Transcript: Greek Theatre By: Reese Paul Who was Sophocles? -One of the most famous playwrights in all of Ancient Greece, born in 496 CE-406 BCE, his first competition in 468 CE and his last when he was 90 in 406 BCE. -Along with 2 other Tragedians, Euripides and Aeschylus, Sophocles' plays were preformed in threes, not always in a trilogy order, though. -His plays were shown at religious festivals, most notably in Dionysus Eleutherus, in the city of Dionysia, Athens. (Plays were also preformed in smaller venues around Greece.) -Sophocles (in terms of victories) was the most successful play write known, and was a big fan of his fellow playwrights. :] How was he so popular? How did he influence the future of theatre? The Greatest Playwright How Sophocles inspired the future of theatre Here's how! Sophocles added a few things that would change the ways plays were preformed and written forever! -he added a 3rd actor to the stage -he was the first to use painted scenery (and was more interested in realistic sets) -he modified the Greek Chorus into a different role, one that still sung their lines, but was also seen as a protagonist who had a strong connection to the audience. Dionysus AKA Bromius, or Evius, orrrrr Bacchus. Dionysus was the god of wine, theatre, and ALSO known as "The Masked God." The God and the Festival Dionysian Theatre: -no professional actors -all plays were chosen and preformed by Athenian men, who would play a wide range of characters, such as Herakles, (you know him as Hercules) Io, (a half cow/half woman) to even a Satyr. (half goat/half man. Think of Danny DeVito voicing Phil in Hercules.) -actors would all wear masks as their costumes, it would help the audience know which character was being preformed, and it could allow the actors to express emotions for audience members to see easily. The Festival Dionysus Eleuthereus AKA The Greater Dionysia, an annual festival where everyone, I mean everyone-slaves, women, children, any Athenian citizen- could come and gather in the nice springtime weather to the amphitheater to see the new works made by their favorite playwrights, such as Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus, Aristophanes, and many others. Although the plays were new and different each year, the schedule for the festival always remained the same. On the first day, the main festivities would include singing and worshiping the statue of Dionysus, and the day would be full of drinking and celebrating. After a night of heavy sleeping, the day would start by the orphans of the city marching down the street in remembrance of their father's sacrifice to the city. Once they arrived at the Amphitheater, they took front row seats. For the next 5 days, there would be performances of the newest tragedies followed by a comedic play afterward called a Satyr play. On the 7th day of the festival, it was a day for all comedic plays, which was much needed after all the sorrows. Then, the festival was concluded. The Greek Chorus can be compared to a modern day chorus or the ensemble in a play/musical performance. -made up of 50+ actors -they accompanied the others through singing and choreographed movements, and preformed in what is now known as the orchestra pit -however, the playwright Aeschylus reduced the size of the chorus in order to make scenes more intense. The Greek Chorus Masks! Masks could allow the chorus to have a uniformity, and encouraged reliant relationships between the cast. They were also a major advantage to the actors, as the theatre was huge, and that would mean the audience was far from the stage. Masks could accentuate an actor's movements to make them more noticable in the crowd. Functionality! The Greek Chorus acted as a protagonist who also played the role of connecting the audience to the story. It was there job to go through the 4th wall and keep everyone informed of the characters, and whilst doing so they sang and danced along with said characters. Mask! A Greek mask, made to portray the Greek god Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder. <--- :] How the tragedies were structered 1st, a prologue is spoken by one or more characters. 2nd, the chorus enters the scene, singing and dancing. 3rd, the play continues as written, switching between dialogue and singing. (sung by the chorus) 4th, after the tragedy, a small comedic show is preformed, called a Saytr Play. The Blueprints How Ancient Greek Tragedy Plays shaped the future of theatre Inspiring the Future Theatrons (theatres) back then were much bigger, and meant to hold up to 1400 audience members. They were outside amphitheatres with 3 main structures, the skene, which was the main stage, the orchestra, where the greek chorus preformed, nowadays it's used for an actual orchestra, and the audience, where spectators would sit and enjoy the show. The layout of modern day theatres are similar to those from the anicent times, but have been modified for modern usages. Masks aren't used as much anymore, but we still use similar strategies when
