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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Transcript: Causes Inflammatory bowel disease affects about the same number of women and men age: Inflammatory bowel disease usually begins before the age of 30 family history: You're at higher risk if you have a close relative with the disease Isotretinoin use: Isotretinoin is a medication sometimes used to treat scarring cystic acne or acne that doesn't respond to other treatments. cigarette smoking some pain relievers: ibuprofen, naproxen (Aleve), and asprin where you live Mayo Clinic Staff. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2014. <>. Podolsky, Daniel K., M.D. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease." New England Journal of Medicine (1991): 928. Print. Schneider, H., et al. "Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis-Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as Tool to Influence Inflammation." International Journal of Molecular Sciences: n. pag. Abstract. Print. Work Cited IBD primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes long-lasting inflammation in part of your digestive tract. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation anywhere along the lining of your digestive tract, and often spreads deep into affected tissues Symptoms Inflammatory Bowel Disease The goal of inflammatory bowel disease treatment is to reduce the inflammation that triggers your signs and symptoms. medications: anti-inflammatory drugs immune system suppressors antibiotics other medications: laxatives pain relievers anti-diarrheals iron supplements surgery cancer surveillance: reduce the risk of colon cancer Diagnosis Ulcerative colitis symptoms Ulcerative proctitis: inflammation is confined to the area closest to the anus Proctosigmoiditis: bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps and pain, and an inability to move the bowels in spite of the urge to do so Left-sided coliti: inflammation extends from the rectum up through the sigmoid and descending colon, which are located in the upper left part of the abdomen Pancolitis: bouts of bloody diarrhea that may be severe, abdominal cramps and pain, fatigue, and significant weight loss Fulminant colitis: life-threatening form of colitis affects the entire colon and causes severe pain, profuse diarrhea and, sometimes, dehydration and shock Crohn's disease symptoms Diarrhea Abdominal pain and cramping Blood in your stool Ulcers Reduced appetite and weight loss blood tests stool sample colonoscopy: view the inside of your entire colon using a thin, flexible, lighted tube with an attached camera X-ray CT scan MRI small bowel imaging: You drink a solution containing barium, then X-ray, CT or MRI images are taken of your small intestine capsule endoscopy: you swallow a capsule that has a tiny camera in it. The camera takes pictures as it moves through your digestive tract, and the images are transmitted to a computer. double-balloon endoscopy: a longer scope is used to look further into the small bowel where standard endoscopes cannot reach Treatment and Drugs What is it? Risk Factors The exact cause is undetermined; however, scientists believe the: immune system: Virus or bacterium can trigger IBD. "The digestive tract becomes inflamed when your immune system tries to fight off the invading microorganism (pathogen)." heredity: First-degree relatives of people who have IBD are significantly more likely to also have the disease. environmental factors: IBD also tends to occur more often in the urban areas of developed countries. theory suggests industrialized nations are "too clean"...are exposed to fewer bacteria, their immune systems may be inadequate, which leads to autoimmune disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation of all or part of your digestive tract.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease:

