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Chemistry Lab

Transcript: For example , the nonmetal atoms are sharing electrons. This means nonmetal atoms are tightly connected together . However they do not give up any electrons. This is known as a covalent bond. For example , A molecular formula can be written one way but the way you build the structural formula can be done in variety of way and all these different ways are called isomers For example the pair of dot above the chlorine atom is are lone pairs because they are not bonding with nothing For example functional group Ketone has a oxygen molecule double bonded to a Carbon molecule. The rest of the structure is remainder. With just those two molecule it can be identified that the smell of this would be sweet . In Addition the unique bonding of the Carboxylic acid is different from the Ketone . Carboxylic acid smells like Putrid Electronegativity For example , placing sugar in h20 and stirring it will be consider as a chemical reaction because it will have it initial chemical structure and then the chemical equation will change due to the sugar that was added , #2 HONC 1234 rule Octet rule Molecular and Structural formulas Ionic Bond This Diagram Shows the Structural formula and the Molecular formula right under. Since the Molecular formula has one Carbon atom and 4 Hydrogen, we can see the 1 carbon and 4 Hydrogens in the structual formula Chemistry Lab: Smell The Lewis dot structure is a structure to show how atoms bond and the lone pairs and electrons that may appear in the molecule. Chemical Reactions/ Chemical Equations Covalent bonds are formed between the atoms of nonmetallic elements. In other word two nonmetals coming together and sharing electrons A Molecular formula and Structural formula are similar formulas that helps us identify the smell. The Molecular formula visually looks different from the structural In order for atoms to bond and have relations the octet rule must be true. the octet rule is when to atoms meet and to make it true the outermost shall have a total of 8 electrons in total. atom looses or gains electron in order to make configuration true. Ionic bonds are very similar to covalent bonds . How ever a Ionic bond is when a metal atom gives up a electron to a nonmetal atom In Addition the pair of dots that are not involve in the bonding of molecules are known as lone pairs Unlike the covalent bond an ionic bond need to be one nonmetal and one metal For example Oxygen has 6 electrons in order to complete the octet rule it needs to reach 8 electrons . 6 is closer to 8 so it would gain 2 electrons. Hydrogen only has 1 electron. if we combined a Oxygen with 2 Hydrogen it will give a total of 8 electrons and the octet rule is practice Functional group For example as you can see in the structural formula atom H witch is a Hydrogen only form one covalent bond . Atom O witch is Oxygen forms 2 covalent bonds . Atom N which is Nitrogen forms 3 covalent bonds . Atom C which is carbon forms 4 covalent bonds in total . Every molecular formula can have more than one structural formula . Lewis dot Structure This image shows how 3 Chlorine atoms bond with one Phosphorus using dots A functional group often stands out as an unusual or unique portion of a molecule. This Portion of molecule is what we use to determine the smell . Isomers A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the change of a chemical equation How strongly an atom will attract electrons from another atom during a chemical bond Covalent bond In Addition if they both have the same electronegativity they would pulled each other equally like a covalent bond For example , Chlorine has a strong electronegativity than Sodium. This means the atom will get pulled and bond with Chlorine because chlorine has a greater charge. The HONC 1234 rule is a rule to help us know how many covalent bonds Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon has .

Chemistry Lab

Transcript: - Total mass of reactants: 17.36 -Lid Will the amount of openings sealed affect the mass of the product within the flask. Was the LCM proven? - The acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate mixed together Acetic acid + Sodium bicarbonate Total Mass: 17.63 grams Mass on scale set to zero - Amount of each substance used which could alter the product created as well as differentiate the masses. - Not keeping the reactants seperate when measuring the mass could result in a chemical reaction when not desired. Hard to reverse/ Irreversable By Zawar, Daniel & Stephen The procedure can be manipulated to ensure that all opening are sealed to prevent gas created from escaping to ensure the mass stays the same. 1) Applied safety glasses/goggles to protect any chemical substances or potentially glass from our eyes. 2) All classroom bags were placed on chairs or desks to eliminate a potential trip resulting in harmful injuries. 3)Close attention was kept on all glass used as they had a potential outcome of roling of the table and breaking or spilling. 4) Basic safety procedures such as keeping substances used in lab out of mouths reach, and cleaning up by washing then neatly placing everything back to it's original location. The mass of the products within a chemical reaction must be equivelant to the total mass of the reactants. Reactants Signs of Chemical Change Carbon dioxide Volume: 5 ml Reactants Together Question of The Day Mass: 5 grams Possible experimental errors Before After CO2 (g) -Balloon Acetic Acid Ensure Safety Word Equation Can be sealed by using: Law of Conservation of Mass Formation of gas Sodium Bicarbonate -Zip lock bag The masses did not support the LCM as the chemical reaction created gas. However, the flask we used had an opening which may have resulted in the gas created to be released. In return, decreasing the mass. Chemical Equation CH3COOH (l) + NaHCO3 (s) Hypothesis Chemistry Lab (Bubbles) The Product What will occur when Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetic Acid mix together? If the mass of the acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate before mixing is measured, then the mass after they bond will be equivalent. Testable Question How can we alter the procedure -plastic wrap

