Transcript: Growth & Development Maturation perspective Information Processing Perspective Ecological perspective The greater the velocity of rotation, the greater the velocity of the projected object. Before throwing, the arm is bent reduce inertia because the shorter the limb, the lesser the inertia Increase the radius of rotation by straightening the throwing arm just before releasing the ball to increase velocity. Motor development is concerned with the development changes in movement abilities when one grows older and stronger. Stability and Balance Dynamic System Approach Environment Factors that Influence Movement Skills Acquisition Our body containts various biological systems (e.g. central nervous systems, muscular system) contribute in producing motor movement Perception-Action Approach Social and Cultural Constraints to Motor Development Body scaling is an individual process, everyone will arrive at different perceptions. Fundamental Movement Skills stability locomotor manipulative/ ballistic Specialised Movement Skills Fundamental skills applied in the performance of a specific sport or activity Sensory Perception Development The ultimate revision guide to IPE3002! Motor control refers to the nervous system's control of the muscles to permit skilled and coordinated movement. Increase the time which impact occurs Increase the body area which impact occurs Coordinated movement is a result of body systems acting together as functional unit. (Spontaneous self-organization) Process of socialization includes: Significant others Social Situation Individual Constraints By applying force over a greater distance, you can move the object over greater distance. By adding the rotary or angular distance which the arm rotates around a joint and therefore increasing the range of body motion, we can move the object over a greater distance. Stability refers to a body that is not easily moved. Balance refers to the ability to maintain an equilibrium steady position even when moving. The wider the base and the lower the height of te body, the lower the centre of gravity and hence greater the stability. Body scaling is an interaction between individuals and task constraints. Open Kinetic Chain Close interrelationship between the perceptual system and the motor system. Principles of Motion and Stability Heredity Nutrition Exercise Illness Lifestyle Indivdual Environment Task Motor learning is more concerned with the change in technique Visual Element Sensation Perception Kinesthetic Element Sensation Perception Auditory Element Opportunity to practice Encouragement Instruction Ecological setting Theoretical Perspective Movement Skill Acquistion Introduction All the best for the test! :) Newell's Constraints Model That's all folks! Physical growth is a quanitative increase in size. Force Absorption Factors Affecting Growth More body parts are required to generate greater force. These body parts move in a sequential manner in the process of performing a task. optimal sequence optimal timing
Transcript: Age: 65 and up Physical Development: Gray hair and the body starts to deteriorate. The vertebrae is becoming closer together and possibly making them hunch backed. Mental Development: It depends on the elderly person at the time, but they could develop any series of diseases. Such as, alzheimers. Emotional Development: It also depends on the person, but usually this is a difficult stage because a loved one is dying or a spouse. Also, the move into a nursing home can be difficult to handle. Social Development: In this stage of elderly peoples lives they are interested in making new friends and becoming involved in activities. They have nothing better to do with their time, so this is what they do. Late Adulthood Physical Development: Ages 20 to 40, is the most productive stages of life. Prime childbearing, and can produce the healthiest babies. mental development: Pursue education to establish a career. They have independence, get a career, family, and lifestyle. Emotional development: Stability and most adults can coupe with their small problems. Most young adults can cope with these worries, and they like to achieve. Social development: Moving away from peer groups and growing up. Young adults do not generally accept sex roles, and do what they want. Refernces Age: 6 to 12 Physical Development: This stage is called preadolescence. Weight is around 5 to 7 pounds and height increases to 3 inches. Physical development increases, and most teeth come in. During the ages 10 to 12, sexual maturity can begin. Mental Development: It increases rapidly during this stage because of the child attending school. Children use problem solving and emotions. They begin to think more about their actions and abstract ideas. Emotional Development: Independence is a goal at this stage. At age 6, children are scared and uncertain of school. By 10 to 12 changes occur with emotions and can cause children to become difficult to be understood. Social Development: Seven year olds try to like activites they can old alone. From ages 8 to 10, they want to be more oriented and with people their same sex. They start to make more friends. They are more independent but still need reassurance from parents. Physical Development: Adolescence, ages 12 to 20, is often a