Transcript: MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY: Medical microbiology, also known as ‘’’clinical microbiology’’’, is the study of microbes, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, which cause human illness and their role in the disease. The microbes and the branch of microbiology are the most studied due to their great importance to medicine. INTODUCTION: In 1546, Girolamo Fracastoro proposed that epidemic diseases were caused by transferable seed like entities through direct, indirect contact and contact over long distances with an infection. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch are the founders of medical microbiology] Louis Pasteur is famous for his experiments when he disproved the theory of spontaneous generation. He offered method for food preservation (pasteurization) and vaccines against anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies. Robert Koch contributed to the germ theory of disease, provided that specific diseases were caused by specific microbes. He developed criteria known as the Koch's postulates and was among first to isolate bacteria in pure culture. HISTORY bacteriology, virology, parasitology, immunology and mycology. BRANCHES: BRANCHES FIELDS FIELDS: Microbial physiology is the study of microbial growth, microbial metabolism and microbial cell structure. Microbial genetics is the study of how genes are organized and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular functions. Parasitology investigates parasites. The specimen here is feces, blood, urine, sputum, and other samples. Virology identifies viruses in specimens of blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Immunology/Serology uses antigen-antibody interaction as a diagnostic tool, determines compatibility of transplanted organs. REFERENCE Madigan M, Martinko J (editors) (2006). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. Bordenave G (2003). "Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)". Microbes Infect. 5 (6): 553–60. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(03)00075-3. PMID 12758285. Tannock GW (editor). (2005). Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-01-1. REFERENCE:
Transcript: MEDICAL FIELDS MEDICAL FIELDS; MEDICAL FIELDS You may call them simply doctors. But most doctors have extra expertise in one type of medicine or another. In fact, there are several hundred medical specialties and sub specialties. Here are the most common types of doctors you'll likely see. NAMES OF FIELDS; IMMUNOLOGY CARDIOLOGY GYNECOLOGY ORTHOPEDIC ANTHESIOLOGY IMMUNOLOGY; Allergists/Immunologists They treat immune system disorders such as asthma, eczema, food allergies, insect sting allergies, and some autoimmune diseases. IMMUNOLOGY CARDIOLOGY; They’re experts on the heart and blood vessels. You might see them for heart failure, a heart attack, high blood pressure, or an irregular heartbeat. CARDIOLOGY DERMATOLOGY; Have problems with your skin, hair, nails? Do you have moles, scars, acne, or skin allergies? Dermatologists can help. DERMATOLOGY GYNECOLOGY; GYNECOLOGY Gynecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women". Its counterpart is and rology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. ORTHOPEDIC Orthopedics is the field of medicine that focuses on surgery on, or manipulation of, the skeletal system. The surgical specialty was originally focused on developmental deformities and the effects of polio in children, but today it has expanded significantly to address all the conditions and diseases affecting skeletal system in individuals of all ages.
Transcript: Medical Microbiology Jenny cobb 04/01/2020 Structures Structures Structure of a Virus Viruses -The Inner core of a virus has Nucleic Acid -The layer over it is Capsid that provides protein -The outer layer is a Lipoprotein bilayer Structure of Bacteria -The center is DNA -Covering it is the Cytoplasmic membrane -The outer layer is Cytoplasm Bacteria Structure of Protozoa Protozoa -Has no cell wall, they vary in shape and sizes -The center is the macronucleus -Then cytoplasm with food vacuoles -The outer layer is cilla Structure of Fungi -multicellular -Hyphae Mycellum Fungi Bacteria types Venn Diagram Characteristics Characteristics Virus characteristics Viruses -Nucleic acids -Protein coat -Viral shape Ex: Influenza, chickenpox, herpes, HIV Bacteria characteristics Bacteria -Single celled -Microscopic -Ribosomes scattered Protozoa characteristics -No cell wall -Flexible layer, Pellicle -Solitary or Colonial Protozoa Fungi characteristics Fungi -eukaryotic -Non-vascular organisims -Sexual and Asexual -Mostly non-motile Treatment/Prevention Treatment/prevention Treatment/Prevention Treatments -Immune system fights it -Antiviral medicines Prevention -Vaccines Viruses Treatment and Preventions Bacteria Treatments -Antibiotics Prevention -Wash hands -Don't share drinks -Sleep well -Drink plenty of water Treatments and Preventions Protozoa Treatments -Re-hydration therapy -Medications Preventions -Don't drink contaminated water Treatments and Preventions Fungi Treatments -Snake extract -Vicks vapo-rub -Tea tree oil Prevention -Keep skin dry and clean Citations Resources https://hubpages.com/education/bacteriaeconomicimportance https://www.healthline.com/health/home-remedies-for-toenail-fungus https://medlineplus.gov/viralinfections.html
