Transcript: Our Home Spiral Elliptical galaxies have collided or merged with other galaxies. There are six spiral arms and Earth is located near the edge on the Orion arm. 20% of galaxies are irregular. In these galaxies there is a lot of star formation, so they are pretty bright. Milky Way... The color blue is a region with lots of young stars. Later, the servant's son was out hunting and almost killed his mother. Zeus intervened and turned the son into a bear as well. Spiral galaxies have lots of young stars and are some of the brightest galaxies. They die young using fuel at a high rate. There are 8 types of them, E0-E7. The higher the number, the more elliptical the galaxy. Hubble Telescope There are 3 types of Galaxies They have no common shape and are generally the smallest. Spiral Galaxy The shape of a galaxy can tell about its history. This makes them give our hot radiation, which is blue. Elliptical galaxies are usually a combination of galaxies that have collided. They are generally the largest galaxies we see. The brightest stars are not necessarily the closest to us. Interesting Facts The colors in a galaxy show you what is going on in the galaxy. Did you know?? The Milky Way contains 200 billion stars. It is 100,000 light years across and about 10,000 thick. A galaxy is a system of millions and billions of stars , together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction. There are over 125 billion galaxies. As technology advances, we are able to discover more and more galaxies. You are now a Rocket Maaaaan! Irregular Galaxy Elliptical An elliptical galaxy is shaped like an elipse, which is round and smooth. are groupings of stars that form a picture or represent an image. Milky Way Galaxy Stars The End Elliptical Galaxy A red galaxy is a region of old stars. Constellations... Stars are just part of a galaxy. The brightness of stars depends on several factors; age, size and distance. Some even have dusty remnants from spiral galaxies. Irregular Each one is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure. They give off cool radiation, which is reddish. Zeus then then took both bears by the tail and flung them into the sky, creating Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. Galaxy Color The Milky Way is an example of a spiral galaxy. Held together by gravity and a black hole in the middle. Spiral galaxies contain stars, gas and dust in spiral arms spread out from the center. The Story of Ursa Major A star is a large, spherical celestial body consisting of a mass of gas that is hot enough to sustain nuclear fusion and thus produce radiant energy. Zeus' wife Hera was jealous of a servant woman Zeus was paying attention to, so she turned the servant into a bear. Galaxy Shape What is a Galaxy? Spiral galaxies have had the least amount of collisions. 60% of galaxies are elliptical. These galaxies are made up of mostly old stars.
Transcript: The Tadpole Galaxy by Israel Sanchez What is the tadpole galaxy? The Tadpole Galaxy Found by: Paul Hickson It was discovered fairly recently during the 1990's The Tadpole galaxy is classified as a barred spiral "According to the study, the giant "tadpole" was produced by the disruption of a small, previously invisible dwarf galaxy containing mostly stars. When the gravitational force of two visible galaxies pulled on stars in this vulnerable galaxy, the stars closer to the pair formed the "head" of the tadpole. Stars lingering in the victim galaxy formed the "tail."" -American Friends of Tel Aviv University Type and shape https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181119160011.htm#:~:text=According%20to%20the%20study%2C%20the,%22head%22%20of%20the%20tadpole. its about over 400 million light years away from earth, and its also about 400 million light years across, its tail spans about 280,000 light years long how big is it? Interesting fact: eventually the galaxy is going to lose its tail, its tail will become an arm in the spiral https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sawEHdQR94 videos/ links when looking up at the stars, when you find the draco constellation the tadpole galaxy can be found there
Transcript: Food Water Humans Animals Plants / seeds Clothes Wolf Kinetic,electrical,light Howl =Wolf Ears=Rabbit By: Andrea and Maria Taiga Moon It is helping you transfer the entire population of our new planet Wolves have skin that protects them from the cold and chase other animals for food Rabbit=the rabbit can hide in dirt or trees If the rabbit gets removed from the food web the wolf will have to find something else to eat. Wolf Wolf= Can run fast away from predators Galaxy The moon helps us have night Nonliving The end learned The bear survives in the environment because there are caves to live and interact going to the river to pick up your food Weather Rainforest Incomplete the Galaxy, the earth is in danger Wind, hydro electrical, chemical Listen = Rabbit Hunt=Wolf Complete Mountains: Mountains are formed by tectonic plants a volcanic system. Metamorphosis Wind energy:Wind energy is energy that is used with turbines,And can also be used from systems of this type of energy range from small to generate energy Alternative energy Food Ocean Hydro electrical