Transcript: Frankenstein and Mary Shelley By Caroline Jones and Euphemia Williams Mary Shelley Mary Shelley Mary Shelley was born to Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin. Her mother died 10 days later, due to a complicated birth. Her father was largely self-absorbed and gave little time to Shelley or her maternal half sister, Fanny Imlay. When she was four her father married Mary Jane Clairmont, who already had two children from a previous marriage. Shelley often retreated to her mother's grave to read, write, and later, to meet with her lover, Percy Shelley. Born August 30, 1797 Childhood Shelley received no formal education but spent much of her time reading her mother's works. Education Education Shelley later published five more novels, the most well know being The Last Man (1826). She wrote a memior Rambles in Germany and Italy in 1840, 1842, and 1843 (1844). PUBLISHED AFTER HER DEATH A short novel called Mathilda. Published in the 1950's. In 1922, two verse drama's were published. Other Works Other Writings They two first met when Shelley was 14 Romance started two years later Percy Shelley was married at the time their romance started Mary Shelley ran away with Shelley one month before she turned 17. The couple married in London in 1816. They had three children who all died shortly after their births. They successfully had one child, Percy Florence, in 1819. Married Percy Shelley in 1816 Marriage Following Percy's death in 1822, Shelley carried her husbands heart. Fun Facts Fun Facts Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein in 1817. Some of her major influences included her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, her friend, Lord Byron. She was greatly influenced by the rise of the Romantic Era and new advancements in electricity and galvanism. Gothic horror as a genre is loosely defined as starting in the mid 18th century with the 1764 publication of "The Castle of Otranto" by Horace Walpole, but Shelley is still a relatively early Gothic horror writer, so her literary Gothic influences were relatively scarce. Influences Influences Electricity was found and experimented with as early as 600 BC in the form of static electricity. In the early 1600s, Thomas Browne first used the term 'electricity,' and in 1752, Benjamin Franklin performed his famed key-and-kite experiment. In 1800, Alessandro Volta created the first chemical battery. With such advancements in electricity and science on the horizon, another term surfaced, named after its creator, a friend and peer of Volta--Luigi Galvani. He presented the idea of galvanism. Galvani studied animal tissues and experimented with the relationship it had to electricity. In his most famous experiment, he made the amputated legs of a frog twitch when he connected them to an electric charge. He proposed the idea of 'galvanism'--stimulating movement in organic matter through electricity. Shelley acknowledged that it was one of her influences by saying, "Perhaps a corpse would be re-animated; galvanism had given token of such things: perhaps the component parts of a creature might be manufactured, brought together, and endued with vital warmth." Galvanism and Electricity Galvanism and Electricity The Romantic and Gothic eras both started in the mid 18th century, and both were inspired as a counter-movement to the Enlightenment. They both focused on emotions and feelings rather than logic, and used nature and mythology as and descriptions. While Shelley was obviously influenced heavily by advancements in science, the primary themes in her novel, such as loneliness, isolation, revenge, and compassion, were drawn from the concepts brought forth during the Romantic Era. The Romantic Era Romanticism "Satan had his companions, fellow-devils, to admire and encourage him; but I am solitary and abhorred." "We will each write a ghost story..." These words, uttered by Lord Byron in the summer of 1816 as he, Mary Shelley and her husband, and a couple other close friends, sat in a Gothic-style, Genevan house called the Villa of Diodati, would be the inspiration for Frankenstein. One of the most obvious evidences of inspiration, however, is found in Shelley's characterization of Victor Frankenstein. In Lord Byron's poem, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage," Childe Harold is a Byronic hero, and is considered to be the origin of the concept. A Byronic hero is essentially an anti-hero--tortured, arrogant, mysterious, socially and intellectually advanced, dark, and destructive. Victor Frankenstein fits right into this trope, as a mad, arrogant, mysterious, destructive, and intelligent scientist. Byron and Shelley had very similar writing styles, too, as both were influenced by the Romantic era. Lord Byron Lord Byron A famous but false rumor claims that Frankenstein was not written by Mary Shelley, but rather by her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley. While this is likely untrue, the two did collaborate and consult each other on their literary pursuits and progress. They wrote the prefaces
