Transcript: Cardiomyopathy Life History Deficiency in "Fruit of Paradise" leading to cardiomyopathy Gorilla gorilla gorilla Methods of Research Bibliography One of two species of Western gorilla that are found in Central Africa. Travel within home range of 3-18 sq. miles and are not territorial. They often only travel for seasonal changes of ripening fruit, their favored source of nutrition. These gorillas are critically endangered due to Ebola outbreaks, poaching and deforestation Observed the consumption of Aframomum seeds a.k.a. "fruits of paradise". Hypothesise its role on cardiomyopathy. Test its nutritional contents for possible prevention of cardiomyopathy. Background Info Breuer, T., Hockemba, M. B. N., Olejniczak, C., Parnell, R. J., & Stokes, E. J. (2009). Physical maturation, life‐history classes and age estimates of free‐ranging western gorillas—insights from Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo. American journal of primatology, 71(2), 106-119. Calvert, J. J. (1985). Food selection by western gorillas (Gg gorilla) in relation to food chemistry. Oecologia, 65(2), 236-246. Dybas, C. L., & Raskin, I. (2007). Out of Africa: A Tale of Gorillas, Heart Disease... and a Swamp Plant. BioScience, 57(5), 392-397. Mascie-Taylor, C. N., Foley, R. A., Jablonski, N., Strier, K., Little, M., & Weiss, K. M. (2003). Gorilla biology: a multidisciplinary perspective. A. B. Taylor, & M. L. Goldsmith (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Mundy, N. I., Ancrenaz, M., Wickings, E. J., & Lunn, P. G. (1998). Protein deficiency in a colony of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 261-268. Popovich, D. G., Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Dierenfeld, E. S., Carroll, R. W., Tariq, N., & Vidgen, E. (1997). The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. The Journal of nutrition, 127(10), 2000-2005. Remis, M. J., Dierenfeld, E. S., Mowry, C. B., & Carroll, R. W. (2001). Nutritional aspects of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) diet during seasons of fruit scarcity at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology, 22(5), 807-836. Rogers, M. E., Abernethy, K., Bermejo, M., Cipolletta, C., Doran, D., Mcfarland, K., ... & Tutin, C. E. (2004). Western gorilla diet: a synthesis from six sites.American Journal of Primatology, 64(2), 173-192. Rogers, M. E., Maisels, F., Williamson, E. A., Fernandez, M., & Tutin, C. E. (1990). Gorilla diet in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Oecologia, 84(3), 326-339. Rogers, M. E., Williamson, E. A., & Tutin, C. E. (1988). Effects of the dry season on gorilla diet in Gabon. Swain, T. (1979). Tannins and lignins. Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York, 657-682. Tutin, C. E. (1996). Ranging and social structure of lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Great ape societies, 58-70. Yamagiwa, J., & Mwanza, N. (1994). Day-journey length and daily diet of solitary male gorillas in lowland and highland habitats. International Journal of Primatology, 15(2), 207-224. Introduction Implications of this Finding Improved diet for captive gorillas Reduces numbers of deaths that succumb to the disease; longevity of the species. Immediate and long term Research Immediate medical attention for those currently effected by cardiomyopathy. long term - studies of this plant can be implicated into drugs for humans due to its anti- inflammatory properties. Need For Nutritional Research By: Stephanie Roldan & Eddy Ramos A condition where the muscles in the heart turn into fibrous bands that impede the heart from pumping blood to the rest of the body. Wild gorillas aren't prone to heart disease. They are mostly dying from Ebola. The answers to better survival rate of captive gorillas may be found in their diet. Especially since diets vary considerably from zoo to zoo. Observations and Hypotheses In the Ginger family. Gorillas not only eat the plant but use it to make the nests, or beds (Gerard, J. 1633) A key player in the prevention of cardiomyopathy The Aframomum melegueta plant contains a potent antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, a "natural drug." Current State of Research Captivity research is available and prominant due to C.E. status (Swain, 1979). Locations/ ranges where gorilla's can be found (Calvert, 1985). Interbreading which may have led to a sub-species (Rogers, 1988). Birth of captive gorilla, and matting process (Rogers, 1990). Dominace structure of females within a social group (Yamagiwa, 1994). Exploitation of gorilla which led to endangerment (Tutin, 1996). Substantial research done on Ebola crisis (Popovich, 1997). Possible originators of HIV/AIDs (Popovich, 1997). History Of Nutritional Research Pre- 2000's Diet is a very active topic Higher rate of cardiomyopathy for captive gorillas (41 % of death in zoos are due to this condition.) Missing element in the diets of captive gorillas Adult male gorillas are