energy:It is obtained from the use of the gravitational potential energy of water systems clasping this type of energy are called micro turbines. We chose this biome because it has mountains and land to survive. Desert Food web / interaction Valleys: valleys are formed by flowing water. The space ship leaving planet earth Rabbits Positive and Negatives In our biosphere will be cold but in spring and holidays be a little hot and have a little rain. Positive= The humans get to survive by food. Description of different kind of energy's On my planet there is lots of vegetation so that the rabbit can find food and interact hiding in the bushes Types of energy in our planet _________________________ Our planet Dac Hemlock The sun is growing every day and soon it will explode No rabbits Water cycle: Structures and Functions Sun Taiga Bear= th e bears can make a loud noise to protect themselves from predators Rabbit carbon dioxide: Atmosphere House Biomes Mountains Rivers Valley iron Temperate forest The sun rays effect planet earth Are sun is growing every day and soon it will explode Cycles Kinetic:it helps us create electricity Tundra Weathering,erosion,deposition ___________ _____________ The plants will likely not get much precipitation and run out of thirst,and since it will be a bit colder than planet earth the animals well perhaps die from the cold. Coniferous trees Bears Solar energy Light:To see were we are going in our way. Living Inherited The carbon dioxide cycle uses organisms make photosynthesis from the atmosphere by plants. Landforms Chemical energy:it is produced in the chemical reactions.A battery or a battery having this type of energy. The sun rays are effecting planet earth Land Electricity: so light works solar energy Oceans Oxygen Gravity Climate Plains coal kinetic energy The water cycle is the sun,and ocean.it is also has condensation,evaporation,and precipitation. Why do we need it Negative=they are taking the life of animals. Bear
Transcript: Galaxy Presentation by Dylan Kha and Johnny Ni Milky Way Stars and Galaxies Solar System Stars and Galaxies Galaxies Galaxies A galaxy is a cluster of millions and billions of stars, dust, and gas all held together by gravity. There is possibly a black hole is in the center of a galaxy. Irregular Galaxies An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy. They are among the smallest galaxies and are full of gas and dust. Having a lot of gas and dust means that these galaxies have a lot of star formation going on within them. This can make them very bright. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are examples of irregular galaxies. They are two small galaxies which orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. About 20% of all galaxies are irregulars. Spiral Galaxies A spiral galaxy is flat with a bulge in the middle which is usually a black hole. It is called a spiral galaxy because of its arms that rotate around the center black hole. Our galaxy is the Milky Way, which is a spiral galaxy, which includes millions of stars even bigger than our sun. Elliptical Galaxies Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes. Among the largest are the “elliptical galaxies”, massive ball-shaped galaxies made up of trillions stars. The densest regions of the universe provide perfect conditions for growing elliptical galaxies. In rich clusters, galactic collisions are common. The largest galaxies pull in many smaller ones and build themselves by cannibalizing their neighbors. In dense galactic clusters, like the Coma Cluster located nearly 300 million light-years from Earth, the majority of galaxies are elliptical galaxies. In this cluster, they have all congregated towards the cluster’s center leaving the remaining spiral galaxies out towards the edges. Facts about galaxies Elliptical galaxies contain some of the oldest stars because they do not have the ability to form new stars. Elliptical galaxies are so bright that if Earth were located inside of one, there would always be day light everywhere no matter the time of day. A lot of irregular galaxies probably began as an elliptical or spiral galaxy that crashed into another galaxy. From the southern hemisphere of Earth, two other galaxies can be seen with the naked eye. A small galaxy is one that contains less than a billion stars. Stars Solar System Stars are is a large ball of burning gas in space. Stars appear to us as small points of light in the sky on clear nights. The central core of a star is extremely hot and produces energy by fusion, the fusing of elements usually hydrogen in this case. Some of this energy is released as visible light, which makes the star glow. Our sun, the center of our solar system, is a yellow star of average temperature and size. Facts about stars Stars that are blue are typically much hotter than the average star. At the most conservative estimate, there are at least 10 billion trillion stars in the universe. Stars are formed from dense knots contained in large clouds of dust and gas called nebulae. One in four Americans believe that the sun orbits the Earth, rather than the other way around. Every day, approximately 275 million new stars are formed in the universe. Thank you for watching!
