Transcript: Cause and Effect Examples Gantt Chart Cause And Effect A cause is WHY something happens. An effect is WHAT happens. As you read be a detective. Look for clue words, such as if, then, because, since, and so. Clue words can sometimes signal causes and effects. A network diagram shows the way various components of a computer network interact with each other. It can be used to keep track of, troubleshoot or plan home or professional networks. Flow Chart Gantt Chart. 3 Examples A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, adapted by Karol Adamiecki in 1896 and independently by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Network Diagrams 3 examples. Network diagrams charts Flow chart 3 Examples Flowcharts are maps or graphical representations of a process. Steps in a process are shown with symbolic shapes, and the flow of the process is indicated with arrows connecting the symbols.
Transcript: Rolling Stones Paint it Black Information (songs, rock band....) Second language: Chinese The Irish rock band U2 released this song in 2001 to support Aung San Suu Kyi who is a chairperson of the National League for Democracy in Burma. She has fought for democracy on the principle of nonviolence, like Gandhi did. She has been detained under house arrest during more than 15 years which made her one of the most prominent political prisoners around the world. The Team Expolangue N7 Pictures Maxime Jeunet Written for the movie Philadelphia (Jonathan Demme) in 1993. It denounces discrimination towards gay in the 80's in the USA. It describes how hard was the life in the 80's for them. It is written a the first person, so it is like if we live their life when we listen to the song. Second Language : Chinese Third Language : West Indian Creole/Pidgin Bruce Springsteen Streets Of Philadelphia Room Plan Gantt Chart second language : German Alexis Plancke First language : English Second language : Chinese Quentin Gauthier First language :English Second language : German First Language: English Project Proposal Arnaud Szewczyk Abdellah BOUSELHAM Released in November 29th 2013, this song was written to honour Nelson Mandela. It is the original song of « Mandela : Long Walk to Freedom » and the last single of U2. The band won the 2014 Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. Paul Raynal Conclusion Sex Pistols God Save The Queen Written during cold war, this song refers to balloons which were realised during a rolling stones' concert in RFA. The singer thought about what might happen if they floated over GDR. Maybe they can be considered as target and trig a nuclear war between USSR &USA. The first aim of this song is to denounce the power of destruction of nuclear weapons and reflect about the tension and terror during the cold war third language : Spanish First language English Second language Chinese Written in 1962, in a periode of tension because of Viêt Nam War and social movement, this song deals with those topics just implicitely. Bob Dylan asks some rhetorical questions and only answers by "the answer is blowin' in the wind" The objective of this event is to analyse the cultural and political influence of several rock bands like U2 or Pink Floyd around the world. U2 Walk on Charles Risler U2 Ordinary Love Nena 99 luftballons In the spring of 1966, all was not well in the world. The Vietnam War was raging. “Paint It Black” is about a man whose lover has died, and seeing his whole world “painted black.” When you walk off the killing fields, still alive, physically intact, you want everything painted black, like your heart, your soul, you mind, your life.” First languaue: English Second Language: Spanish This song is played by the rock band Sex Pistols. It was released during Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee (25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones) in 1977. This single has been perceived by a lot of people as an assault on the Queen Elizabeth II and the British monarchy. First language :English Second language : Spanish first language : English Dimitri Behary-Laul-Sirder Activities Songs, Information Bob Dylan Blowin' in the wind Valentin Odoul First language : English Second language : Spanish
Transcript: Objectives Reduce carbon emissions by 10% in 2016. To match the figures reached by Toyota’s environmental friendliness. Reducing carbon emissions by more than 28 tons each year. To install solar panels on Altona’s manufacturing plant. Tasks Find professional staff to operate the solar panels Research current energy consumption, costs, legalities and competitors. Find a professional and efficient solar panel manufacturer to install Set up a supervise apartment and a supervisor Pick up a reliable insurance agency to get insurance for the solar panels Good purchase channels Pick up high quality solar panels Allocate funds Operational PROGRAM LOGIC MODEL Costing resources Financial PROGRAM LOGIC MODEL Objectives Reduce Energy Costs by 50% by 2016 Make profit through energy bills by selling excess unused energy via grid connect solar panels. Eliminate energy costs in the summer and Spring, and heavily reduce energy costs during Winter and Spring. To Successfully complete the project within the budget of $735,000. Tasks Investigate pricing of 1000x REC 260W Solar Panels Make financial contracts for project team Find a professional to install 1000 grid connect solar panels on the roofs of the manufacturing plant Get a quote from a cheap and reliable insurance agency so panels are insured Gain finance approval from Toyota to spend money on project Purchase 1000x REC 260W Solar panels Pay professional