traumatic stage. Mostly physical changes occur during this period. They can weigh up to 25 pounds and the height increase exponentially.This is the awkward stage. Children dont know what to do with thier growing bones and so on. PUBERTY is the common. Girls and boys change in the physical appearance. The girls get wider hips, breasts, and height, and boys get a deeper voice and facial hair. Mental Development: An increase in knowledge and skills. They are told conflicting ideas to grow up and stay a child. Emotional Development: They want to be independent but they are uncertain. Toward the end, identity has been established. The become mature. Social development: More times with peers and less with family. They find people with common interests. By this time they might have things such as anorexia , bullimia, and suicicde. Early Childhood Adolescence Physical development: Ages 40-65, physically changes occur. The hair grays and it starts to fall out, and they get wrinkles. Mental development: It can increase during this stage. They begin to understand life and become confident in decision making. Social development: Divorce rates are high in this group. People associate with people that have the same interests. Menopause is common in this age group. Mental development: They continue to learn more and more. Emotional development: Sometimes they can reach a mid life crisis at this stage. https://www.google.com/search?num=10&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=681&q=babies&oq=babies&gs_l=img.3..0l10.4869.5413.0.6094.6.6.0.0.0.0.133.457.4j2.6.0...0.0...1ac.1.cnZaFcQWiSo Diversified Health Occupations http://www.google.com/imgres?q=elderly&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1280&bih=904&tbm=isch&tbnid=sVIvbIm3pW2z5M:&imgrefurl=http://images.businessweek.com/ Growth and Development Michele Richard Mrs.Hoard-3rd Health Science 9-21-12 Age: 1 to 6 years Physical Development: From ages 1 to 6, physical growth is apathetic. The average weight for a 6 year old is 45 pounds with a height of 46 inches. Muscle coordination allows the child to run and move. Eventually the child learns to write, draw, and use utensils. By 2 or 3, teeth came in a the digestion system can handle adult foods. Between 2 and 4, children can control bowl movements. Mental Development: Mental and verbal development increase rapidly during this time. Vocabulary expands greatly from age 1 to age 6. Their ability to think becomes greater as they become 4. At age 6, children want to talk more and read and write. Emotional Development: At age 1 to 2, children recognize affects of actions. Children want to do things beyond their abilities and get upset when they can not do so. 4-6 children have a better understanding
Transcript: Interaction with adults strengthens the child's vocabulary Due to the high level of activity children partake in, snacks throughout the day are highly recommended Emotional Development: Self Regulation: the ability to manage ones behaviour so as to withstand impulses, mainatin focus, and undertake tasks even if there are other more enticing alternatives available. Cognitive Development: The Three Year Old WEIGHT: avg. 3 year old; 30-33 pounds, 4 year old; 38 pounds, 5 year old; 40-50 Extremely responsive to happiness and laughter Experience intense feelings Sensitive to correction Take on emotions of the adults around them Have genuine questions about life, death, heaven and hell Calcium, Vitamin D and Iron are all essential in a growing child 60 minutes of daily physical activity Sleeping decreases as age increases ie. 3 year olds; 10-12 hours, 5 year olds; 9-11 hours Nightmares occur more frequently as a result of overfatigue, as well as overstimulation Communication Strategies Can count 10 or more objects Correctly names at least four colors Better understands the concept of time Knows about things used every day in the home *pay attention and remember things on purpose HEIGHT: avg. 3 year old; 37", 4 year old; 41", and 5 year old; 43-52" OVERVIEW Health Promotion and Protection Correctly names some colours Understands the conecpt of counting and may know a few numbers Tries to solve problems from a single point of view Begins to have a clearer sense of time Follows three part commands Recalls parts of a story Understands the concepts of "same" and "different" Engages in fantasy play be at eye level with the child Relationships with those around ie. Parents Nutrition 1) Physical symptoms CALORIE INTAKE: 1000 plus 100 with every year ex. a 4 year old would intake approximately 1400 calories Body temp: 98-99 degrees Pulse: 70-110 bpm Respiration: 25/minute Blood Pressure: 101-115 systolic, 57-68 diastolic The 4 year old begins to: Understand size relationships Follow a three-step command Count to four Name four colours Enjoy rhymes and word play VITAL SIGNS relate health promotion concepts to the preschooler's interests make being healthy fun and interactive Makes mechanical toy work Matches an object in their hand or room to a picture in a book Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people Sorts objects by shape and color Completes puzzles with three or four pieces Understands concept of "two" Playing with others allows the individual to learn teamwork and cooperation explain exactly what