Transcript: -spiral galaxy -10 billion light years away from the milky way -approximately 70 billion light years in length -most unique star system within tunes is the Sub star system -3rd life planet -a sister planet of earth -sustains different species of animals -has two moons -1.652 AU away from sublime Malo terrestrial planets Cyrus -life planet -can sustain life because of its thick ozone layer -color from other planet's view is pink,actual color is orange -has one moon -0.784 AU away from sublime Pantera Sublime tune's star Tunes -2nd life planet -sustains life because of the distance from sublime&the ozone layer -ozone has oxygen,nitrogen&hydrogen -has one moon -1.029 AU away from sublime terrestrial planets Gas planet Tunes galaxy Planets -color is blue -25,014 kelvin -been around for about 76 billion years -has two moons -gas planet -filled with hydrogen&lithium clouds -2.376 AU away from sublime By:Alexis Hernandez,Tony Castro,Randy Gonzales,Irene Adame -filled with radioactive gas -has three moons -color is blue and with little white spots -3.938 AU away from sublime Misfits Danzig -names are (in order from closest to sublime to farest): danzig, beyonce, pantera, malo,misfits,&cyrus -has 6 planets -largest star is sublime -planets orbit around sublime in an elliptical pattern Beyonce -colors are black&red -containED life 26 billion years ago -haD one moon,now has zero -temperature increased and suddenly everything became ashes -has volcanic activity -0.395 AU away from sublime Sub star system
Transcript: Galaxy Project Large Magellanic Cloud Large Magellanic Cloud The Hubble Galaxy Classification system is a system where all galaxies fall into 4 different classes, Spirals, Barred Spirals, Elliptical and Irregulars. The L.M.C. falls into the category of irregular Distance and Location Distance The Cloud is about 163,000,000 light years away they used late type eclipsing binaries to find this. The L.M.C is located in the Virgo star cluster. Size and Mass Size and Mass The L.M.C. is about 10 billion times as massive as our own sun. "Knowing a galaxy's rotation rate offers insight into how a galaxy formed, and it can be used to calculate its mass." The L.M.C is composed of mostly Hydrogen Nitrogen and Carbon. Rotation Rotation and what it tells us The L.M.C. rotates counter clockwise telling us that the L.M.C is spinning towards us Fun Facts about the L.M.C Fun Facts L.M.C. and Milky Way will collide in about 2.4 billion years. The closest spot you could go to see it on a clear night is new Hampshire there are about 30 billion stars in the L.M.C. Whirlpool Galaxy Spiral Galaxy Pictures Pictures X-Ray X-Ray Visible Visible Radio Radio Ultraviolet Ultraviolet Near-Infrared Near- Infrared Mid-Infrared Mid-Infrared Far-Infrared Far-Infrared The Hubble Galaxy Classification: system in which all galaxies fall into 4 different classes: Spirals, Barred Spirals, Elliptical and Irregulars. The Whirlpool Galaxy is a grand-design spiral galaxy, named for its long lanes of stars and gas laced with dust, making up the 'arms'. It is specifically a SA(s)bc pec SA - spiral unbarred rs - in transition from (s not having a ring to r having a ring) pec - peculiar - somehow perturbated bc - between b and c classification Hubble Galaxy Classification Hubble Galaxy Classification Distance from Earth - 23.16 million light-years located in the constellation Canes Venatici Distance Distance Diameter - 76,000 light-years Mass - about 160 billion solar masses Composed of arms compressing hydrogen gas and creating clusters of new stars Size, Mass, and Composition Size, Mass, Composition M51 Group Made up of: M51A (Whirlpool Galaxy M51B (NGC 5195 NGC 5023 NGC 5229 M63(Sunflower Galaxy) UGC 8313 UGC 8331 Clusters Clusters Constellation: Canes Venatici M51B (NGC 5195) dwarf galaxy passing behind the Whirlpool Galaxy, It has been moving past for hundreds of millions of years Stellar rotational velocity remains constant with increasing distance away from the galactic center. The velocity should decrease the farther away a star is from the center, but it doesn't here. People have speculated about dark matter. Rotation Curves Rotation Curves Can be seen by a telescope during May Fun Facts Fun Facts Image of galaxy wavelengths Messier 87 Infrared Image-shows the globular clusters The hubble galaxy classification system is used to classify galaxies It groups galaxies into 4 different types;Spirals, barred spirals, ellipticals and irregulars Messier 87 falls in the category of