to install solar panels Pay the professional installer of the solar panels Monitor expenditure against budget targets Outputs Financial reports issued and analyzed monthly Corrective financial objectives when needed Outcomes Install the connection of solar panel system completed within budget Make profit through grid connect system Insurance for the solar panels Complete project within budget Spend little/no money on energy bills, particularly during the warmer months. Outputs Report distributed to participants showing achievements and analysis of questionnaire Develop a proposal Agreement between Toyota and Solar Panel Manufacturer Agreement between Toyota and staff Outcomes Toyota staff and manufacturer work more efficiently Commence installation Good and efficient condition of solar panels Improve efficiency and environmental friendliness Reduce carbon emissions Physical resources: solar panels delivery cars storage rooms computers monitors operational information system software Project Proposal for TOYOTA ----BY BLTN physical resources costs solar panels: $ delivery cars: $2000 computers: $300,000 monitors: $150,000 operational infromation system software: $10,000 Human resources: installer*3 operator*3 supervisor*1 manager*1 worker*6 driver*3 volunteers Resources Install the grid connection of solar panel system for Toyota plants human resources costs installer: 3*50=150 operator: 3*200=600 supervisor: 1*300=300 manager: 1*500=500 worker: 6*100=600 driver: 3*80=240 volunteers: free total: $2390
Transcript: What is a Gantt chart? History of the Gantt chart Various uses of Gantt charts Application of Gantt chart: Swissport Fueling Various Uses of Gantt Charts Robert E. Carroll Jr. Simple tool that aids management run operation more efficiently Stretch resources and personnel Identify areas in which capacity is not utilized Save on personnel costs in small margin industry Swissport Fueling overview Utilization of Gantt charts within Swissport Fuel barge scheduling Into-Plane fueling operations How Gantt charts aid in into-plane fueling operations Large volume of flights throughout each day Manpower projections (Staffing) Cost reductions Application Continued What is a Gantt Chart? Or more complex by use of computers systems. Introduction Various Uses Continued Learning Objectives Questions? Horizontal bar chart Provides a graphical illustration schedule Helps plan, coordinate, and track specific tasks, typically within projects Horizontal axis represents the total time span (hours, days, months, etc.) Vertical axis representing the tasks to be completed Planning and Scheduling How long a project should take Lays out the order in which tasks need to be complete Monitoring a Project See what should have been achieved at any point in time Can be a tool for remedial action to put project back on track History of the Gantt Chart Created by Henry Laurence. Gantt, Mechanical Engineer, approximately 1917 Originally developed as a visual tool to show scheduled and actual progress of projects Hoover Dam, 1931 Interstate highway network, 1956 Application Continued Summary GANTT CHARTS Various Uses Continued Various Uses Continued Application Continued What is a Gantt chart? History of the Gantt chart Various uses of Gantt charts Application of Gantt chart: Swissport Fueling Application: Swissport Fueling Gantt Charts can be hand written and/or simple Understand what a Gantt chart is Describe the history of the Gantt chart Discuss various applications of Gantt charts
Transcript: Opportunities in the Gantt Chart It gives projections of completing a project in parts at certain times IB Question: Identify the time taken for the entire project. Example It is 99 day project term. Being 3 months and a week, this structure allows the projected steps to be completed in a specific time range. It is a chart that shows a project schedule and breaks down the structure of time per activity What is a Gantt Chart? - Can have the same tasks being worked on at different times. -Can have the same tasks being worked on by different teams -Can provide clarification of project completion through milestone setup. Facts about Gantt Chart: Analyzing Example 2 Example 2 gantt chart IB Question: Explain the benefit to the business of undertaking some steps simultaneously. - Made by Henry Gantt, but first similar model was adapted by Karol Adamiecki called the harmonogram. - First major use of Gantt Chart was during WW1 by General William Crozier. Why is this useful? It will make the project be achieved faster. With the Gantt Chart, it allows multiple tasks to take place in a less confusing and more organized method. Then resulting in a business plan that further betters your company. Benefits:
Transcript: Although project management software can show schedule dependencies as lines between activities, displaying a large number of dependencies may result in a cluttered or unreadable chart. Because the horizontal bars of a Gantt chart have a fixed height, they can misrepresent the time-phased workload (resource requirements) of a project, which may cause confusion especially in large projects. Step 2. Set up your Gantt Chart Step 3. Plot the tasks onto the graph paper Next draw up a rough draft of the Gantt Chart. Plot each task on the graph paper, showing it starting on the earliest possible date. Draw it as a bar, with the length of the bar being the length of the task. Above the task bars, mark the time taken to complete them. Schedule them in such a way that sequential actions are carried out in the required sequence. Ensure that dependent activities do not start until the activities they depend on have been completed. Planning and scheduling complex projects Head up graph paper with the days or weeks through to task completion. Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, and Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date. Advantages and limitations If all goes well, the project can be completed in 10 weeks. If you want to complete the task as rapidly as possible, you need: 1 analyst for the first 5 weeks. 1 programmer for 5 weeks starting week 4. 1 programmer/QA expert for 3 weeks Analysis, development and testing of supporting modules are essential activities that must be completed on time. Hardware installation and commissioning is not time-critical as long as it is completed before the Core Module Training starts. For each task, show the earliest start date, estimated length of time it will take, and whether it is parallel or sequential. If tasks are sequential, show which stages they depend on. You will end up with a task list like the one in figure 1. This example shows the task list for a custom-written computer project. We will use this same example for both this section and the section on Critical Path Analysis and PERT. This will allow you to compare the results of the two approaches. The last stage in this process is to prepare a final version of the Gantt Chart. This shows how the sets of sequential activities link together, and identifies the critical path aftivities. At this stage you also need to check the resourcing of the various activities. While scheduling, ensure that you make best use of the resources you have available, and do not over-commit resource. Thank you! Drawing a Gantt Chart Project control - Gantt chart Key Points: By drawing this example Gantt Chart, you can see that: Definition History Why are they useful? Advantages and limitations How to draw Gantt chart? Key points (Conclusion) By Dmitry Ilnitskiy History The first known tool of this type was reportedly developed in 1896 by Karol Adamiecki, who called it a harmonogram. One of the first major applications of Gantt charts was during the First World War. On the initiative of General William Crozier, then Chief of Ordnance these included that of the Emergency Fleet, the Shipping Board, etc. In the 1980s, personal computers allowed for widespread creation of complex and elaborate Gantt charts. Step 4. Presenting the analysis Gantt charts are useful tools for planning and scheduling projects. They allow you to assess how long a project should take, determine the resources needed, and lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out. They are useful in managing the dependencies between tasks. When a project is under way, Gantt charts are useful for monitoring its progress. You can immediately see what should have been achieved at a point in time, and can therefore take remedial action to bring the project back on course. This can be essential for the successful and profitable implementation of the project. Definition To draw up a Gantt diagram (Gant diagram), follow these steps: A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e., precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. Although a Gantt chart is useful and valuable for small projects that fit on a single sheet or screen, they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30 activities Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints (cost, time and scope) of projects, because they focus primarily
Transcript: Herein lies the equality between specific gravity and density, the dimensions drop out! The greater the density, the tighter or closer the molecules are packed inside the substance. Therefore, the greater the density / specific gravity of a liquid the higher a hydrometer will be buoyed by it. This is what we choose to be our measurement method for estimating the concentration of dissolved sugar. We conducted the preliminary test. We tested the rate of dissolution based on non-affective solubility, without mixing. We excluded mixing from experiment, since we couldn’t measure exact speed and force of mixing. We measured 15g of both forms of sugar and dissolved it sequentially in the same volume of tap water measured in glass beaker (0.2 l). Temperature of tap water was maintained in range of 19-20.5°C. 2) What is the estimated variability of the individual concentration measurements? In the repeated measurement of the concentration of sucrose in a solution after 15 g of sugar cubes was dissolving for 7 min in 0,21 l of tap water on 20.5°C we have obtained estimation of standard deviation of 0.85 points on hydrometer scale. Catch 22 Bojić Svetlana, Jovanović Marina, Trbojević Ivana, Vukić Marija, Zmijanjac Dragana Hypothesis 2. The aim of preliminary experiments is to determine: 1) Do we have sensitivity, with a given equipment, to detect any difference in dissolving rates of sugars in question? It turns out that, at temperature of 20.5°C, after 7 min of dissolving we were able to detect difference of about 7 points on hydrometer scale. That gave us a feeling of expected effect size, used later on for sample size calculations. Experimental design: - Determine the value on Brewcraft hydrometer in pure tap water (20,5°C) - Take 15g of sugar , drop it into glas and add a 100 ml of tap water (20,5°C) - No stiring - Start the stopwatch - After 7 min, filter newly formed solution trough several layers of fabric - Measure the concentration of sugar with help of Brewcraft hydrometer - Calculate the disolving rate - Repeat the procedure for each sugar type 14 times 3 Materials: 5 types of sugar Water Thermometer Scale Measuring jag Glass Spoon