Transcript: Our Home Spiral Elliptical galaxies have collided or merged with other galaxies. There are six spiral arms and Earth is located near the edge on the Orion arm. 20% of galaxies are irregular. In these galaxies there is a lot of star formation, so they are pretty bright. Milky Way... The color blue is a region with lots of young stars. Later, the servant's son was out hunting and almost killed his mother. Zeus intervened and turned the son into a bear as well. Spiral galaxies have lots of young stars and are some of the brightest galaxies. They die young using fuel at a high rate. There are 8 types of them, E0-E7. The higher the number, the more elliptical the galaxy. Hubble Telescope There are 3 types of Galaxies They have no common shape and are generally the smallest. Spiral Galaxy The shape of a galaxy can tell about its history. This makes them give our hot radiation, which is blue. Elliptical galaxies are usually a combination of galaxies that have collided. They are generally the largest galaxies we see. The brightest stars are not necessarily the closest to us. Interesting Facts The colors in a galaxy show you what is going on in the galaxy. Did you know?? The Milky Way contains 200 billion stars. It is 100,000 light years across and about 10,000 thick. A galaxy is a system of millions and billions of stars , together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction. There are over 125 billion galaxies. As technology advances, we are able to discover more and more galaxies. You are now a Rocket Maaaaan! Irregular Galaxy Elliptical An elliptical galaxy is shaped like an elipse, which is round and smooth. are groupings of stars that form a picture or represent an image. Milky Way Galaxy Stars The End Elliptical Galaxy A red galaxy is a region of old stars. Constellations... Stars are just part of a galaxy. The brightness of stars depends on several factors; age, size and distance. Some even have dusty remnants from spiral galaxies. Irregular Each one is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure. They give off cool radiation, which is reddish. Zeus then then took both bears by the tail and flung them into the sky, creating Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. Galaxy Color The Milky Way is an example of a spiral galaxy. Held together by gravity and a black hole in the middle. Spiral galaxies contain stars, gas and dust in spiral arms spread out from the center. The Story of Ursa Major A star is a large, spherical celestial body consisting of a mass of gas that is hot enough to sustain nuclear fusion and thus produce radiant energy. Zeus' wife Hera was jealous of a servant woman Zeus was paying attention to, so she turned the servant into a bear. Galaxy Shape What is a Galaxy? Spiral galaxies have had the least amount of collisions. 60% of galaxies are elliptical. These galaxies are made up of mostly old stars.
Transcript: Galaxy Types By Lillian Evenson Welcome to our Universe What is our universe made of? Our universe is made of a lot of things. There are nebulas (clouds of space dust and new stars), galaxies, planets, and more but today I'm telling you about galaxies. The first type: Spiral Galaxies Spiral galaxies are also sometimes called disk galaxies. They are round and shaped like a circle or a swirl. Our galaxy is probably a spiral galaxy. Spiral Galaxies This is what a Spiral galaxy looks like "Arms" made of stars and other space stuff Dense middle The Second type: Elliptical galaxies Elliptical galaxies are the most common type of galaxies. They just look like a circle or an oval. Even thought they are the most common, no stars can be made in this type of galaxy. Eliptical Galaxies Oval Shape Bright middle This is what an Elliptical galaxy looks like The Third type: Irregular galaxies Irregular galaxies are made by two galaxies of any kind collide and become one. They have no specific shape and what they're made of depends on Irregular Galaxies No specific Shape This is what an irregular galaxy looks like
Transcript: Food Water Humans Animals Plants / seeds Clothes Wolf Kinetic,electrical,light Howl =Wolf Ears=Rabbit By: Andrea and Maria Taiga Moon It is helping you transfer the entire population of our new planet Wolves have skin that protects them from the cold and chase other animals for food Rabbit=the rabbit can hide in dirt or trees If the rabbit gets removed from the food web the wolf will have to find something else to eat. Wolf Wolf= Can run fast away from predators Galaxy The moon helps us have night Nonliving The end learned The bear survives in the environment because there are caves to live and interact going to the river to pick up your food Weather Rainforest Incomplete the Galaxy, the earth is in danger Wind, hydro electrical, chemical Listen = Rabbit Hunt=Wolf Complete Mountains: Mountains are formed by tectonic plants a volcanic system. Metamorphosis