Chemistry Lab Presentation

Transcript: What is TSS and Turbidity? Intro and stuff. The Source: Picture from: The Dye Killed The Fish! Measuring Turbidity Calibrate Vernier Sensor Insert each sample into the sensor Record reading Green River The reason the fish are dying is more complicated than just dyes. The source originates from the nitrates being added into the water. Group 1: Chemistry Presentation Nitrates are a key ingredient in fertilizer which helps plants grow faster. Algae is a plant. Picture from Measuring TSS Filter each sample through glass filter Weigh each filter Allow filters to dry for 1 week at 105 degrees C Weigh the dry filters Record data Algae: What is the entire research plan? Look into changes of water quality at each sampling spot Conductivity pH Dissolved Oxygen TSS Turbidity Nitrates Decrease in water clarity. Reduces sunlight penetration. Provides a vessel for pollutants. Can ruin habitats for fish and aquatic plants. Why are suspended solids bad? Bibliography In the Lab When the algae dies, it creates a deficiency in oxygen. So in reality the more algae produced inevitability the less oxygen. In reality the fish...are drowning... Algae shouldn't be an issue because it helps produce oxygen, which fish need to survive. It is not until the algae dies that it is a problem. Picture from: thedrumboy80.deviantart/art/Drowning-fish-405312175 TSS & Turbidity image from: What is the problem? Algae blooms Indicator of higher levels of nitrates Algae tries to "fix" this problem Dissolved oxygen is used in decaying algae Fish death Measure amount of solids in the water. TSS measures weight of solids. Turbidity measures amount of light scattered. "Azo Dye Synthesis for Schools." Society of Dyers and Colourists. N.p., n.d. Web. <>. "Chapter 3 - Streams." Stream Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity. Washington State Department of Ecology, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. N.p., n.d. Web. <>. Nitrates: Chart 1 Chart 2 Nitrates are also used in clothing dyes, which means the source is strongly pointed towards the Textile Mill. What is the goal? Determine whether there is a connection between the housing development, textile mill, and fish death. Housing development Fertilizers Nitrogen Phosphorous Textile mill Dyes Questions? Fish deaths:

Chemistry Lab

Transcript: Analysis of Colas Report //Goals// //Goals// To determine the concentration of phosphoric acid in a cola of unknown concentration using the application of the Beer-Lambert Law //Introduction// Introduction Concentration can be derived from wavelength and absorbancy as C1A1=c2A2 at constant wavelength This relationship can be expressed as a graph with absorbancy on the y-axis and concentration on the x-axis assuming a constant wavelength. Wavelength - the distance between tops of a wave. Change in wavelength corresponds to change in color and property of light Absorbancy - the amount of light that is stopped by the solution Transmittance rate - the amount of light that passes through the solution Concentration - the amount of substance present in a solution. Expressed as moles of substance/liters of solution. Wavelength, Absorbancy, and Concentration Wavelength, Absorbancy, and Concentration By creating a phosphoric acid solution with a known concentration and then diluting the solution multiple times we can create a graph of various concentrations and absorbancies at constant wavelength. Using the graph, we can derive the concentration of the unknown using the equation of the line. Graphing Beers Law Graphing Beers Law Example Beer's Law Graph By creating a known solution of phosphoric acid then diluting it, we can determine the concentration of phosphoric acid in a cola of unknown concentration Colas and Phosphoric Acid Colas and Phosphoric Acid //Procedure// #1 #2 #3 //Procedure// Determine the absorbancies and max wavelength of colored solutions Determine the absorbancies and transmittance rate of KMnO4 at standard molarity and serial dilutions Determine the phosphoric acid concentration of Coca-Cola classic using a known phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid and AVM. Overview Dispense the different colored water solutions into different clean cuvettes Colored Solutions: Red, copper, golden, kelly green, teal, royal blue, violet Using the Spec-20, calculate the absorbancies and transmittance at max wavelength Determining the absorbancies of colored solutions at its maximum wavelength Create a .00325 M KMnO4 Solution using 1 ml of KMnO4 and 99 ml of deionized water in a flask Dilute the solution 5 times, creating solutions of smaller and smaller molarity each dilution Dilutions: .0001625 M, .00008125 M, .000040625 M, .000020313 M Test the .00325 M KMnO4 solution and it's dilutions in the Spec-20 for it's absorbancies and transmittance rates Determining the absorbancies of KMnO4 at a standard molarity and it's dilutions Create a .001 M phosphoric acid solution using .034 grams of potassium monophosphate and 250 ml of deionized water. Combine the phosphoric acid solution with AVM solution in a 2:1 ratio. 250 ml of phosphoric acid solution was combined with 125 ml of AVM. Create a solution to be used as a blank by combining 25 ml of AVM with 50 ml of deionized water Create new of the phosphoric acid/AVM solution by combining 5 ml of phosphoric acid/AVM solution with increasing amount of AVM to create dilutions Dilutions: .0005 M, .00025 M, .000125 M, .0000625 M, .00003125 M Test the Dilutions at constant wavelength. Record the absorbancies for these wavelength. Create a graph of the absorbancies at the corresponding concentrations. Derive the equation for the trend line and the R^2 coefficient Determine the phosphoric acid concentration of Coca-cola classic using a stock phosphoric acid solution and its serial dilutions Create a dilution of coca-cola classic by diluting 4 ml of coca-cola classic in 96 ml of deionized water Create a blank of coca-cola classic by combining 5 ml AVM and 10 ml of deionized water Test the diluted coca-cola classic in the Spec-20 for absorbancy at the constant wavelength Use the equation of the trendline to derive the concentration of phosphoric acid in coca-cola classic Determining the Concentration of Coca Cola //Results// Results Colors:Absorbancy and Max Wavelength Colors:Absorbancy and Max Wavelength KMnO4 Concentration Absorbances and Transmisson at Max Wavelength KMnO4 Concentration Absorbances and Transmisson ... Absorbance Graph Absorbance Graph Transmittance Graph Transmittance Graph Absorbancies at Different Concentrations of Phosphoric Acid/AVM Solution Absorbancies at Different Concentrations of Phosphoric Acid/AVM Solution Constant Wavelength of 382 nm Graph of Absorbancies at Different Concentrations Graph of Absorbancies at Different Concentrations Concentration of Phosphoric Acid in Cola Concentration of Phosphoric Acid in Cola Cola Absorbancy: 1.58 Concentration of Cola = (1.58 = 4652.5x + .9548) * 2 Concentration of Cola = .00027 M Through the application of Beer's Law, we determined the concentration of phosphoric acid in Coca-Cola Classic using a stock solution of phosphoric acid and it's dilution. Using the data collected from the dilutions, we created a scatter plot. Using the equation of the trendline created by the scatter plot, we determined the