you will be doing Social and Emotional Developmental Skills: do NOT use figures of speech Communication in Health Teaching Preschooler Communication PRESCHOOL Produce anger in uncontrolled ways Insecure attachment histories produce a lower self esteem The Four Year Old Growth and Development When communicating with preschoolers... Exercise, Rest and Sleep DAILY PROTEIN: ranges from 13 g/day to 19 g/day VISION: far sighted (20/30 vision) The 3 year old uses: Pronouns and prepositions appropriately Three word sentences Plurtal words Language Milestones Social Development: Identify and understand one's own feelings Accurately read and comprehend emotional states in others Manage strong emotions and their expression in a constructive manner Regulate one's own behaviour Develop empathy for others Establish and sustain relationships The Five Year Old 3) Verbal communication Preschoolers gain pleasure and comfort in knowing where things are and having personal space for loved possessions Find Comfort and Acceptance in; Smiles Warm gazes Physical closeness Affectionate touches Supportive words WHERE DOES IT ALL BEGIN? 2) Actions do NOT make false promises speak in a calm and caring tone Physical Development: The 5 year old: Shows early understanding of time concepts Counts to 10 Knows telephone number Responds to "why" questions
Transcript: When young adults leave home, they have to develop new types of relationships. They may have a partner or get married, all this means making decisions, accepting responsibility & sharing. Relationships with parents change. Starting a job involves developing working relationships. Formal relationships like those at work where certain rules have to be followed and informal relationships such as friends – casual or social relationships. Remedy EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Spiritual Needs LIFESTAGES: PHYSICAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Physical growth in childhood is more gradual than infancy, although there is a spurt between 5 – 7 years old. From children 5 years of age they develop their physical skills. They improve their co-ordination and control, can skip, throw and catch accurately and hit a ball with a bat. Children still depend on their carers & close family. How they are treated by them is still very important for their self-concept. Now there are other influences as well. As children get older they meet more people outside the family. Their self-concept is affected by their relationships with others – school friends, teachers. If they are popular in school & have lots of friends it will have a positive effect on their self-concept, being unpopular or bullied can have a negative effect.Having emotional stability is important in the development of the child. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE: The hormonal changes that are responsible for puberty also affect the emotions of the adolscents, they tend to have a lot of mood swings. They may be excited one minute and then depressed the next. At the same time they are looking for a sense of personal identity, or to discover ‘who they are’ e.g. what they want to do or be in life whether there option subjects are really right for them and if that's what they want to do for the rest of their lives. Insecurity can be a part of adolescent's emotional development. It is a time when their personality is developed, based on their individual characteristics, habits and experiences. e.g they feel ugly and they think hey look ugly and have to wear make up. keep mentally active get reading glasses and have good light get a hearing aid keep physically active anti-wrinkle cream hair cream and keep calm don't get stressed. At this age you start to understand your religion and your background more. You start to ask questions about the religion and beliefs. At Church, Mosque etc you start to pay more attention and understand what is being said. You may also start to pray for useful things and ask God, Allah etc. for help, to thank him etc. Spiritual Needs Infancy 0 – 3 years old Childhood 4 – 10 years old Adolescent 11 – 18 years old Adulthood 19 – 65 years old Later adulthood 65+ The 4 main areas where growth & development can occur are: Physical Intellectual Emotional Social Spiritual Physical Development in Later adulthood (65+) ADOLESCENCE (11 – 18 years) PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Both boys and girls have a growth spurt caused by the production of hormones. The most important physical development in adolescence is puberty, when they become sexually mature, the hormones that produce the growth spurt also cause the sex organs to produce sex hormones. Children learn to talk well and can speak full sentences and for a while making a proper conversation, interacting and showing understanding towards what you are saying. Their brain develops in ways in which we use our minds to organise thoughts and information, these include colour, number, size etc. The child also learns right from wrong. They also begin to learn new vocabulary as they listen to other children in their class and new words introduced by their teacher. They start to see things from someone else’s point of view (eempathising). They start to work things out, but need to see and touch things to understand