Wind energy:Wind energy is energy that is used with turbines,And can also be used from systems of this type of energy range from small to generate energy Alternative energy Food Ocean Hydro electrical energy:It is obtained from the use of the gravitational potential energy of water systems clasping this type of energy are called micro turbines. We chose this biome because it has mountains and land to survive. Desert Food web / interaction Valleys: valleys are formed by flowing water. The space ship leaving planet earth Rabbits Positive and Negatives In our biosphere will be cold but in spring and holidays be a little hot and have a little rain. Positive= The humans get to survive by food. Description of different kind of energy's On my planet there is lots of vegetation so that the rabbit can find food and interact hiding in the bushes Types of energy in our planet _________________________ Our planet Dac Hemlock The sun is growing every day and soon it will explode No rabbits Water cycle: Structures and Functions Sun Taiga Bear= th e bears can make a loud noise to protect themselves from predators Rabbit carbon dioxide: Atmosphere House Biomes Mountains Rivers Valley iron Temperate forest The sun rays effect planet earth Are sun is growing every day and soon it will explode Cycles Kinetic:it helps us create electricity Tundra Weathering,erosion,deposition ___________ _____________ The plants will likely not get much precipitation and run out of thirst,and since it will be a bit colder than planet earth the animals well perhaps die from the cold. Coniferous trees Bears Solar energy Light:To see were we are going in our way. Living Inherited The carbon dioxide cycle uses organisms make photosynthesis from the atmosphere by plants. Landforms Chemical energy:it is produced in the chemical reactions.A battery or a battery having this type of energy. The sun rays are effecting planet earth Land Electricity: so light works solar energy Oceans Oxygen Gravity Climate Plains coal kinetic energy The water cycle is the sun,and ocean.it is also has condensation,evaporation,and precipitation. Why do we need it Negative=they are taking the life of animals. Bear
Transcript: https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/black-holes#:~:text=Astronomers%20believe%20that%20supermassive%20black,of%20super%2Ddense%20cosmic%20objects. https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/black-hole-theory-finally-explains-how-galaxies-form https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/heres-what-the-black-hole-in-the-center-of-the-milky-way-looks-like-180980078/ https://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/thompson.1847/1101/lecture_darkmatter_darkenergy.html#:~:text=Dark%20Matter%20can%20be%20detected,total%20starlight%20of%20the%20galaxies. https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-3/The-Doppler-Effect https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_far_future https://www.space.com/25732-redshift-blueshift.html https://www.secretsofuniverse.in/redshift-and-its-types/ https://ophysics.com/waves11.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtIClU8ZqLs Galaxies Presentation By: Raza Ali Galaxies Galaxies Definition: a system of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction The Center of a Galaxy At the center of most galaxies there is theorized to be a black hole. This theory is widely accepted and would explain how the center of a galaxy has such a large gravitational pull At the center of the Milky Way we have Sagitarius A, a supermassive black hole that we recently took a picture of, and it is theorized to hold a mass of 4.3 million times our sun, or 8.26 x 10^36 kg. The Missing Matter Galaxies should slow down closer to the edge This is due to Centripetal Acceleration and the Universal Gravitation equations that we learned, as the force will get smaller and smaller, so the velocity should also get smaller This doesn't happen, instead the planets and systems on the edges of many observed galaxies continue to move at an unexpected constant velocity, leading scientists to theorize about a special type of matter that is creating a force to give them that velocity, and have given it the name Dark Matter The Doppler Effect Doppler Effect The Doppler Effect explains why the sound of moving objects either increases as the object moves towards you or decreases as the object moves away from you. The Effect This picture above explains the Doppler Effect the best. The Doppler Effect occurs when a moving object emits sound waves. As it moves closer to an object that is standing still the frequencies will create a louder noice, but as it moves away from an object it will lower in volume Why It Matters Light acts as both a wave and a particle, but in the case of what I am talking about today, we only care about how it acts as a wave. light is effected by the Doppler Effect as it will do the same things as sound if it is moving towards an object. The light waves will have a higher frequency when moving towards an object and a lower frequency when moving away, leading to different being detected by our telescope Red Shift and Blue Shift Red Shift/Blue Shift Red Shift and Blue Shift is pretty much the name of the Doppler Effect for light. As stated before the light will change in frequency, and if you check your light wave graphs you will what colors it change to. Different Types of Redshift There are 3 different types of Red Shift. 