Transcript: Rodneshia & Enas Microbiology Timeline 1950-1970 1950 1950: American and British researchers publish papers presenting evidence that smoking causes lung cancer. 1950: Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown discovered antifungal nystatin 1950: John Hopps invented the first cardiac pacemaker 1951: Max Theiler receives the Nobel Prize for developing a vaccine for yellow fever. 1951 1951 October 4, 1951: Henrietta Lacks died at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore from cervix cancer her living cancerous cells removed from her body and preserved in a lab later launch a medical revolution. October 26, 1951: The Durham-Humphrey Amendment defines the kinds of drugs that cannot be safely used without medical supervision and restricts their sale to prescription by a licensed practitioner. 1953 1953 1953: Surgeons perform the first successful open heart bypass surgery, using a heart-lung machine at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. May 22, 1953: The first yellow fever vaccine was licensed. March 26, 1953: Dr. Jonas Salk, City College of New York alumnus, successfully tests a polio vaccine on a small group of children. 1954: Gertrude Elion patented a leukemia-fighting drug 1954 1954 1954: Jonas Salk has developed the first polio vaccine. 1954: First successful kidney transplant, after at least nine kidney transplant failures. 1955: Psychoactive drugs are introduced in the U.S. and their widespread use leads to increased discharges from mental hospitals. 1955 1955 April 12, 1955: The first Polio Vaccine was licensed, which helped prevent polio, a disease that attacks parts of the brain and spinal cord and may cause paralysis 1956: Dr. Muhler, Day and Nebergall at Indiana University demonstrate that stannous fluoride is the most effective compound in hardening tooth enamel and protecting it. 1956 1956 1957: An extensive study commissioned by the American Cancer Society shows that heavy smoking significantly shortens life span. 1957 1957 1957: Daniel Bovet receives the Nobel Prize for the development of antihistamines, usually used to treat allergies. 1959: Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg, receive a Nobel prize, for discovering the synthesis of RNA and DNA. 1959 1959 1960: Rene Dubos works on antimicrobial agents and environmental protection F. M. Burnet and Peter B. Medawar receive Nobel Prize for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance 1960 1960 1960: "Ames Test" to screen for mutagens developed by Bruce Ames 1963: Thomas Fogarty invented the balloon embolectomy catheter 1963 1963 1963: The first liver transplant was performed by Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, but the 3 year old bled to death. 1966: CDC announced the first national measles eradication campaign. Within 2 years, measles incidence had decreased by more than 90% compared with prevaccine-era levels. 1966 1966 December, 28, 1967: Mumps virus vaccine live was licensed. 1967 1967 1969: Max Delbruck, Alfred Hershey and Salvadore E. Luria receive Nobel Prize for describing the mechanism of viral infection of bacterial cells. 1969 1969 1970: Hamilton Smith reports the discovery of the first restriction enzyme. 1970 1970
Transcript: Sabrina Gonzalez Hepatitis C 4th period / Oct.3 Prevalence of the Virus As of 2016, it has increased to 1.0 cases per 100,000 population. CDC approximate 2.7 to 3.9 million persons are living with chronic hepatitis C in the United States Prevalence of the Virus The Mode of Transmission The Mode of Transmission Blood Transfusion In the majority, parenteral exposure occurs by blood or blood products leading to infection A main issue before as blood transfusion came from people who've had this already, but today, there is techniques to detect the virus and has lowered the amount of people to 2 million to 1 million. Blood Transfusion Injection Drug Use Principal mode of transmission of HCV since the 1970's Rapidly acquired after initiation Strongest single predictor of risk Injection Drug Use Sexual Transmission It's still considered controversial about being transmitted like this but obtains more risk of virus if one partner is HCV-positive & the other is HCV-negative. Can be passed from an infected mother to her baby Sexual Transmission Other modes... Household Transmission Occupational Exposures Other... Signs & Symptoms Signs & Symptoms Includes... "Silent" virus Acute symptoms are shown till after 1-3 months after having the virus Bleeding easily Bruising easily Nausea Fatigue Poor appetite Swelling in legs Spider-like blood vessels Disease What exactly is Hepatitis C? An infection caused by a virus that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation. Course of the Disease Course of the Disease Out of 100 people who have this virus, approximately 25 will be able to survive to clear this virus by 2 to 6 months, but still carry Hepatitis C antibodies in blood. The 75 who do not clear the virus, will eventually develop ongoing infection and cirrhosis of the liver. After 15 to 20 years, people still having this virus have the risk of liver failure or developing a form of liver cancer known as Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Treatments, Vaccinations available Treatments: Medications that deal with antiviral drug, which reduces viruses to replicate. (Sofosbuvir) Self care; avoid alcohol Surgery, liver transplantation There is no Vaccine to cure Hepatitis C Morbidity & Mortality Rates for the Virus Morbidity & Mortality Rates for the Virus 60 patients with HCV alone Liver decompensation, deaths are due from liver failure Increased morbidity & mortality