and solve problems. The jobs adults do are an important part of their identity & self concept. A person may feel proud of their job & think they have been successful in getting it. If they are not satisfied with their job, they may feel a failure. Spiritual needs for Adulthood Body organ system Growth and Development - Individual needs PIESS PIESS are the needs that a person needs to have. PIESS stands for : Physical Intellectual Emotional Social Spiritual EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Abraham Maslow was a man that created the heirachy of needs that some needs take precedence over others. For example, if you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first. After all, you can do without food for weeks, but you can only do without water for a couple of days! Thirst is a “stronger” need than hunger 3 years Infants can climb on play equipment,ride a tricycle and throw and catch a ball. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE: There are rapid changes in the mind as well as in the body. It is a time when adolescents learn to think in different ways. Sometimes this new
Transcript: * Young adults must form an identity separate from that of the family of origin. This process of INDIVIDUATION requires young adults to "sort out emotionally what they will take along from the family of origin, what they will leave behind, and what they create for themselves." * The autonomous stage, * Prolonging adolescence b) Accidental Deaths * The individualistic stage young adults? * Empathy Accidental Death and Injury * Memory * Ignore symptoms of disease * Major health problem in young adult (Public Health Agency of Canada) * STI’s include: chlamydia, HPV, aids, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes. * Greater intimacy skills * Fluid intelligence Growth and Development Theorist * Most young adults are in the workforce. * Affiliation and Love Cognitive Development Jeccaerin. (2009, December 2). Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. Retrieved October 28, 2012 from: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVLxxV0bIgA Jrank Social Issues Reference. (2012). Social development- adolescence and adulthood: completing the cycle. Retrieved October 28, 2012 from: http://social.jrank.org/ pages/ 601/Social-Development-Adolescence-Adulthood Completing-Cycle.html#ixzz2AjHkKqcJ Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Ross-Kerr, J.C. & Wood, M.J (2010). Canadian fundamentals of nursing. (revised 4th ed.) Toronto, ON: Mosby * Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation * Prefer enjoyment and excitement. Physical development Motor Vehicle: Primary cause of death in 15-19 year olds and second leading cause in 20-24 years. Also at time causes permanent disability Erik Erikson Theory (Pschosocial development) What * Directly and indirectly contributes to mortality and morbidity in young adults * Regular and heavy drinking (5+) drinks * Stressful time in life c) Diabetes * Mature interpersonal relationships * Be an “active listener.” * Demonstrate an understanding of young adult’s culture * Be positive and have an upbeat tone of voice. * Promote self-esteem and self-respect. Growth and Development of Young Adults * The integrated stage d) Substance Abuse * Thinking Emotional Development Sexually Transmitted Diseases Substance abuse: Changes in young adulthood • * General life satisfaction * Night life is important * Process of maturation changes U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2012, October 29). Creating a safe environment to encourage communication. Retrieved October 29, 2012 from: http://www.hhs.gov/opa/familylife/ tech_assistance/etraining/adolescent_brain/ Communication/encouraging_communication/ index.html Zurko, R. (2012). Physical & cognitive development in young adults. Retrieved October 28, 2012 from: http:// www.ehow.com/about_5468355_physical-cognitive- development-young-adults.html References Social Characteristics What do you think is the leading cause of death in young adults? Conclusion Frenzie & Dragana * Emotional health b) Accidental Death Ego Development * Active age a) Cancer Social Characteristics Communication Techniques References * Self aware stage * They migrate from country to city. * Stress * Consequences and personal limitations Health Risks What do you think is the leading cause of death in young adults? are you going through as *Leading cause of deaths in young adults * Physical assaults and suicide are another leading cause of death in young adults * Factors for this include: poverty, breakdown of family relation, child abuse and neglect and access to firearms Jane Loevinger
Transcript: some ethical issues with using human stem cells in medical research could be that it takes away something which could hold a wonderful life for a person, which they would class a murder. meristems the difference between adult and embryonic stem cells are the abilities in the type and number of differentiated cell kinds they can become. Humans have two main rapid growth phases 1. during infancy just after birth. 2. during adolescence when puberty takes place. Meristems are the areas of plants where cell division can take place. This can occur in places such as root tips, stem nodes, shoot tips and buds. Ethical issues Rapid Growth Growth and development Growth in plants and animals Cell Differentiation Adult and Embryonic cells Cell differentiation is the process where a un-specialised cell becomes specialized to do one thing. By Lydia