1. Relativistic Redshift 2. Gravitational Redshift 3. Cosmological Redshift Galactical Movement Using Redshift/Blueshift we can map the galactical movements within our universe. This can allow us to predict the positions of galaxies in the future and can also allow us to slowly perceive the way the universe works. This use of watching Redshift/Blueshift proved to us that the universe is expanding The Andromeda Galaxy Andromeda Collision The Milky Way will eventually crash into another galaxy, with that galaxy being the Andromeda Galaxy. Sagitarius A and a Black Hole inside of B023-GO78 The "Collision" "Collision" This is a "Collision". I say collision barely anything is actually going to crash into other stuff. The amount of empty space between galaxies means that a collision like this will only really affect the centers of the galaxies. Timeframe of Collision 1.7 Billion Years Before wrong 5 Billion Years in the Future 400 Million Years After 1.6 Billion Years After 1.5-0.5 Billion Years Before 18.3 Billion Years After 1.4 Billion Years Before
Transcript: Galaxy Presentation by Dylan Kha and Johnny Ni Milky Way Stars and Galaxies Solar System Stars and Galaxies Galaxies Galaxies A galaxy is a cluster of millions and billions of stars, dust, and gas all held together by gravity. There is possibly a black hole is in the center of a galaxy. Irregular Galaxies An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy. They are among the smallest galaxies and are full of gas and dust. Having a lot of gas and dust means that these galaxies have a lot of star formation going on within them. This can make them very bright. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are examples of irregular galaxies. They are two small galaxies which orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. About 20% of all galaxies are irregulars. Spiral Galaxies A spiral galaxy is flat with a bulge in the middle which is usually a black hole. It is called a spiral galaxy because of its arms that rotate around the center black hole. Our galaxy is the Milky Way, which is a spiral galaxy, which includes millions of stars even bigger than our sun. Elliptical Galaxies Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes. Among the largest are the “elliptical galaxies”, massive ball-shaped galaxies made up of trillions stars. The densest regions of the universe provide perfect conditions for growing elliptical galaxies. In rich clusters, galactic collisions are common. The largest galaxies pull in many smaller ones and build themselves by cannibalizing their neighbors. In dense galactic clusters, like the Coma Cluster located nearly 300 million light-years from Earth, the majority of galaxies are elliptical galaxies. In this cluster, they have all congregated towards the cluster’s center leaving the remaining spiral galaxies out towards the edges. Facts about galaxies Elliptical galaxies contain some of the oldest stars because they do not have the ability to form new stars. Elliptical galaxies are so bright that if Earth were located inside of one, there would always be day light everywhere no matter the time of day. A lot of irregular galaxies probably began as an elliptical or spiral galaxy that crashed into another galaxy. From the southern hemisphere of Earth, two other galaxies can be seen with the naked eye. A small galaxy is one that contains less than a billion stars. Stars Solar System Stars are is a large ball of burning gas in space. Stars appear to us as small points of light in the sky on clear nights. The central core of a star is extremely hot and produces energy by fusion, the fusing of elements usually hydrogen in this case. Some of this energy is released as visible light, which makes the star glow. Our sun, the center of our solar system, is a yellow star of average temperature and size. Facts about stars Stars that are blue are typically much hotter than the average star. At the most conservative estimate, there are at least 10 billion trillion stars in the universe. Stars are formed from dense knots contained in large clouds of dust and gas called nebulae. One in four Americans believe that the sun orbits the Earth, rather than the other way around. Every day, approximately 275 million new stars are formed in the universe. Thank you for watching!