Transcript: Greek Drama and Theater Classical drama began in the sixth century B.C. At that time, religious festivals took place in Athens each spring in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility, or new growth. At this festival a chorus of masked dancers performed on a circular stage, singing hymns to this god. In 535 B.C.,Thespis of Icaria, a Greek poet, introduced the first actor on stage. The word "thespian," meaning actor, comes from his name. The actor impersonated various characters by wearing different costumes and masks. They would also take part in dialogue with the leader of the chorus. Religious in nature, these plays explored deep questions such as the role of fate in human life or the relationship between mortals and the gods. As time passed, Greek plays became entertaining, and writers could compete for prizes by staging plays at the festival of Dionysus in Athens. Hundreds of plays were performed at these festivals, but fewer than 35 survived. There were three great writers from this time period. Aeschylus added a second actor on stage, therefore, creating dialogue between two characters. Sophocles added a third actor, making plots more intriguing and complex. Euripides created spectacular stage effects and portrayed characters in highly realistic ways. His play Medea, for example, explores the motives of a woman guilty of a horrid crime. Most of these writers based their plays on familiar legends and myths. The audience knew the story, but the characters did not. This created an ironic perspective. Like the gods themselves looking on, the audience looked on, knowing what would happen, and yet caring deeply about the characters who suffered on stage. Greek masks were used to portray different emotions. It amplified voices and allowed actors to portray different characters. The main parts of a Greek theater were the theatron, parodos, orchestra, and the skene.
Transcript: Go on Exchange present your country abroad Work with different mentalities Diversity Explore different cultures Be a Member Develop your skills Have an impact Enrich your knowledge AIESEC Be a Leader Lead your team Achieve your vision Coach others Be a mentor EXPERIENCE YOUR AIESEC JOURNEY Gives you a great experience
Transcript: Plot Sophocles Masks amplified voices like megaphones Actors wore elevated shoes Actors on platform Skene – area behind platform, dressing and backdrop Below stage- orchestra (dancing place for chorus of fifteen) No more than three characters appeared on stage Chorus provided necessary background information Drama developed from celebrations honoring Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and fertility In March, citywide celebration with sacrifices, prizes, processions, 3 days of drama Thespis is considered the "father of drama" Foil -A foil is another character in a story who contrasts with the main character, usually to highlight one of their attributes. Aside - a remark or passage by a character in a play that is intended to be heard by the audience but unheard by the other characters in the play Monologue - an extended speech spoken by one person. Soliloquy - A type of monologue that isn't heard by the other characters. Is meant to reflect the characters inner thoughts. They named him “Oedipus” which means “swollen-foot” because of his injured ankles. As a grownup, Oedipus was accused by a drunken guest of not being his father’s son, so he traveled to consult the Delphic oracle. The oracle prophesied that Oedipus would kill his father and beget children by his mother Horrified, he vowed to never go back to Corinth Aristotle believed that plot was the primary element in tragedy, and the plot must follow these four principles: 1) The plot must be a whole, with a beginning, middle, and end 2) The plot must be internally whole, with incidents relating to each other and not interrupted by a deus ex machina or completed by a coincidence 3) The plot must reflect a serious treatment in terms of its complexity and universal appeal; and 4) The plot should not only include a change of fortune for the central character, but also some reversal or surprise and a recognition within that character of his/her changed status that brings about knowledge. Tragedy Tragedy dealt with the big themes of love, loss, pride, the abuse of power and the fraught relationships between man and gods. What does the content of Greek plays teach you about their