Transcript: Arching and intercepting beams of stone used to support the ceilings of structures A structure built against wall that acts as a support of the wall. Buttresses effectively remove the force of the ceiling from only enacting upon the wall and transfer the force to the ground. The design of many medieval cathedrals was that of a cross, signifying the church’s dedication to religion. A small grotesque implemented with a spout designed to remove rainwater the walls of the structure Protected the mortar that ran between walls from erosion Gothic arches Flying buttresses Windows can be placed anywhere due to the flying butresses Large (often stained glass) windows Rounded arches Buttresses (thick walls) Rather dimmly lit because windows cannot be constructed through thick walls Only windows are near roof Origins The Church held strong social, economic, and politcal power during Middle Ages Gargoyles Gothic Architecture was primarily implemented in the design of cathedrals Crusades Romanesque Gothic Vs. Romanesque Influence of Church Rather than a Romanesque arch (an arch with a rounded tip), has a pointed tip Was capable of controlling the actions of a commoner, silenced opponents, could completely excommunicate -Silenced oppenents received a tithe (10% of wealth of all individuals) Cathedrals Buttress Coined by Giorgio Vasari in the 1530's Meant as a disparaging remark Compared style to Visigoths (Barbaric people who destroyed the Roman Empire) Rib Vault -Could completely excommunicate civilians -Provided only "education" for illiterates (the majority of the population) Flying Buttress Gothic Arch Floor Plan Gothic Architecture Gothic What is Gothic Architecture? During 12th century, many Western European soldiers came in contact with the Byzantine Empire and Middle East for the first time Crusaders returned with architectural designs of the regions -Rib vaults were originated in Persia Capable of owning land Name http://animoto.com/play/j0BwZEhDVpIcAuKixbQ9GA?utm_content=main_link A buttress that does not connect to the ground, but rather connects the wall of the structure to a separate construction
Transcript: Architecture templates VIPER View Interactor A typical VIPER Module consists of five components: View, Interactor, Presenter, Entity, and Router. Presenter View is passive and doesn't do much on its own. Its sole responsibility is to message events to the presenter and display UI elements. Interactor is a UIKit-independent component that performs all business logic. For example, in our app, it uses Services to communicate with the REST API in order to obtain image data from an URL. Presenter is also UIKit-independent. It receives messages from the view and decides whether to send messages to the interactor or the router. It also receives the data from the interactor and prepares it for the view to display in the suitable format. Entity Entity is a plain model that’s used by the interactor Router Router, in our app, is responsible for creating a particular module and navigating from one module to another Clean swift Model ViewController The Clean Swift Architecture is not a framework. It is a set of Xcode templates to generate the Clean Architecture components for you. That means you have the freedom to modify the templates to suit your needs. Interactor This component encapsulates the request, response and viewmodel representation for each flow of action of the scene. These 3 elements are of the structure type. The ViewController has two main roles, one being as an entry point for any actions of the current scene, the other being to display the formatted information contained in the viewmodel back to the user. The role of the interactor is mainly the computation part of a scene. This is where you would fetch data (network or local), detect errors, make calculations, compute entries. Worker The worker is a secondary element in the clean swift schema. Its main role has to do with the heavy lifting and unburdening of the interactor from things like network api calls, database requests and so on. Presenter The presenter has a very precise role. Its main focus is to create a representation of parts of the data to be displayed on screen at a specific moment in time. This data representation is contained in an element called the viewmodel. Once it has formatted the raw data the presenter sends it back to the controller to be displayed. Router This element is linked to the controller. It takes care of the transition between scenes (screen of an application). Coordinator Using the coordinator pattern in iOS apps lets us remove the job of app navigation from our view controllers, helping make them more manageable and more reusable, while also letting us adjust our app's flow whenever we need.