Transcript: IBD is used to describe the previous mentioned diseases since they are the most prevalence of most cases. Crohn’s disease affects the entire digestive system, while Ulcerative Colitis mainly affects the large intestine as well as the rectum (Abraham, Cho, 2009). (Related to IBD) The symptoms for both diseases are similar, and they are belly pains, weight loss, bloody or recurring diarrhea, and extreme tiredness. Some people my also experience additional symptoms such as anemia, vomiting, and/or a fever though most people won’t have these extra symptoms. IBD in Canada What is IBD? Inflammatory Bowel Disease or Disorder (IBD) is a disease that causes chronic inflammation and ulcers, sometimes lasting for a long time, in your digestive tract. There are many different types of IBD, but the major two types include Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis. (Health Care systems) International Relevance The determinants of health that this program discusses include socio-economic status since they provide support for families that have been affected and cannot provide for themselves, they also discuss education, gender roles, and provide statistics about the diseases and its effect on those aspects. Finally, this health program also addresses social support networks, social and physical environment, child development and coping skills and personal health practices in their about page that talks about Crohn’s and Colitis and it’s impact on families and communities. Income and Social Status (socio-economic status) Education Social Support Health Services Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Social Determinants of Health Social Determinants of Health This program is a national only program in Canada that is volunteer based and is a charity funded program that aims to assist in aiding the families, children, and adults that are afflicted with Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative Colitis. They also help the lives of the people afflicted with Crohn’s or Colitis through patient programs, advocacy, research, and awareness (Crohn’s and Colitis Canada, 2014). They are also one of the top two health charity funders for the Crohn’s and Colitis diseases’ research in the world (Crohn’s and Colitis Canada, 2014). Canada's Relevance They also have many objectives in their mission, which is to raise funds to increase public awareness of these diseases as well as their organization, educate and teach families, patients, governments, and industries about these diseases, invest in research to advance the technology and knowledge about these diseases, and advocate to stakeholders and governments for those that have been afflicted by Crohn’s and Colitis (Crohn’s and Colitis Canada, 2014). References Both Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease are not common and are not associated with an increased mortality, rather with a decreased quality of life and an increased mortality and are capable of a relapse (Loftus, Sandborn, 2002). There is evidence that suggests that IBD is the result of an inappropriate response to intestinal microbes in a genetically susceptible host (Abraham, Cho, 2009). Canada has among the highest reported prevalence (number of people with CD or UC) and incidence (number of new cases per year) of IBD in the world. 20-30% of people with IBD are diagnosed before the age of 20. Canada has one of the highest rates of childhood-onset of IBD in the world. The total costs from IBD in Canada are conservatively estimated at $2.8 billion per year in 2012 (over $11,900 per person with IBD every year). Direct medical costs totaled over $1.2 billion per year. They are dominated by medications ($521 million), followed by hospitalizations ($395 million) and physician visits ($132 million). IBD causes significant non-financial costs to both patients and their families. Quality of life in IBD is low across all dimensions of health, compared to the general population. IBD severely impacts quality of life through ongoing debilitating symptoms, reduction in ability to work, social stigma, management of bathroom access issues, difficulty Symptoms of IBD Crohn’s and Colitis. (2014). Crohn’s and Colitis Canada. David Fitzsimmons (Cartoonist).(2012). Anti-Vaxxers[Cartoon], Retreived Sep 21,2016, Abraham,C. Cho.J.H (2009). Inflammatory Bowel Disease.The New England Journal Of Medicine, Vol 361, pg 2066-2078 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra0804647 Loftus,E.V , Snadborn.W.J (2002). Epidemiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, Vol 31 Issue 1, pg 1-20 Mayo Clinic Staff (2014/09/09) Mayo Clinic NHS (2015/03/20) NHS Choices CrohnsandColitisUK(Author). What are Crohn’s and Colitis? Retrieved: 10/03/2016,

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Transcript: Anti- Inflammatories Food Care Antibiotics Bloody/ Mucas Diarrhea Trouble with bowel movements Prognosis Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is the chronic inflammation of a part in the GI track. No specific environmental, dietary, or infectious causes have been identified Purebred cats. Vomiting diarrhea changes in appetite weight loss/gain What Is It? By: Corrinne Heiser Inflammatory Bowel Disease in felines Sachar MD., David B., and Aaron E. Walfish MD. "Overview of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Merck Manual Professional." THE MERCK MANUALS - Trusted Medical and Scientific Information. 2010-2011 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., 10 Feb. 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <>. "Merck Veterinary Manual." The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Manual. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <>. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Cats." Home - Cat-World. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <>. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Cats: Winn Feline Foundation." Cat Health Information from the Winn Feline Foundation. CFA. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <>. Clinical Signs Cont. good for control Poor for cure. Treatment Cont. Biopsy Diagnostics Fecal examination Abdominal raidographs or ultrasounds Clinical Signs Metronidazole Ursodeoxycholic acid Blood Count Bibliography Treatment