societal values? Greek Theater Background A convention used in Greek tragedy after Sophocles for lowering or lifting actors playing gods by means of a crane on the skene (stage building that serves as dressing rooms). The Latin phrase deus ex machina, “a god from a machine,” is now used for any quick means of resolving a plot. Dramatic - Dramatic irony is when the words and actions of the characters of a work of literature have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. Situational - when the outcome is contradictory to what is expected. Verbal - when a person says or writes one thing and means another. The person is aware. "Oedipus Complex" "Electra Complex" Oedipus as a Tragic Hero Types of Tragedy Because of a prophecy that their son would kill his father, Laius and Jocasta, King and Queen of Thebes, gave their infant to a shepherd with orders that he be left on a mountainside to die. The shepherd, after having pinned the baby’s ankles together, took pity on him gave him instead to a Corinthian shepherd, who presented him to Polybus and Merope, King and Queen of Corinth, a childless couple who adopted him as their own. 1. Unity of Time - action takes place within 24hrs. 2. Unity of Place - Action was limited to one setting (violence and death took place off stage) 3. Unity of Action - no subplots, focus on one main character Basics Drama/AP Terms to Know Irony Motifs: Lightness vs. Darkness Sight vs. Blindness Themes: You cannot judge a man until his last day. All men are susceptible to the dangers of pride. The struggle of accepting fate or free will. Comedy Comedy- The first comedies were mainly satirical and mocked men in power for their vanity and foolishness. What does satire mean? “What goes on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?” Motif - Motifs are images, ideas, sounds or words that help to explain the central idea of a literary work. These will occur throughout the work Theme - A central or dominating idea in a literary work. It is what creates meaning. A work can have more than one theme. For AP level thinking, you need to always be connecting the author's choices back to theme. Focus on how the various characteristics of a work create/support theme. Catastrophe - The resolution of the plot of a tragedy, depicting the final downfall of the protagonist Miasma - An accursed state due to wrongdoings, causes a deathlike atmosphere, often referred to as "pollution" Peripeteia - The reversal of fortune, the moment in a plot when the hero's story takes an unexpected turn, an action has the opposite effect than intended. 1)Prologue - gives background 2)Parodos - chorus makes entrance, gives perspective on what audience has learned * chorus sets mood, emphasizes main themes, foreshadows 3)Episodes-characters engage in
Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. http://lifehacker.com/5401954/programmer-101-teach-yourself-how-to-code 2. http://www.bluecloudsolutions.com/blog/cost-develop-app/ 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week
Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" http://www.stoprapenow.org/uploads/advocacyresources/1282164625.pdf Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-need-for-numbers-on-rape-in-warand-why-theyre-nearly-impossible-to-get Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity
Transcript: Greek Religion Briseida Godinez 2nd Period Honors English Mrs. Perez Zeus Zeus is the god of the sky and the chief deity, sole ruler, protector of all the gods of Olympus, in addition to humankind as well. Zeus was wise and kindhearted through his rule. However, he is known for uncontrollable fury and known to trick female humans to infidelity behind his wife Hera's back. Gods His daughter Athena More Gods More Gods Other gods in this religion include Poseidon, ruler of the sea, Hades, lord of the underworld, Hera, goddess of marriage and families, Demeter, goddess of agriculture, Ares, god of war, Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty, Athena, goddess of wisdom and war Beliefs Greek religion was filed under polytheistic, meaning that is was a fact that there were multiple gods and goddesses. Offering were believed to appease the gods in a way that blessed and kept one safe. Beliefs Beliefs Ancient Greeks were in the belief that the gods and goddess were in total control of everything around them and enacted as guides to a sustainable life. For instance, the god Apollo was seen a healing deity and one of music. According to Britannica website, "...the god who made men aware of their own guilt and purified them of it; who presided over religious law and the constitutions of cities; and who communicated with mortals through prophets and oracles his knowledge