Transcript: Any living or extinct animal. Modern man and exstinct immediate ancestors of man. Gorilla Homindae Animals with refined development of the hands and feet, a short snout, and a large brain. Any animal with a vertebrate Mammalia Largest anthropoid ape; terrestrial and vegetarian; of forest of Central West Africa. Primates Animalia Gorilla gorilla Gorilla gorilla Warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by mammary glands in the female. The largest of anthropoid apes native to the forest of equatorial Africa, having a stocky body and coarse, dark brown hair. Chordata
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Fruit and seeds are preferred Also eats stems, pith, and leaves Primarily herbivores in the wild Some families eat insects Will eat meat in captivity Extremely long wingspan for quadrupedal knuckle walking Black skin with black/brown fur Opposable thumbs and big toes Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Name: Gorilla gorilla Foragers Will wander up to 3 km to find food Enjoy big breakfasts Groups are usually 3 or 4 females, 1 silverback, and children Silverbacks keep peace but can be challenged by other silverbacks Females leave for new group at 8 years old Kids wrestle with each other Feeding Diet Research Morphology Social Interactions Height: 150cm Weight: 70 kg Smaller body allows for better climbing ability Belly is bigger than chest Sexual maturity at 6 years Height: 180 cm Weight: 140 kg The hair greys with age then falls out Prominent sagittal crest Develop sharp canines as they age Sexual maturity at age 9 Interesting Facts Males General Found in areas with dense vegetation Lowland areas usually Occasionally on edge of forest Lifespan of 51 years in captivity By, Bennett Olupo Their nose print is like a finger print Infanticide occurs when a new male takes over They hate water Rarely climb Female competes for males They have a "scared scent" Video Gorilla gorilla Hard to research because they are so rare Mainly done by looking at remnants Resources Western Gorilla http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/gorilla/gorilla.htm http://www.livescience.com/27337-gorilla-facts.html https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/primates/facts/fact-gorilla.cfm http://www.gorillas-world.com/ Habitat and Lifespan Females
Transcript: The Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) lives in a small region of tropical rainforests in west Africa. Their hearing is no more peculiar than a human beings. We after all find things peculiar when they differ from our norm. Which makes gorillas a PERFECT pet. It will be no different than having another brother. Gorillas are covered nearly all over in dark brown hair. Light Gorillas live in groups of 2 to 20 gorillas. They consist of one lead male called the silverback and multiple female mates with their young. However, when males reach maturity their backs turn a silver color. The changed coloration is to signal to other gorillas that he has reached sexual maturity. Their coloration does not affect the animal's habits or behaviors. Mating rituals Sound... If you haven't noticed by now, gorillas are genetically analogous to humans. Therefore, our sensory processing is equally very similar. Their ability to hear is incredibly similar to humans where the sound travels through the ear canal and vibrates off the eardrum. Gorillas do not however produce light of their own. this is the silverback! Though despite the similarities it is possible their hearing is slightly more enhanced than ours as their vision is limited living in dense forests. When male gorillas reach maturity, they must leave the group to form their own group. Females upon reaching maturity are simply transferred into another group. by Cindy Turner So you want a pet gorilla? In 2012, scientists discovered that gorillas possess the gene LOXDHI. A gene that had originally been thought to be involved specifically in linguistic hearing. Because we have yet to uncover language among gorillas, the search for the gene continues. Color in sight... Many animals only possess one or two color cones that humans do. However, gorillas possess the red, green, and blue cones. They are able to detect 430-790 THz, in other words they see visible light. Gorilla society Equally they produce noises in a similar manner to humans. They possess vocal cords that produce noise. Fun fact! Coloration Light enters through the pupil and reaches the retina consisting of both rods and cones where it is then transduced into neural signals. Sounding peculiarities Unless we consider our own sight as peculiar, gorillas possess no peculiarities. They additionally posses the fovea, not commonly seen in other animal eyes, which dramatically enhances acuity. They make a variety of different noises that range from chirping to growling. Experts have identified approximately 25 different sounds and their corresponding meanings. However, there are many more. They have also discovered that from group to group gorillas tend to develop different sounds. In a sense they have their own slang. The sounds they make allow for communication among the dense forests. kind of like polygamy... General information.... all the same Hearing peculiarities Going with the group... Sight peculiarities... The usefulness of colored sight for the omnivorous gorilla is being able to distinguish ripe from unripe fruits.