Transcript: I -Consciousness Family is greatly emphasize in these two chapters. Because of their recent loses, Victor's family wishes to find tranquility in their future. While the monster wants victor to create a companion from for himself, Victor and his father hope to find peace after Victor and Elizabeth marry. "I confess my son that I have always looked forward to your marriage with your cousin as the tie of our domestic comfort, and the stay of my declining years." (Pg 108) "I revolved rapidly in my mind a multitude og thoughts, and endeavored to arrive at some conclusion. Atlas! ... I must perform my engagement, and let the monster depart with his mate, before I allowed myself to enjoy the delight of an union from which I expected peace." (Pg 108-109) "... and my present sensations strongly intimated that the fiend would follow me, and exempt my family from the danger of his machinations." (Pg 110) III - Solitude III - Solitude "I feared the vengeance of the disappointed friend, yet I was unable to overcome my repugnance to the task which was enjoined me" (Pg 107) "I felt as if I had committed some great crime, the consciousness of which haunted me. I was guiltless, but I had indeed drawn down a horrible curse upon my hear, as mortal as that of crime." (Pg 116) "I now made arrangements for my journey; but one feeling haunted me, which filled me with fear and agitation. During my absence I should leave my friends unconscious of the existence of their enemy and unprotected from his attacks, exasperated as he might be by my departure." (Pg 109) Victor on the other hand worries about a project that he should accomplish no matter if he likes it or not. He is not happy and feels destroyed by his project. "I looked toward its completion with a tremulous and eager hope, which I dared not trust myself to question, but which was intermixed with obscure of forebodings of evil, that made my heart sicken in my bosom." (Pg 118) "But I am a blasted tree; the bolt has entered my soul; and I felt then that I should survuve to exhibit, what I shall soon cease to be a miserable spectacle to humanity, pitiable to others, and abhorrent to myself." (Pg 115) II - Family I - Consciousness Victor has agreed to create a female companion for his monster. His regrets are agonizing and he is unsure whether or not he should actually complete this unbearable task. In chapter 1 there are continuous signs that suggest Victor is growing as a person. He wishes not to bring further harm to his family and friends. He is now beginning to recognize others before himself. IV - Ambition, Happiness, and Fallibility II - Family "Frankenstein" Mary Shelley Volume III Chapter I-II by Beatrice Segning & Aileen Montes Victor isolates himself as he feels that he is at his lowest point. He tries to clear his mind so he may complete his task to please the monster. His sad memory and fear of future destruction by the monster triggers more agonizing feelings. He questions whether or not creating an other monster is truly the answer. "I saw an insurmountable barrier placed between me and my fellow-men; this barrier was sealed with the blood of William and Justine; and to reflect on the events connected with those names filled my soul with anguish. " (Pg 113) "But I was not mood to laugh and talk with strangers, or enter into their feelings or plans with the good humor expected from a guest; and accordingly I told Clerval that I wished to make a tour of Scotland alone. " (Pg 116) IV - Ambition, Happiness, and Fallibility Henry Clerval is innocent and his enthusiastic character gives him joy and happiness. "The delight of Clerval was proportionally greater than mine; his mind expanded in the company of men of talent, and he found in his own nature greater capacities and resources than he could have imagined himself to have possessed while he associated with his inferior." (Pg 115)
Transcript: FRANKENSTEIN OR THE MODERN PROMETHEUS, BY MARY SHELLEY Topic 1 CONTEXT OF THE NOVEL 1818 ROMANTICISM GOTHIC NOVEL CONTEXT: GALVANISM, AND OCCULT IDEAS, TOPICS OF CONVERSATION AMONG MERY SHELLEY'S CIRCLE LORD BYRON ORGANISES A COMPETITION: WHO CAN WRITE THE BEST HORROR STORY? Shelley dreamt about a scientist who created life and was horrified by what he had made; her dream later evolved into the novel's story. GALVANISM Subtopic 1 In biology, galvanism is the contraction of a muscle that is stimulated by an electric current. PERCY SHELLEY Text LORD BYRON Pictures Lord Byron, was a British poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential. Topic 2 FRAMING THE NOVEL 1) ROMANTICISM: intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, new emphasis on emotions as apprehension, horror and terror. Individualism. 2) GOTHIC NOVEL: Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance 1818 Topic 3 VIDEO Double click to edit Topic 4 MARY SHELLEY WHAT DO WE NOW ABOUT HER LIFE AND WORK? LOOK FOR INFO! Topic 5 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 6
Transcript: 1818 - 3 Frankenstein; "wretch", "creature", "monster", "demon", and "it" May 1817 Mary Wallstonecraft Godwin (Shelley) 1797 – 1851 London Peter’s Church – Bourmemouth Romanticism XVIII-XIX Cheney, Harriet (1771-1848). The Upper Part of Ulswater from Lyulph's Tower., The Wordsworth Trust, Dove Cottage, Grasmere, UK October 31, 1831 - 1 Darmstadt in Germany Mary Shelley’s Life Frankenstein puzzle or, The Modern Prometheus Mary Shelley’s Life Frankenstein Gothic and Romanticism Frankenstein puzzle Agenda Boris Karloff as Frankenstein's monster 1822 - 2 Gothic Novel 1931 Mary Shelley & Frankenstein
Transcript: Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus By Mary Shelley 1801 Inglaterra declara guerra contra a França de Napoleão 1804 Haiti torna-se o segundo país independente da América 1806 Começam os movimentos de independência nas colônias espanholas sul-americanas (política) 1810 Comida enlatada 1813 Locomotiva (Primeiro motor a vapor totalmente funcional) 1814 Cirurgia Plástica (realizada na Inglaterra pelo médico Joseph Constantine Carpue) 1818 Mary Shelley publica Frankenstein ANALISE NATALIA 2 THANKS! Mary shelley's husband drowned at sea in a boat accident. Frankenstein almost dies at sea chasing the creature. Victor, Henry, and the creature at seperate points all travel Europe. Mary Shelley travels araound Europe with her on after he graduated college. Death is prevalent throughout the chapters. For example: -Henry dying -Elizabeth being strangled -Alphonse being overcome by her death and also dying Mary Shelley experianced extensive death: her mother, half-sister Fanny, and husband's first wife. Mary Shelley's dream of child coming back to life and the incident in chapter 21, when fisherman found