Fabric (filtration) Breewcraft hydrometer Stopwatch Dissolving medium – coffee 3 Preliminary experiment – testing the chosen method - Hydrometer Factors that could influence the way sugar dissolves in water: Sugar composition Amount of sugar sample Agitation Characteristics of sugar (particle size and surface area) Temperature of dissolution medium; Temperature of room Characteristics of dissolution medium (viscosity, pH) Buffer strength Ionic strength of the dissolution medium Crystal habit Crystalinity Amorphism Class of Research Skills Prof. Dr Steve A. Quarrie Different commercially available sugars have different dissolving rate a Hydrometar A hydrometer is an instrument whose function is based on Archimedes principle. This principle states that a body (the hydrometer) immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. The hydrometer measures the weight of the liquid displaced by the volume of the hydrometer. Specific Gravity is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water. If the density of the substance of interest and the reference substance (water) are known in the same units (e.g., both in g/cm3 or lb/ft3), then the specific gravity of the substance is equal to its density divided by that of the reference substance (water =1 g/cm ) , hence: Specific Gravity = Density g/cm :1 g/cm Sugar disolving rate in coffee: - Determine the value on Brewcraft hydrometer in "pure coffee" (no sugar added) -Cofee was made by mixing 4g of cofee (Nescafé classic, Nescafé) with 100 ml of boiling tap water (100°C) - wait til the tmp of coffee is 20,5°C - Take 15g of sugar, drop it into glas and add a 100 ml of coffee (20,5°C) - Start the stopwatch - After 7 min, filter newly formed solution trough several layers of fabric - Measure the concentration of sugar with help of Brewcraft hydrometer - Calculate the disolving rate - Repeat the procedure for each sugar type 14 times Sugar experiment We tested the reproducibility of measurement, to be sure it is reliable. We repeated experiment with sugar cubes in the same arrangement as in experiment 1. * Does arrangement of cubes (in a pile or finely separated in the bottom of glass beaker) affect the rate of dissolution? We tested hydrometer in function of sugar concentration in tap water solution. We measured density of tap water as control sample and two different and known sugar concentrations. We measured powder sugar on balance – 15g and 30g, and made the 0.2 l of solution in two same glass beakers. We used spoon to vigorously mix the solution, and completely dissolve sugar. Experiment 1 Rate of dissolution for two forms of sugar – powder vs. cubes Hypothesis 1. 3 Change of solution affects dissolving rate of each type of sugar but distribution of dissolving
Transcript: Step 1: Identify Essential Tasks Gantt Chart Advantages Conclusion Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Modern Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e. precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. Although now regarded as a common charting technique, Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when first introduced. Activity 2 can only start X days after the end of activity 1, gap. Next activity can only start several days after the completion of the pre-requisite activity has started. Step 4: Chart Progress 1. Avoid Completion Confusion: Gantt charts were created to keep users on track, providing a visual timeline for starting and finishing specific tasks. Step 3: Input Activities Into Software or a Template Project Guide: Significance 2. Keep Everyone on the Same Page: Where there is a visual framework for the work to be done, there are fewer chances for misunderstanding, especially when it comes to highly complex tasks. 5. Get a Handle on the Future: While it is often easy to get caught up in day-to-day tasks as detailed on a chart, Gantt chart advantages include helping decision-makers look farther ahead to ensure each given project is working toward the achievement the organization’s long-term strategic objectives. Activity 2 can start a few days before activity 1 ends, near concurrent. Next activity can start as soon as the first part of thr pre requisite activity started. Gantt charts are useful in planning how long a project should take and helping to sequence the events by laying them out in the order in which the tasks need to be completed. Typically, tasks are shown on the vertical axis, and the project time span is represented on the horizontal axis. Each task has a corresponding bar that shows the time span required for that task. The bar can be filled in to show the percentage of the task that has been completed. Gantt charts also indicate dependencies, those tasks that are dependent upon other tasks. Today there are many software applications available for creating Gantt charts, as well as functions in popular programs such a Microsoft Excel. LEAD LAG Step 2 Identify Task Relationship 4. Effectively Allocate Resources: By being able to look ahead on the Gantt chart, users can clearly discern where resources need to be anticipated, allocated or shared to maximize the use of those resources. Over-all Duration Reasonability Check: Introduction: Gantt Chart Gantt Chart: Scheduling 3. Understand Task Relationships: These charts can make clear how various tasks are interrelated and perhaps rely on the completion of another to meet specific objectives. Individual Activity Reasonability Check: - can visualize reasonability of time estimate for each activity and for group activities for an intermediate deliverable. Gantt Chart
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