Transcript: Obstacle 3 http://genome.jgi-psf.org/metfl/metfl.home.html Allows for practical applications such as inexpensive industrial productions of commercially needed compounds. These compounds can range from heterologous proteins and amino-acids to vitamins. Some methylotrophs within the genus of Methylobacillus can even use organic compounds such as the pesticide carbofuran and choline as carbon raw materials; they use these carbon sources to fulfill their energy and carbon requirements. Ecological Impact. Obstacle 1 Anaerobic Rod Shaped Gram Positive (+) Obstacle 2 Environment Biotechnology Impacy They can be found in large numbers in marine and fresh water ecosystems.These organisms are one of Earth’s most important carbon recyclers, and they recycle such important carbon compounds as methane, methanol, and methylated amines on Earth.They can use green-house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as substrates to fulfill their energy and carbon needs. Goal Methylobacillus flagellatus KT strain was found in a metropolitan sewer system, The important point is that the methylotrophs are very adaptable and they can be found in diverse ecosystems. As mentioned before, the importance of studying M. flagellatus and other closely related species of methylobacteria will help us better understand the recycling of carbon on Earth. P.6 Kristen Sandoval Methylobacillus flagellatus The Basics :) Start
Transcript: Pasteur supports the Germ Theory of Disease. W.Gilbert & F. Sanger Louis Pasteur Disproved Spontaneous Regeneration. Anton Van Leeunwenhoek Paul Ehlrich Citations Advocates washing hands to prevent the diffusion of disease. Inventor of the petri dish in 1887 Leeuwenhoek sees "little animals' in a pond. https://users.stlcc.edu/kkiser/History.page.html http://www.microbeworld.org/component/content/article?id=61 Recognized viral dependence on cells for reproduction First microbial genomic sequence published 1995 Discovered Penicillin 1928 Robert Koch 1876 Koch first proves the germ theory of disease with B. anthracis discovery. 1796 first scientific small pox vaccination is created. Discovered cure for syphilis Louis Pasteur Ignaz Semmelweis Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski Edward Jenner Louis Pasteur (H. influenzae) (TIGR) R.J. Petri Developed a method to sequence DNA 1977 1885 Pasteur discovers rabies vaccination. Medical Microbiology 1892 And Ivanovski discvers viruses Robert Koch Alexander Fleming 1881 Koch grows the first bacteria on a solid media. Martinus Beijernick
Transcript: It is found mostly in soil,sand, dirt, and tetani is widely distributed in the gut of humans and animals. Spores can usually be found wherever there is contamination with soil. Tetanus is not directly transmitted from person to person. Spores may be introduced through contaminated wounds, burns. The presence of necrotic tissue or foreign bodies encourages the growth of anaerobic organism such as C. tetani. Tetanus rarely follows surgical procedures today. What is it Called? The full medical name for Tetanus, is Tetanic Contraction, The comman name for Tetanus is Tetanus or Lockjaw. Clostridium tetani What is it Called? Virulence & Pathogenicity • Not pathogenic to humans and animals by invasive infection but by the production of a potent protein toxin – tetanus toxin or tetanospasmin The second exotoxin produced is tetanolysin— function not known symptoms of tetanus? Who gets tetanus? Tetanus can occur in people of all ages. Before the availability of a vaccine, tetanus was a common childhood illness. There are still cases of tetanus around the world where populations are not vaccinated against the disease Tetanus (Lock Jaw)It is an acute toxin-mediated disease caused by Clostridium tetani that affects the body's muscles and nerves Characterized by an acute neuromuscular impairment such as trismus, stiffness and muscle spasms the bacterium is harmless.( the bacteria are most dangerous when they release toxin (poison) inside the human body) ( spore forming ) gram positive anaerobes Medical Microbiology Lockjow (Tetanus) Student name : Hana Haya Orjwan Extended Symptoms: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY What is tetanus? Fever Sweating Elevated Blood Pressure Rapid heart rate The symptoms for Lockjaw are: Spasms and stiffness in your jaw muscles Stiffness of neck Hard time with swallowing Stiffness in your Abdomen Source or Reservoir Source or Reservoir • Tests that may be performed include the following: –Culture of the wound site (may be negative even if tetanus is present) –Other tests may be used to rule out meningitis, rabies, strychnine poisoning, or other diseases with similar symptoms. –Tetanus antibody test Diagnosis
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