inflammatory bowel disease

Transcript: Several environmental factors may provide some insight into the susceptibility to ulcerative colitis: 1- smoking : plays a protective role ( UC, Extraintestinal manifestations and post operative complications ) 2- diet 3- drugs 4- geographical and socioeconomic status 5- stress 6- microbial agents: although no bacterial strain are specific for UC, but researches found that animals lived in germ free environment didn’t develop UC. 7- appendectomy: particularly at young age, reduces the probability of developing UC So interestingly appendectomy and smoking appear to be additive in protecting against the development of UC. Ulcerative colitis In gross inspection the colonic mucosa appears swollen and congested even in mild cases of ulcerative colitis. As the disease progresses, the mucosa begin to erode leaving only small islands of mucosa that resemble polyps – pseudopolyps. The mucosal erosions often coalesce to form linear ulcers and superficial fissures that undermine the remaining mucosa, which becomes friable and erythematous with reduced haustral folds. what is the role of environment ? Pathophysiology : Early lesion consists of an infiltration of inflammatory cells, primarily polymorphonuclear leukocytes, into the crypts at the base of the mucosa, forming crypt abscesses. As the lesions progress these crypts coalescence and desquamation of overlying cells lead to formation of ulcers. This cryptitis is associated with undermining of adjacent, relatively normal mucosa which becomes edematous and assumes a polypoid configuration as it become isolated between 2 ulcers. – pseudopolyps Usually UC is confined to the mucosa and submucosa but in the most severe forms of the disease, such as fulminant colitis or toxic megacolon, the disease process may extend to the deeper muscular layers of the colon and even to the serosa. No specific gene has yet been linked to ulcerative colitis. Increased risk among family members of patient with ulcerative colitis, particularly first degree relatives. CD and UC can occur within the same family, 80-90% concordance for the same disease category in the same family. For twins, if one got the disease increased risk for the other twin. Higher risk in genetically isolated groups such as – Ashkenazi jwes. Geographic and racial differences can influence the occurrence of the disease. No conclusive evidence regarding the genetics versus the environmental determination of the familial patterns There is a strong possibility that genetics also play some role in susceptibility to extraintestinal complications of ulcerative colitis. PSEUDOPOLYPS Mild UC : Bloody diarrhea Abdominal pain Fever Moderate UC : Bloody diarrhea is the major symptom Fulminant UC : Develop sudden onset of frequent bloody bowel movements High fever Weight loss Diffuse abdominal tenderness Physical findings are generally associated with the : duration , extent, and severity of the disease. Weight loss and pallor usually accompany acute flare of the disease. Acute flares usually present like surgical abdomen, with fever, and decreased bowel sounds In patients with toxic megacolon abdominal distention may be identified. Clinical features: histologically what is ulcerative colitis ? Conclusion what is the role of genetics ? Pathology : Could include the following organs: 1- skin 2- oral cavity 3- tongue 4- joints 5- liver and biliary tract - Many extraintestinal manifestations of UC are closely related to disease activity and respond to therapy with steroid, immunosuppressive agents, or surgical treatment. 80% of patients especially those with pancolitis show some hepatic involvement. Sclerosing cholangitis is observed in 1-4% of patients. Although some patients respond to colectomy, most show progression of their hepatic disease even after colon resection. Affected patients are also at greater risk of developing carcinoma of the bile duct. Extraintestinal manifestations: It appears that the development of UC is a result of series of overlapping interactions between: 1- extrinsic environmental factors 2- genetic intrinsic factors 3- mucosal barrier function Is a chronic disease Affects the mucosa of rectum and colon Etiology is unknown Clinical course of the disease manifests with remission and exacerbation Characterized by : rectal bleeding and diarrhea Most commonly affects patients in youth or early middle age Can have serious long term local and systemic consequences No specific medical therapy is curative Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provide the only complete cure CONTINUOUS INVOLVEMENT

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