Transcript: How can this be changed by me? Effects of poachers By poaching, the species of Gorilla gorilla has dwindled to a critical level. Once they are gone, we will lose a beautiful and gentle species. As humans, we allow this practice to continue by purchasing materials tested on Gorillas and other primates and even by seeing them in captivity. By not having more severe consequences for poachers in the local and international communities, we allow this practice. The gorilla is a victim of poaching. They are hunted for meat, to be pets and for animal testing. They have a slow reproduction rate which means that they cannot replenish their numbers as quickly as they are dimished. Human contact also transfers diseases causing death. Gorilla gorilla Gorillas live in a small area of equatorial Africa. They are coveted for zoos and pets in other parts of the world. The older (parents) Gorillas are killed so that a baby or child may be taken and trained. Gorillas are also tested on for products used by humans. Due to their slow reproduction in and out of captivity, they are unable to keep their species numbers up as quickly as they are reduced. Gorillas are still hunted today despite more protections for their species. Poaching allows hunters to make considerable amounts of money for their families. Many local communities have a fear of the Gorilla due to stereotypes that exist about them, many locals want to eradicate the species. Gorilla gorilla By: Michelle Criner Ask your family and parents to check products purchased that they are not tested on gorillas or any animal. Once an animal is extinct it is gone forever! A Gorilla is part of our family tree and we should all work together to save them! Poaching
Transcript: Critically Endangered Hunting and Trade Wars Ebola Killed off about 1/3 of gorillas Trying to adapt a vaccine Shared a Photo Communication Behavior Gestation Care of Young In tropical, heavy rain forests in central Africa Semi-terrestrial Build nests every night either on the ground on in the trees Form and Function arms are longer than their legs, which are helpful for bending over to gather foliage and to defend stomach is larger than their chests, because of their especially large intestines used to digest silver back: creates an illusion that they are larger and taller than they really are strong jaw muscles and teeth to help them chew plant vegetation large hands and feet Vegetation Food Intake Collecting Food Social and Play Western lowland gorilla Photos like comment share Diet Inhabit certain parts of Africa Live near Congo River, tropical rainforests Stay is habitat all year long Ecological Issues Offensive/Defensive Resting Male gorillas tries to intimidate an opponent by beating his chest and charging He also starts making annoying screechy sounds This is simply a bluff The gorilla uses this to scare off the others animal Vocalization Silver back males are usually leader and they use this most often Newly born whimper and cry to get their mothers attention Facial expressions and body language Migratory Groups are called troops Oldest male is the leader Males fight over dominance Usually in groups smaller than twenty Young gorillas play like humans Play with other youth and their mothers Major part of their development @gorilla123 Calm and quiet Long naps Make a nest every night before they go to bed like comment share Gorilla gorilla gorilla Reproduction Shared a Link Lives In (Habitat)
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