Transcript: By Nolan Srebnick, Nina Marganti Galaxy Presentation The blue in the picture shows infrared light with wavelengths of 3.6 micron, the green represents 4.5 micron light and red, 8.0 micron light To enhance the invisibility of the dust features the starlight (3.6 microns) is subtracted from the 8 micron image Sunflower galaxy Sunflower Galaxy The Sunflower Galaxy is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other info Like the Whirlpool galaxy, the M63/Sunflower galaxy was one of the first spiral galaxies to be discovered. The galaxy is part of the M51 group of galaxies, with the M standing for Messier, after it’s discoverer. The M in the M63 also stands for Messier. M63/Sunflower galaxy is quite a compact galaxy within it’s structure, and while it has spiral arm features, they are not widely noticeable until the galaxy is studied in further depth. Hence the name Sunflower galaxy, as the spiral galaxy resembles a Sunflower. Fun Facts Fun Facts Galaxies are divided into 5 different groups in Hubble's classification such as elliptical, lenticular or S0, spiral, barred spiral, and irregular The Sunflower galaxy is classified as SA (rs)bc spiral galaxy Hubble galaxy classification system More info The Sunflower galaxy is 37 million light years from Earth The mass is 10 billion solar masses The diameter of about 60,000 light years, just a fraction of the size of the Milky Way Composed of dust and gas Distance, size, mass Info Has the physical form of a radio galaxy which means it's very luminous at radio wavelengths M49 M49 M49 is located in the constellation Virgo. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other Info Messier 49 was only the second galaxy discovered outside the Local Group, after Messier 83. M49 is also more luminous than any of the galaxies lying closer to Earth. Messier 49 contains a large number of globular clusters, estimated at 5,900. The globulars detected in M49 have an average age of about 10 billion years. Fun Facts Fun Facts About 56 million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Virgo The mass is 565 million times the mass of the Sun Diameter of about 170,000 light years or size of 10x8 arc minutes Classification- E4, elliptical galaxy Galaxy appears small and diffuse with a bright compressed central core Distance, mass, size, composition, classification Other info Combines a wide range of wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared parts of the spectrum. IC 559 IC 559 ic 559 is located in the constellation Leo. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other Info Discovered in 1893, IC 559 lacks the symmetrical spiral appearance of some of its galactic peers and not does not conform to a regular shape. IC 559 may have once been a conventional spiral galaxy that was then distorted and twisted by the gravity of a nearby cosmic companion. Fun Facts Fun Facts Makes up a quarter of all known galaxies Does not fall into any regular classes of the Hubble classification system Sm galaxy, irregular galaxy (with evidence of a spiral structure) Full of gas and dust which is spawning new stars Mass- unknown Size, mass, distance, composition, classification Other info https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-63-sunflower-galaxy/ https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/multimedia/m63-irac.html https://www.ouruniverseforkids.com/m63-sunflower-galaxy/ https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-49/ https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-paints-a-spattering-of-blue https://dept.astro.lsa.umich.edu/resources/ugactivities/Labs/GalClass/GalClass.html http://www.messier.seds.org/Pics/More/m49a.jpg https://freestarcharts.com/messier-63 https://www.constellation-guide.com/sunflower-galaxy-messier-63/ http://www.stardoctor.org/M63.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_49 https://freestarcharts.com/messier-49 https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-49/ https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-paints-a-spattering-of-blue Sources Sources