Transcript: While many secular buildings exist from the Late Middle Ages, it is in the buildings of cathedrals and great churches that Gothic architecture displays its pertinent structures and characteristics to the fullest advantage. A Gothic cathedral or abbey was, prior to the 20th century, generally the landmark building in its town, rising high above all the domestic structures and often surmounted by one or more towers and pinnacles and perhaps tall spires. These cathedrals were the skyscrapers of that day and would have been the largest buildings by far that Europeans would ever have seen. It is in the architecture of these Gothic churches that a unique combination of existing technologies established the emergence of a new building style. Those technologies were the ogival or pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the buttress. Charecteristics Gothic architecture Gothic architecture grew out of the previous architectural genre, Romanesque. For the most part, there was not a clean break, as there was to be later in Renaissance Florence with the revival of the Classical style by Filippo Brunelleschi in the early 15th century, and the sudden abandonment in Renaissance Italy of both the style and the structural characteristics of Gothic. Function Background Info In Gothic architecture the pointed arch is used in every location where a vaulted shape is called for, both structural and decorative. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. Gothic vaulting above spaces both large and small is usually supported by richly moulded ribs. Rows of pointed arches upon delicate shafts form a typical wall decoration known as blind arcading. Niches with pointed arches and containing statuary are a major external feature. The pointed arch lent itself to elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming the structural support of the large windows that are characteristic of the style
Transcript: Christ church in Oxford is a classic example of early Gothic Architecture - the Tom Tower was a later addition designed by Sir Christopher Wren (who also designed the Sheldonian Theatre. Handcrafted and honest display of materials Obeying rules - architectural, social, political and religious Red House Gothic Architecture Buildings should respect the culture from which they have developed 5. Life The Architecture of the time differs from today because of its aesthetic value. Today we value the functionality of a building, Gothic revival was very much concerned with decoration and ornament. Gothic architecture flourished between the 12th and 15th centuries with some very defining characteristics! 2. Truth Gothic Architecture is charaterised by height, its skeletal design and ornamentation and is seen in many/most churches, cathedrals and academic institutions John Ruskin (1819-1900) Gothic and Gothic Revival can also be seen in the vernacular (Domestic) architecture of the time. Seen in America - San Francisco Gothic Revival Pioneered by William Morris (1834-96) who was inspired by Pugin and Ruskin. More a design movement than an architectural one the Arts and Crafts movement was also inspired in retaliation to the industrial revolution. Mass and Construction Distinguishing between Gothic and Gothic Revival Ruskin was an art critic and writer of the Victorian period, amongst his greatest work is his, '7 lamps of architecture'. 7. Obedience 4. Beauty The Industrial revolution changed the way things were manufactured, William Morris wanted to revert back to traditional hand crafts, the Red house shows how nature was inspiring to traditional craftsmen. The red brick and use of wood was backward-thinking compared to the industrialisation of the time. Buildings should be made by human hands - stone carvers/masons Sacrifice – dedication of man's craft to God, as visible proofs of man's love and obedience Arts and Crafts Movement Early Gothic is not the same as Gothic Revival 6. Memory 3. Power Ornamentation drawn from nature which God created = true beauty Augustus Pugin (1812-1852) was an Architect during the Gothic Revival period and in part pioneered the movement. Pugin built St. Augustines church in 1844 in resistance to previous the Neo-Classical styles. http://pugin.com/pic/staug.jpg Designed by William Morris Gothic Revival is an architectural movement prominent in the 19th century, it is a revival of the basic principles concerned with the original Gothic period. 1. Sacrafice Gothic Revival may look slightly more elaborate than original gothic... and of course date!
Transcript: Gothic Architecture The history of Gothic architecture. Gothic Achitecture is the style that flourished during the high and late medieval period Gothic Architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathederals, abbeys, and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, town halls, and gargoyles. It is the style of architecture developed between the Romanesque and the reinassence style of architecture. The history of gothic achitecture and the changing style of buildings are characterised by the introduction of stained glass windows, gargoyles, butresses, tall spires and pointed arches. There are three types of english architecture: - early english; 1200-1300 - decorated gothic style; 1300-1400 - perpendicular gothic style; 1400-1500
Transcript: GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE the origins of the word gargoyle are derive from the old French word 'gargouille' meaning 'throat'. Gargoyles came into gothic architecture in the early 13th Century and are (were) defined as "a waterspout, projecting from the upper part of the building to throw water clear of walls or foundations" The # (number) of Gargoyles added to the castles were numerous as dividing the flow of water minimized potential water damage. the materials used for the early Gothic gargoyles were, stone Early English Gothic Architecture emphasized height and used the pointed arc The Normans hollow walls were replaced with soild walls and pillars-allowing them to hold for greater weights and provided bigger castles. Sculptures of the stone Gargoyles were introduced as waterspout sprouts protecting the foundations from rain. The decorated Gothic Architecture style was charateristed by wider window. The introduction of flying buttresses, which distributed the weight of roofs and walls right down to the ground. Gargoyles Characteristics of Decorated Gothic Architecture but later gargoyles, especially in churches, were pre- dominately lime stone and marble, although metals, such as lead, were used in fashisoning some gargoyles. Stone measons had free chocie of their gargoyles on whether they should depict or look alike. It is an interesting fact that there is no two gargoryles alike Gargoyles are a fascinating element of Gothic Architecture. These frightening sculptures are most often associated with the Medieval Churches and cathedrals, but they are were also used to great effecr in English Gothic Castles. Gragoyles are frightening and intimi- dating sculptures- perfect for the likes of Kings and Lords who built elaborate fortresses and castles in order to crush and intimidate the indigenous population. The popinted arch, could support greater weight, allowing walls to be tinner with wider window openings Characteristics of The Early English Gothic Rose wibndows were associated with great gothic churches and Cathedrals, however some small Rose windows were featured in the chapels of Gothic Castles. Rose windows were a decorative by-product of the development of stained glass. The innovative use of the vaultsand buttresses* in the weight support allowed for the elaborate Rose windows to be featured in the building as a major entry of light. *Support for the wall: -brick, -stone, -soild structure This was the style used in the period of 1200-1300, these are the charactheristics: -The large blocks of the stone used by the Normans were replaced by shaped stones. The stones in this time was cut with precision. Towers were often surmonted with very slender towers. use of the chisel, as oppesed to axes, led to more decorative designs. The Gothic Architecture, back in the medieval days, were called Lancet The wider windows are decorated with a Tracery(a system of window decora- tion) and ornamentation.