elliptical galaxies Hubble galaxy classification system and where it lies in it Topic 53.49 million light years away Distance was measured by Hubble Telescope H0 Key Project Team in 1997 Distance of Messier 87 Topic Size-60 light years Mass-2,400 billion M Composition-Several trillion stars, a supermassive black hole, and 15,000 globular clusters Size, mass and composition Topic From Virgo A Located in the southern constellation of virgo Galaxy neighbors Topic The x ray circular velocity curve rises steeply outside about 97,500 light years, reaching 700km/s at 652000 light years This suggests the ongoing build up of the virgo cluster Rotation curves Topic The black hole has a mass of 3.5 billion suns Its possible there is more than one black hole It is surrounded by a carona of hot guess Fun facts Topic https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2017/messier-87 http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m51.html https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/pdf/2002/46/aah3752.pdf https://sci.esa.int/web/gaia/-/60220-rotation-of-the-large-magellanic-cloud https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2017/messier-51-the-whirlpool-galaxy https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2017/messier-87 https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-91/ Sources Sources
Transcript: By Nolan Srebnick, Nina Marganti Galaxy Presentation The blue in the picture shows infrared light with wavelengths of 3.6 micron, the green represents 4.5 micron light and red, 8.0 micron light To enhance the invisibility of the dust features the starlight (3.6 microns) is subtracted from the 8 micron image Sunflower galaxy Sunflower Galaxy The Sunflower Galaxy is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other info Like the Whirlpool galaxy, the M63/Sunflower galaxy was one of the first spiral galaxies to be discovered. The galaxy is part of the M51 group of galaxies, with the M standing for Messier, after it’s discoverer. The M in the M63 also stands for Messier. M63/Sunflower galaxy is quite a compact galaxy within it’s structure, and while it has spiral arm features, they are not widely noticeable until the galaxy is studied in further depth. Hence the name Sunflower galaxy, as the spiral galaxy resembles a Sunflower. Fun Facts Fun Facts Galaxies are divided into 5 different groups in Hubble's classification such as elliptical, lenticular or S0, spiral, barred spiral, and irregular The Sunflower galaxy is classified as SA (rs)bc spiral galaxy Hubble galaxy classification system More info The Sunflower galaxy is 37 million light years from Earth The mass is 10 billion solar masses The diameter of about 60,000 light years, just a fraction of the size of the Milky Way Composed of dust and gas Distance, size, mass Info Has the physical form of a radio galaxy which means it's very luminous at radio wavelengths M49 M49 M49 is located in the constellation Virgo. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other Info Messier 49 was only the second galaxy discovered outside the Local Group, after Messier 83. M49 is also more luminous than any of the galaxies lying closer to Earth. Messier 49 contains a large number of globular clusters, estimated at 5,900. The globulars detected in M49 have an average age of about 10 billion years. Fun Facts Fun Facts About 56 million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Virgo The mass is 565 million times the mass of the Sun Diameter of about 170,000 light years or size of 10x8 arc minutes Classification- E4, elliptical galaxy Galaxy appears small and diffuse with a bright compressed central core Distance, mass, size, composition, classification Other info Combines a wide range of wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared parts of the spectrum. IC 559 IC 559 ic 559 is located in the constellation Leo. The Rotational Curves for this galaxy are currently unknown. Where is this galaxy? Other Info Discovered in 1893, IC 559 lacks the symmetrical spiral appearance of some of its galactic peers and not does not conform to a regular shape. IC 559 may have once been a conventional spiral galaxy that was then distorted and twisted by the gravity of a nearby cosmic companion. Fun Facts Fun Facts Makes up a quarter of all known galaxies Does not fall into any regular classes of the Hubble classification system Sm galaxy, irregular galaxy (with evidence of a spiral structure) Full of gas and dust which is spawning new stars Mass- unknown