as captives). 50 years after, the captives were freed and Ezra became their leader. He inspired people to rebuild Temple, introduced many reforms to make sure that Judaism would survive. Question #2 Let's see if you remembered
Transcript: Why you should convert to Judaism 6/5/20 1. Abraham 1 Abraham is the man that started this journey, he was visited by Yahweh after his father's death. Yahweh told Abraham to destroy his father's idols and worship him and him alone, and to move his family to Canaan. Yahweh promised him that if he did this, he would arrive at a great nation, a land flowing with milk and honey. 2. The Journey 2 The land Abraham and his followers came across at first was nowhere near what Yahweh promised. The climate and environment were undesirable, so they travelled to Egypt. #1 Abraham had two sons, Isaac with his wife Sarah, and Ishmael with his concubine Hagar. Isaac had a son Jacob, and Jacob had 12 sons, who then became the leaders of the 12 tribes in Israel. Jacob's favorite son, Joseph, was sold to be a slave by his brothers out of jealousy. #2 While in captivity though, Joseph rose through the ranks and became the Egyptian pharaoh's chief minister of the land. After a severe drought was brought upon Canaan, Joseph's brothers came to Egypt asking for grain. Joseph chose to ignore what they had done to him and gave them the grain they desired. He then convinced them to stay in Egypt. #3 In Egypt, the Hebrews prospered and were very successful, in fact, there were so many Hebrews living in Egypt that the pharaoh claimed they didn't know Joseph, and then proceeded to enslave the Hebrew people. The pharaoh is believed to be Ramses II. 3 The Torah, the writing that describes all of this taking place All the different routes of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob The upcoming event of Moses receiving the Ten Commandments during the Exodus 3. Exodus 4 Now we have arrived at the story of Moses, who lead the Hebrews out of Egypt and freed them of slavery. When they escaped, they wandered the Sinai Peninsula for 40 years. Moses received the Ten Commandments during this period, which outlined certain laws and governing behavior. Moses had difficulty keeping everyone in order and faithful to Yahweh, Moses also died before he could finally enter Canaan. 4. Canaan 5 After Moses died, a man by the name of Joshua led the Hebrews to Canaan at last. They settled into the area with the Canaanites and Philistines. The Old Testament tells of Joshua defeating these people in battle, but no one is still very sure. Eventually, the Hebrews learned the way of the Canaanites and became farmers and herders. 6 Take your time to rethink your current beliefs Now that you have heard just some of the story, I highly encourage you to join me in the way of Judaism. It won't be an easy transition, but I'm sure you'll get the hang of it fast. Think about it, you don't have to make your decision now, but always keep it in the back of your mind. Thank you for hearing me out on Judaism.
Transcript: judaism by evan gacke slide 1-3 It is history that provides the key to an understanding of Judaism, for its primal affirmations appear in early historical narratives. the history of judaism https://www.britannica.com/topic/Judaism Judaism is more than an abstract intellectual system, though there have been many efforts to view it systematically https://www.britannica.com/topic/Judaism/The-Judaic-tradition Basic beliefs and doctrines Judaism has played a significant role in the development of Western culture because of its unique relationship with Christianity, the dominant religious force in the West. The role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization https://www.britannica.com/topic/Judaism/The-role-of-Judaism-in-Western-culture-and-civilization slides 4-6 Judaism is an ethnic religion that has more than 14 million followers worldwide. There are 6 million Jews in Israel and 5 million in the United States. Ethnic or universalizing https://www.albert.io/blog/ethnic-vs-universalizing-religions-ap-human-geography-crash-course/ The three major monotheistic religions of the world are Christianity, Judaism, and Islam which share a lot of commonalities. TPolytheistic or monotheisticopic https://www.thecollector.com/understanding-monotheism-religions/ There are about 14 million Jews around the world, representing 0.2% of the global population. Where is the religion primarily practiced? https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/2012/12/18/global-religious-landscape-jew/#:~:text=Geographically%2C%20Jews%20are%20concentrated%20primarily,Africa%20(less%20than%201%25). slides 7-9 Judaism is the world’s oldest monotheistic religion, dating back nearly 4,000 years. https://www.history.com/topics/religion/judaism How many followers worldwide? The ancient city of Jerusalem resonates deeply with three monotheistic religions: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/jerusalem-facts-holy-city-what-to-do Major holy city The Talmud (Megillah 14a) says that there had been twice as many prophets as the number of people who left Egypt (2,600,000), but only those whose messages were for future generations were recorded. This count was 48 male and 7 female Prophets. Major prophet(s) /messengers https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/list-of-jewish-prophets slides 10-12 Jewish people worship in holy places known as synagogues, and their spiritual leaders are called rabbis. The six-pointed Star of David is the symbol of Judaism. Today, there are about 14 million Jews worldwide. Most of them live in the United States and Israel. Name for followers https://www.history.com/topics/religion/judaism#:~:text=Jewish%20people%20worship%20in%20holy,the%20United%20States%20and%20Israel. For most of the history of Judaism, there were no separate branches as we now understand them. They began to emerge only when the age-old traditions of Judaism collided with the modern European world, beginning in the 18th century. Major branches https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-2000-08-16-0008160154-story.html The most important and most often written name of God in Judaism is the Tetragrammaton, the four-letter name of God. This name is first mentioned in the book of Genesis and is usually translated as 'the LORD'. Because Judaism forbids pronouncing the name outside the Temple in Jerusalem (see below), the correct pronunciation of this name has been lost—the original Hebrew texts only included consonants. Some scholars conject that it was pronounced "Yahweh", but some suggest that it never had a pronunciation (which is extremely unlikely given that it is found as an element in numerous Hebrew names). The Hebrew letters are named : יהוה; note that Hebrew is written from right to left, rather than left to right as in English. In English it is written as YHWH, YHVH, or JHVH depending on the transliteration convention that is used. The Tetragrammaton was written in contrasting Paleo-Hebrew characters in some of the oldest surviving square Aramaic Hebrew texts, and it is speculated that it was, even at that period, read as , "My Lord", when encountered. In appearance, YHWH is the third person singular imperfect of the verb "to be", meaning, therefore, "He is". Name(s) of their God(s) https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/n/Names_of_God_in_Judaism.htm slides 13-15 The Hebrew Bible contains the Torah, or Five Books of Moses, the Nevi’im comprising the books of the Prophets, and the Ketuvium, or additional writings. Name of the major holy book(s) https://www.bl.uk/works/sacred-texts-judaism#:~:text=The%20Hebrew%20Bible%20contains%20the,the%20Ketuvium%2C%20or%20additional%20writings. Important holidays https://www.umass.edu/orsl/about-jewish-holidays Shabbat The Jewish Sabbath—Shabbat in Hebrew, Shabbos in Yiddish—is observed every week beginning at sunset on Friday evening and ending after dark on Saturday evening. For religiously observant Jews, Shabbat is as important as any other holy day. Orthodox Jews do
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