Transcript: Construction began in 1241 on Sainte Chapelle The pointed arch also permitted Gothic architects to spread the force and weight of higher ceilings, adding to the sense of magnificence. Pointed Arch Despite the critics, Gothic architecture spread rapidly through France and Europe. Gothic Architecture The resulting light and airy space made people feel closer to God. Vaulted Ceilings Before the 12th century, the predominant form of architecture was called "Romanesque". This style was characterized by thick, short walls and rounded arches. What makes it "Gothic"? In 1137, Abbe Suger, abbot of St. Denis church, began construction of a church that would change architectural history. Suger believed that light and glass could help elevate the soul and bring people closer to God. He sought to find ways to make St. Denis cathedral a place of openness and light. Flying Buttress Another innovation that helped Gothic walls soar skyward was the flying buttress -- a stone support outside the cathedral that kept the walls in place. 12th Century France Chartres Cathedral The innovation that allowed Suger to achieve these high walls was the pointed arch. This helped displace the force of the stone walls toward the ground. Gargoyles - Pointed arch - Flying buttress - Vaulted ceilings -Sometimes gargoyles People often think of gargoyles when thinking of Gothic cathedrals. These creatures adorn the sides of cathedrals, reminded people of the time of evil spirits that roam the world and that the church is the only safe spot in the world. To understand Gothic, we must understand Romanesque architecture This new style of high walls full of windows was ridiculed as "Gothic" -- referring to a group of barbarians. Notre Dame de Paris Construction: 1163-1345 (yep, 182 years)
Transcript: Gothic Pop Culture example #2 Summary of The Judge's House by Bram Stoker The Judges House contains multiple Gothic literary elements including an atmosphere of mystery and suspense, and supernatural occurrences alongside a setting that took place inside`a large abandoned house. The story also contains many sets of Gothic themed vocabulary including terms for mystery, darkness, and even terms for largeness when describing the size of an ominous rat. Upon reading the poem, few Gothic literature elements were easily noticeable, of which include and ominous supernatural occurrence of a worm turning into a bloody snake, or the unseemly conclusion that the events were just an unsettling dream. There also seems possible to be an explicable connection to ominous side to nature and of what could be, the narrator upon concluding the lines as a "dream" leaves the reader thinking of what could have happened, or even what may have followed. Hi How are you. Gothic Pop Culture example #1 The American Horror Story series, and especially the Murder House season is one of few popular horror themed TV shows available to watch. The main theme of the series would seem to be a suspenseful, omnipotent filling to make the viewer question what may or may not be real. Many literary devices include suspense, a somewhat hopeless mood, dark and mysterious imagery that could bring forth the deepest fears of some viewers, and some symbolism to evil in nature. This TV series fits within Gothic tradition by focusing on the evil side of nature, presenting supernatural beings that would instill a great sense of fear into its' victims. Connections between the American Horror Story: Murder House series and our assigned Gothic texts include elements of supernatural happenings and a focus upon unsettling occurrences of undeniably evil beings. Dark Romantics and American Gothic Literature Visual representation #2 Malcolm Malcolmson wanted to complete his studies in a quiet place away from distractions. He choose a desolate market town called Benchurch. In Benchurch there was a cruel judge who executed people in his home. Malcolm chose his home to study in and experienced multiple supernatural occurrences. For example, their was an usual occurrence of rat noises in the house but would fall silent when a fat rat with hostile looking eyes appeared. After a couple nights of spooky encounters the ghost of the late judge appeared and chased Malcolm around his room with a noose. Upon catching Malcolm, the ghost of the Judge took the noose and, with the help of the rats, hung Malcolm. Analysis of In Winter, in my Room By: Emily Dickinson Analysis of The Judges House Visual representation #1 Lost Tapes was a popular show 5 years ago with it's use of supernatural entities. The main theme of the show is to make fictional events seem real. In this particular episode suspense and foreshadowing become prevalent with the many objects moving infront of them while walking in the house. Also the characters slow movements when moving objects or walking. The short story and this episode is related through the use of the supernatural occurrence of a ghost appearing with threatening intentions. American Horror Story: Murder House Lost Tapes: Season 3, Episode 4
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