Transcript: A galaxy is a group of stars, dust, gas, and dark matter that is held together by gravity. The objects within a galaxy all revolve around a central point, such as a huge black hole. Intergalactic Gas/Plasma Astronomers think that galaxy clusters are formed when dark matter and their associated galaxies are pulled together, heating the gas between them and causing them to merge. This usually leads to massive explosions, but when they cool down, a galaxy cluster is left behind. Galaxy Clusters and Mapping the Universe They are pretty much invisible only telescopes with special tools can find them. They can be any size from an atom to the biggest star. Components of BLACK HOLES Two of the first people to start mapping the universe were Margaret Geller and John Huchra. With the help of their students, they took thousands of images of galaxies and put them together over 15 years to make a map that had 2 slices of the universe extending from our galaxy. It would take too long for scientists to map the universe in every direction, even when they have computers, so they use this method of mapping thin slices. Black holes have a radius where you can get sucked in It does not suck immediately there is a distance where you could be where you cannot get sucked in. the area where you get sucked in is the schwarzshild radius this is the point where light cannot escape. His equation for this is: vesc = (2GM/R)1/2 What is a Galaxy Cluster? People say that there is no way for information to come from a black hole ‘tis is wrong Stephen Hawking says that information can actually be received from a black hole from what he calls a news night. Galaxy Clusters What is a Galaxy? 9% How are galaxy clusters formed? There are also such things as superclusters, which are essentially clusters of galaxy clusters. 1% Thank you for your attention! By: Maggie, Ali, Fedor, and Yedijah A galaxy cluster is a group of galaxies that are close together due to gravitational attraction. They should not be confused with star clusters, which are groups of stars inside galaxies. This makes up the largest percentage of matter in a galaxy cluster. Dark matter cannot be seen nor detected. The only reason we know of its existence is through observations of gravitational interaction. They are 10 - 15 as massive as the sunwhen a star that big goes into a supernova explosion it could leave a massive burned-out stellar remnant . the remant collapses on itself and the star collapses to the point where there is 0 volume and infinite density creating a singularity. Around the singularity is a gravitational force so strong that light can escape it this is the point where we cant get any information from it this is a black hole. stellar holes A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. A galaxy cluster can contain anywhere from 50 – 1000+ galaxies and are several million light years in diameter. Clusters with few galaxies are called poor clusters, while clusters with thousands of galaxies are called rich clusters. Poor clusters have less gravitational pull between the galaxies, so they are not as spherical in shape as rich clusters. Our home galaxy cluster is called the Local Group. GALAXIES How do scientists map the Universe? Intergalactic gas is very hot plasma between the galaxies that emits x-ray radiation. It contains more mass than all the galaxies in the cluster. The truth Galaxy Shapes Galaxies 90% Dark Matter The video you saw before was an example of Schwarszchild equation of a star being in its radius
Transcript: Thank You! All about Galaxies By: Alexia Logan Vinati Dave 4th Period Topic 1 Topic 1: Irregular Galaxies Irregular galaxies that lack a distinct structure. They were once spiral or elliptical but deformed due to disorders in gravitational pull. These galaxies have large amounts of hydrogen, gas, and dust in them, which leads to a lot of star formation in them which can cause them to be very bright. Irregular glaxies are not as large as the other two glaxies, and about 20 percent of glaxies are irregular. Two examples of Irregula galxaies are the large and small magellanic clouds (galaxies that orgit the milkyway) Topic 2 Spiral A Spiral galaxy is the galaxy we live in. it's a galaxy in which stars and gas clouds are concentrated in mainly one or many spiral arms. Most spiral galaxies consist of a flat rotating disk containing stars gas and dust and a central concentration of stars known as a bulge Topic 3 ELLIPTICAL An elliptical galaxy is a galaxy with a ellipsoidal shape. Unlike a spiral galaxy this galaxy does not have the arms. When two spiral galaxies collide they form a elliptical galaxy. They are made up of older stars and a little bit of gas and dust. a few elliptical galaxies are M49, m59, and m60.
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