Chemistry Lab

Transcript: Periodic Lab Report The periodic table is originally developed by the russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleylev. The periodic table is set up by groups and periods. The element groups are set up by Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth metals, D-transition metals, Halogens, Inert gases, and F-transition metals. The periodic table is classified by Metals, Non Metals, and Metalloids. The types of elements and solutions we used were HCl (hydrocloric acid) Li (Lithium), Na (Sodium), K (Potassium), Mg (Magnesium), Ca (calcium), Fe (Iron), Cu (Copper), Zn (Zinc). All of the elements used in the lab were metals. During this week we have learned how to fill in electronic configurations by just looking at a periodic table. The purpose of this lab was to see how the given metals would react in acid HCl and in water. Also, we lit the metals to see how they would reciprocate when they were in fire. Steps First we collected all of the metals from the containers Turn on Bunsen burner and proceed to burn the Magnesium (Mg) with the tongs. ( Do the same with calcium ) Take two test tubes and add water to one and acid (HCl) to another. Put a piece of calcium in both test tubes. ( Follow same step with magnesium) Follow step 2 and step 4 for aluminum and carbon When i first burned the magnesium it took a while but then it reacted by burning a bright white light. When i burnt the calcium it just turned white. After we put the calcium in a test tube with acid, the piece of calcium turned the solution pink and formed bubbles that sprouted out through the test tube. With magnesium, the metal just turned pink when it soaked in the acid. When we put the iron zinc and copper into the acid the iron turned somewhat of a greenish black color, the copper did not do anything and the zinc fizzled in the acid. Last we burnt the aluminum and carbon, during this processed nothing happened. when we put both elements in the acid we didnt have enough time to see how both elements would have reacted to the solution. The reactivity trend on the left side of the table is that they all reacted more than zinc, iron and copper. The element that was more reactive in part 1 1 was Na. The element that was more reactive in part 2 was magnesium. Out of the transition metals zinc reacted the most by fizziling a bit. The least reactive was copper which didnt react at all with the acid. I would have liked to try more reactive elements in the lab. Our observations mactched most of the other trends in class. When we burnt some of the elements, like carbon, it didnt react for our expirement but it did for others. Even though we didnt get to finish part 4 it was a pretty exciting lab. Fill two test tubes up with water and add a drop of phenolphthalein and add a piece off calcium and magnesium to each test tube. Introduction Claudia Britt Period 4A 23/10/2011 Step 3 step 2 Step 1 Step 6 Step 5 Data/Observations Conclusion Purpose Step 4 Follow step 4 without water for zinc copper and iron

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