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Transcript: Fissure Eruptions Continental drift- the theory that continents an drift apart form one another and have done so in the past Plate tectonics- the theory that the earth lithosphere is divided onto tectonics paltes that move around on top of the asthenosphere tectonic plate- a piece of the lithosphere that moves around on top of the asthenosphere Earth Cross section of Earth Transform Boundary Inner core Solid-nickel & iron Outer core liquid- nickel & iron Mantel- Molten rock Crust- rock Earthquakes - often violent shaking of the earth as plates move - most often on plate boundaries Tsunami - (harbor wave) massive volume of water that is displaced by movement of plates boundaries can cause widespread damage and loss of life Folding Volcanic eruptions form in areas where the plates are colliding. The oceanic plate is forced under the continental plate where it melts and forms magma. Volcanic eruptions occur where there is a build up of magma, gases. The pressure builds up over time and the eruptions are violent and destructive. Pyroclastic material can move at over 500 kph and will vaporise all living things in their path. Convergent/consuming boundary-the boundary between two colliding tectonic paltes where one rides up over the other-usually have volcanoes and many erth quakes Subguction zone- hte region where an oceanic plate sinks down into the astheosphere at a conveergent boundary usually between continental and oceanic plates Volcanoes Fault-a break in the earth crust along which two blocks of the crust slide relative to one another due to tectonic forces there are three types of faults Normal faults- where the plates are pulling away from each other and the surface is lengthened - lead to horsts and rift valleys eg the rift valley of east Africa Reverse faults - where the plates are pushing together and the surface is shortened eg fold mountains such as the Himalaya Slip faults - the plates moves sideways eg San Andreas fault Faults Panagea Consuming Boundaries Transform boundary - the boundary between two tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally - san Andrea's fault Earthquakes and Tsunami Formation of the Earth Folding- the bending of rock layers due to stress in the earths crust Fold mountains - mountains that form where two plates collide and copress layers of rock into folds Anticline - a upward fold in rock formed by compression and earths crust Syncline - a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earths crust Recumbent fold - rock layers that are bent so much that a rock appears to be folded on top of one another - vertically Layers of earth The Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old Its has a crust (the continents and sea beds) on the outside that floats like the skin on custard The mantle has a core are generally molten metals that are extremely hot The continents move very slowly. The magnetic poles can change- as it is possible for the inner core to move relative to the rest of the planet Divergent/accreting boundary - the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other - rift valley in North Eastern Africa Sea-floor spreading - the process by which new oceanic lithosphere is created at mid-ocean ridges as older materials are puller away from the ridge. The lithosphere (crust and upper mantle ) rest on the molten asthenosphere (lower mantle). Molten Rock beneath the surface is called "magma". Volcanoes are formed when magma is forced through a weakness in the earths crust, either on land or under the sea. These events are called eruptions. There are two basic types of eruption, fissure eruptions and volcanic eruption Crust- the thin, outermost layer of the earth, or the uppermost part of the lithosphere Continental crust- the portion of the earths crust that primarily contains granite, is less dense than ocenanic crust, and is 20-50km thick Oceanic crust- the portion of earths crust that is usally below the oceans and not associated with continental areas, thinner and higher in destiny that continental crust and basaltic rather than granitic in composition Mountain Building Mantle- layer of the earth between the crust and the core Core- the central, spherical part of the earth below the mantle Lithosphere- the outermost, rigid layer of the Asthenosphere- the soft layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move Mesosphere- literally, the "middle sphere"- strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core Outer core- liquid layer of the earth core that lies beneath the mantle and surronde the inner core Inner core- the solid, dense centre of earth Sea Floor Spreading Boundary Occur where the plates are moving apart the lava tends to be quite 'runny' and it gently seeps out of the fissures( cracks in the earth's surface This lava can run for a considerable distance and may form a lava plateau Lava fountains’ can also occasionally form along these fissures – fig 6.13 p 137 Continental Drift