Transcript: Infancy Late Adulthood Ages- 12 to 20 Physical development- A growth spurt will increase weight and height a lot. weight gain up to 25 pounds and they grow inches in periods of months. Mental development- Increase of knowledge and skills. they learn to make decisions and take responsibility. Emotional development- they feel uncertain and insecure. they worry about their appearance, abilities, and also their relationship with others. Social development- spending less time with family and more time with friends and groups. they seek groups that are their age and have the same problems as them. Age- 6 through 12 Physical development- slow but steady. weight gains averages from 5 to 7 pounds per year and height increases 2 to 3 inches. Mental development- increases a lot because a child's life centers around school.there speech skills develop completely and that is also when they learn there reading and writing skills. Emotional development- helps the child achieve independence and a personality. by the ages 10 to 12 sexual maturation and the changes of the body functions. Social development- 7 years old like to do activities by themselves and don't always like group stuff. ages 8 to 10 tend to like to do group activities. they also form groups of friends. diversified health occupations Age- 40 through 65 Physical development- their hair turns gray and thin, skin wrinkles, muscle tone decreases, loss of hearing, hard to see, and weight gain. Mental development- The mental ability can still increase. Emotional development- this could be the time of satisfaction or even a crisis. Social development- family relationships begin to go away since their children are moved out and parents die. work ends up replacing family. Age- 65 and up Physical development- All body systems are affected, the sink become dry wrinkled and much thinner, brown and yellow spots appear. Mental development- every few at this age will learn anything by this time. Emotional development-some elderly people can cope with stresses and and just be happy with life. Social development- less time with co- workers and just more time to your self once they retire. Age-1 to 6 years Physical development- By age 6 the average weight is 45 pounds. the average height is 46 inches. skeletal and muscle development helps the child assume a more adult appearance. Mental development- verbal growth several words at age 1 to a vocabulary of 1,500 to 2,500 at the age of 6. two year old have very short attention spans, but are interested in many different activities. Emotional development- at age 1 to 2, children begin to develop self-awareness and the affect they have on other people.thye under stand the concept of right and wrong. Social development- 1 year is not very social, but once they get to 6 years old they become very social. they begin to enjoy the company of others, but are still very possessive. Age- 20 through 40 Physical development- Muscles are fully developed, motor coordination is at its highest. this is also the time when women are having kids and that is when you have the healthiest babies. Mental development- many adults this age get the rest of their education for their chosen careers. they start a family, become independent, and make career choices. Emotional development- they have many emotional stresses that involve career, marriage and, family. Social development- they move away from their old group and interact with people that have the same interest, but they don't care about the age. Age- Birth to one year Physical development- a newborn weighs about 6 to 8 pounds. they have the most dramatic and rapid growth changes in the first year of life. Mental development- babies respond to discomforts such as cold, pain, or hunger by crying. at birth babies are unable to speak, but after six months infants can understand some words and could make basic sounds. Emotional development-By 4 to 6 months and baby can show fear,distress, delight,anger, and disgust. Social development- By 4 months old a baby will recognize there caregivers, smile readily, and also stare at others. by six months the babies will watch the activities of other. Late childhood Adolescence BOOK Growth and Development Middle Adulthood Camrin May 3rd 9/21/12 cam Early Childhood Early Adulthood
Transcript: The Road Ahead Infants grow rapidly at this stage Develop their motor skills They learn to trust at this age 9 Months to 24 Months Go through complete puberty See things with more of a gray point of view Find a job that will be beneficial Have a family and settle down. (later in the years) 15 Years to 18 Years Have greater ability to vocalize what they want Are less self-center and thinks about the whole environment They learn to trust at this age. Watch 3 Years To 5 Years Start to notice physical changes due to puberty Take on my academic responesibility 6 Years to 8 Years 18 and Older Cognitive skills are devolping rapidly Tend to be much more independent 9 months and younger 9 Years to 14 Years
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