Size, mass, distance, composition, classification Other info https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-63-sunflower-galaxy/ https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/multimedia/m63-irac.html https://www.ouruniverseforkids.com/m63-sunflower-galaxy/ https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-49/ https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-paints-a-spattering-of-blue https://dept.astro.lsa.umich.edu/resources/ugactivities/Labs/GalClass/GalClass.html http://www.messier.seds.org/Pics/More/m49a.jpg https://freestarcharts.com/messier-63 https://www.constellation-guide.com/sunflower-galaxy-messier-63/ http://www.stardoctor.org/M63.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_49 https://freestarcharts.com/messier-49 https://www.messier-objects.com/messier-49/ https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-paints-a-spattering-of-blue Sources Sources
Transcript: A galaxy is a group of stars, dust, gas, and dark matter that is held together by gravity. The objects within a galaxy all revolve around a central point, such as a huge black hole. Intergalactic Gas/Plasma Astronomers think that galaxy clusters are formed when dark matter and their associated galaxies are pulled together, heating the gas between them and causing them to merge. This usually leads to massive explosions, but when they cool down, a galaxy cluster is left behind. Galaxy Clusters and Mapping the Universe They are pretty much invisible only telescopes with special tools can find them. They can be any size from an atom to the biggest star. Components of BLACK HOLES Two of the first people to start mapping the universe were Margaret Geller and John Huchra. With the help of their students, they took thousands of images of galaxies and put them together over 15 years to make a map that had 2 slices of the universe extending from our galaxy. It would take too long for scientists to map the universe in every direction, even when they have computers, so they use this method of mapping thin slices. Black holes have a radius where you can get sucked in It does not suck immediately there is a distance where you could be where you cannot get sucked in. the area where you get sucked in is the schwarzshild radius this is the point where light cannot escape. His equation for this is: vesc = (2GM/R)1/2 What is a Galaxy Cluster? People say that there is no way for information to come from a black hole ‘tis is wrong Stephen Hawking says that information can actually be received from a black hole from what he calls a news night. Galaxy Clusters What is a Galaxy? 9% How are galaxy clusters formed? There are also such things as superclusters, which are essentially clusters of galaxy clusters. 1% Thank you for your attention! By: Maggie, Ali, Fedor, and Yedijah A galaxy cluster is a group of galaxies that are close together due to gravitational attraction. They should not be confused with star clusters, which are groups of stars inside galaxies. This makes up the largest percentage of matter in a galaxy cluster. Dark matter cannot be seen nor detected. The only reason we know of its existence is through observations of gravitational interaction. They are 10 - 15 as massive as the sunwhen a star that big goes into a supernova explosion it could leave a massive burned-out stellar remnant . the remant collapses on itself and the star collapses to the point where there is 0 volume and infinite density creating a singularity. Around the singularity is a gravitational force so strong that light can escape it this is the point where we cant get any information from it this is a black hole. stellar holes A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. A galaxy cluster can contain anywhere from 50 – 1000+ galaxies and are several million light years in diameter. Clusters with few galaxies are called poor clusters, while clusters with thousands of galaxies are called rich clusters. Poor clusters have less gravitational pull between the galaxies, so they are not as spherical in shape as rich clusters. Our home galaxy cluster is called the Local Group. GALAXIES How do scientists map the Universe? Intergalactic gas is very hot plasma between the galaxies that emits x-ray radiation. It contains more mass than all the galaxies in the cluster. The truth Galaxy Shapes Galaxies 90% Dark Matter The video you saw before was an example of Schwarszchild equation of a star being in its radius
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