Transcript: Weathering - Process which acts at the earth's surface to decompose and breakdown rocks. concerned with understanding the composition of the earth and the physical changes occurring in it, based on the study of rocks, minerals, and sediments, their structures and formations, and their processes of origin and alteration. -The lower mantle extends from 660 down to about 2700 kilometers, a point where seismic waves are affected so strongly that most researchers believe the rocks beneath are chemically different. solid inner core Tertiary plates are grouped with the major plate that they would otherwise be shown as part of on a major plate map. Mostly these are tiny microplates, although in the case of the Nubian-Somalian and Australian-Capricorn-Indian plates these are major plates that are rifting apart. Some models identify more minor plates within current orogens like the Apulian, Explorer, Gorda, and Philippine Mobile Belt plates. The remainder of the tertiary plates are the dwindling remains of much larger ancient plates. There may or may not be scientific consensus as to whether a tertiary plate is a separate plate yet, is still a separate plate, or should be considered a separate plate, thus new research could change this list. In early stages of Earth's formation about 4.5 billion (4.5×109) years ago, melting would have caused denser substances to sink toward the center in a process called planetary differentiation (the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behavior, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface. Such a process tends to create a core and mantle), while less-dense materials would have migrated to the crust. The core is thus believed to largely be composed of iron (80%), along with nickel and one or more light elements, whereas other dense elements, such as lead and uranium, either are too rare to be significant or tend to bind to lighter elements and thus remain in the crust. Some have argued that the inner core may be in the form of a single iron crystal. Sedimentary Rocks - the igneous rocks which make up the majority of the crust are covered by a thin veneer of loose sediment, and the rock which is made as layers of this debris get compacted and cemented together. Types of Weathering Mechanical or Physical - the breakdown of rock material into smaller and smaller pieces with no change in the chemical composition of the weathered material.Chemical - the breakdown of rocks by chemical agents. Obviously the chief chemical agent is water which carries dissociated carbonic acid. photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Crust Tertiary plates Geology Rock cycles is formed over long periods of time as tiny grains of material are pressed against each other and join loosely. The process by which sedimentary rocks are formed is delicate enough that fossils can be preserved within them. Common examples includesandstone, chalk, and limestone. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly. When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes. On Earth's surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become sedimentary rock. All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there is heat from pressure. There is heat from friction. There is also heat from radioactive decay. So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock. Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called metamorphic. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius. When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose the rock. The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock. The rock cycle never stops. Tectonic plates Types and cycles of rock -oceanic crust is 5 km (3 mi) to 10 km (6 mi) thick[3] and is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro. Liquid outer core types -The upper mantle extends from the base of the crust down to 660


Transcript: The Geologic History of Minnesota Minerals Rocks •MN was covered by an ocean for 2.3 billion years. •The Mesabi, Cuyuna, Vermillion, and Gunflint began to form minerals, and they would sink and go to the bottom of an inland sea. •Algae are little green plants in water. Usually feels slimy. •Algae grow in the shallow waters on the North Shore. It is the earliest form of life we know of. •Scientist found fossil algae in our rocks. (We have some of the oldest in the world.) •Agates are MN's state rock. They are made of warm water in the valley, which carries the silica into the volcanic rock. •Scientist don't believe there were never any dinosaurs in Minnesota. •The ice age began 2 million years ago. •The glaciers melted into lakes and everything that wasn't a lake, forest covered. •8 million years ago, people relied on birds, fish animals, deer, bison, nuts, berries, and wild vegetables to eat. history.html Iron ore has been around and mined for over a century. Copper and nickel have been mined with 4.4 millions tons since they first started which also includes platinum which groups them all into one metal resourse. Minnesota’s oldest rocks are within the Canadian shield belts, which is under the north half of the state and most of the Minnesota river valley. The belts under the surface are of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, granitic rock materials are in the areas between the belts. Gneiss and metamorphic rock that are along the side of the Minnesota river valley that were formed 3,600 million years ago. They were formed from granite and other rocks put into various temperatures of hear into the earth. Copper Copper Calcite Groutie Rhodochrosite History of our city and state By: Lexi, Chelsey, and Ellie Groutie Calcite Fossils historical_society_slides_early_mn_history.pdf remaxhc/modules/agent/agent.asp?p=pagecontent. asp&nav=1&pia=6181 Fossils are made by recently deceased bodies or footprints quickly buried in sediment. The sediment hardens and then the animal’s body decays and leaves an imprint. Fossils of all ages can be found throughout Minnesota's gravel pits, beaches and other glacial features. As glaciers from Canada came down to Minnesota, they picked up rocks that had fossils in them. As the glaciers went back up north, the fossils were left behind in Minnesota. Pathologists use fossils to discover our states history, but anyone can collect fossils. All you need are a few simple tools and permission. Make sure you ask the person who owns the land you are on before you start looking. Sources Rhodochrosite

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