of the future and the will of his father, Zeus" Beliefs circulating Apollo made him to be a warm, foretelling deity, but a force to be reckoned with if displeased. Beliefs Pictures Customs People worked to erect temples, buildings, and statues to honor the beings of their daily life. Daily bathing rituals to begin one's day were also a must. For religious special occasions, sacrificial offerings were also presented to the gods to seek their protection, guidance, and help. Customs Ancient Olympics Ancient Olympics The olympics we know today actually originated from Ancient Greece! The were created as a means of a religious festival to honor the almighty Zeus. According to History.com, "Legend has it that Heracles (the Roman Hercules), son of Zeus and the mortal woman Alcmene, founded the Games, which by the end of the 6th century B.C had become the most famous of all Greek sporting festivals. " Hercules was said to be the founder pf the games, taking place every four years between August 6th and September 19. Tales Tales Greek religious tales ranged far and wide, some including legendary Greek heroes such as Hercules, Jason and the Argonauts, and Perseus, monster slayer and eliminator of Medusa. One tale featuring our pal Perseus is the tale of him and how he met Andromeda, his wife. Others were used as cautionary tales, such as Pandora's box, a tale of how human curiosity may bring ruin. Pandora Perseus and Andromeda In the kingdom of Ethiopia, King Cepheus and Queen Cassiope always bragged that their daughter, Andromeda, was even more beautiful than Poseidon's Nereids, female nymphs of the sea. So, as revenge, Poseidon issued a sea monster to ravage King Cepheus's kingdom. With only the sacrifice of Andromeda herself appeasing the gods, she was chained to a rock in the sea and left to be the monster's snack. Perseus, flying by on his winged horse Pegasus, was captivated by Andromeda and fell in love. He then asked the King for her hand in marriage. He agreed, and Perseus slayed the monster. At the wedding feast however, Phineus, the suitor first in line for Andromeda's hand in marriage attempted to affirm his marriage to her before Perseus turned him and his followers to stone. Perseus and Andromeda Sources I Used Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Perseus". Encyclopedia Britannica, 8 Feb. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Perseus-Greek-mythology. Accessed 31 January 2022. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Andromeda". Encyclopedia Britannica, 2 Nov. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Andromeda-Greek-mythology. Accessed 31 January 2022. dev, S. U.-. (2019, December 19). 30 of the most famous tales from Greek mythology. 30 of the Most Famous Tales from Greek Mythology. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://greektraveltellers.com/blog/30-of-the-most-famous-tales-from-greek-mythology Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Apollo". Encyclopedia Britannica, 30 Oct. 2020, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Apollo-Greek-mythology. Accessed 1 February 2022. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Iliad". Encyclopedia Britannica, 11 Jun. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Iliad-epic-poem-by-Homer. Accessed 1 February 2022. https://www.britannica.com/event/Trojan-War Sources The Iliad The Iliad The Iliad is a epic poem written by Homer fixating on what falls at the hands of the greek hero Achilles, set during the time of the Trojan War. According to Britannica, "The Trojan War victory filled them with a sense of pride to be descended from the great Greek heroes such as Achilles. Today the Iliad gives insight into the horrors and
Transcript: Golden Age of Greek Theatre Pericles (560-510) 5th Century was enjoyed politically and artistically and lead us to where we are now Made the Arts Happen Aegean Culture early 17th Century 5th Century B.C.E. Pericles ruled the empire when Athens was a major force in the Mediterranean Under Pericles, Athens built many numerous temples, and public buildings, among the Parthenon Forerunners of Greek Civilization (460-430) Greek Background: Where it all began ATHENS BEGAN FIRST DEMOCRACY Polis, city-state, became a major political unit Divisions insisted on recognizing that each were different, especially based on dialect Nobles starting coming to power improving social conditions and promoting the arts OVERALL Redistributed land, promoted farming and trade Made Athens the cultural center Enlarged festivals Pesistratus The gods, heroes and history of the Aegean culture supplied the material for Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey
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