Henry Clerval. Mary Shelley Frankenstein narrativa dividida em 3 partes, demais obras sao assim e assado NATALIA Mary Shelley had a son named William who died at a young age and Frankenstein had a brother named William. Victor had thoughts of suicide after the death of Justine and William. Mary Shelley had thoughts of suicide at a point in her life also. The monster explains his life to Victor and how society refuses to accept him because of his appearance. He was an outcast; as was Mary Shelley. She was not socially accepted because of her husband who initially was married while having relations with her. The happiness with Frankenstein's life illustrates the happiness in Shelley's life and how the people she cared about kept dying. Características estilísticas de Shalley DAVID Geneva is the birthplace of Frankenstein and the book itself (page 22). The death of Elizabeth's mother is similar to Shelley's own mother (page20). William Godwin turned his back on his daughter, Mary Shelley, in the same way that Victor turned his back on the creature. Frankenstein's admiration for philosophers reflects Shelley's respect for her parents. Shelley's creation and Frankenstein's creature (page 42). Referências Natalia e David... O que estava acontencendo no século XIX? MARY SHALLEY Análise NATALIA ANÁLISE DAVID Ch. 16: During this chapter, the creature stumbles on a little boy. When he tries to befriend him, the boy mentions he is William Frankenstein and the creature proceeds with killing him. As a young woman, Mary Shelley gave birth to a baby girl who only lived for a few days and also experiancing the death of two more children before giving birth to the only boy who made it into adulthood. She knows the horror and tolls that losing a child can bring. Ch. 18: The opening of this chapter is a conversation between Victor and his father. They talk of the love he has for his dear cousin Elizabeth and how he wishes to marry her in the future. Frankenstein's father wants him to be happy but feels that marriage might get in the way. When Mary Shelley found Percy, he was still married to another woman. He couldn't get divorced so they ran off to England and married once Percy Shelley's wife committed suicide. Mary's father shunned her for many years for her foolish actions. NATALIA Ch. 13: In the end of this chapter, creature mentions that he has a father figure but grew up with no mother that "blessed me with smiles an caresses." Mary Shelley was also raised by her father after her mother died from childbirth. As she grew older a stepmother came into the picture but never gave her the motherly feeling. Ch. 15: In the beginning of this chapter, the creature stumbles upon a few books. They gave him new understandings and different perspectives. Shelley began like the creature, with no school, and left to figure it out on her own. She took initiative in her father's library and began to read and write opening a new world with the use of formal education. Século XIX Chapters 1-6 Chorais, ó infelizes, mas essas não serão vossas últimas lágrimas! Mais uma vez entregar-vos-ei ao pranto fúnebre, e o som de vossas lamentações será ouvido mais e mais. Obras de Shalley
Transcript: Rachel Peters Frankenstein: Connections through Literature Frankenstein Mary Shelley Frankenstein Mary Shelley Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, was written under the influences of the Romantic Period. Mary was surrounded by many influencial omantic writers and their works are mirrored in hers. It displays the sweeping landscapes and nature based power of the style. Shelley's work however also influenced writers. Many of her over-arching themes are exhibited in several other Romantic pieces or Romantic-esque pieces. Frankenstein is written in the style of a framed story. Framed stories are those in which the narrator is retelling events. In Frankenstein, it is displayed as Robert Walton, a ship captain, writing letters to his sister retelling her the story that Frankenstein is telling him. At one point the frame repeats, as Frankenstein tells Walton not just his story but also the story the monster told to him. Framed Story Framed Story Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights is the story of Heathcliff who, being of lower birth, is mistreated and in turn, destroys himself and the two families associated with his persecutor. It is told to a man, new to the area, who is renting from Heathcliff by a maid and companion of Heathcliff and Heathcliff's young wards. The maid has been told (and lived through parts) the story and she is telling it to the renter who in turn narrates the story to the readers. Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Samuel T. Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is told through the frame of a narrator who is retelling the story the Ancient Mariner tells. as he is bid to by his punishment. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Samuel T. Coleridge The style of the story being told through a corresponence is exampled in Frankenstein, which is written as a series of letters from a ship's captain in the Artic to his sister living in England. Epistocal Writing Epistocal Writing Frankenstein has a reversed timeline. In the opening of the story, Robert Walton pulls Frankenstein from the Artic sea. At this point the creation of the monster, its murders, and the quest to find and destroy it have already taken place. The book starts at the end of the plot and then flashes back to the beginning as Frankenstein regales his tale to Walton. Reversed Timeline Reversed Timeline The setting of Frankenstein encompasses a wide variety of places and natural monuments. It stretches from Geneva, Switzerland and its mountains to the frozen wasteland of the Artic. At all times, however, the beauty of the natural world is given the highest power and respect. Setting Setting The setting of Frankenstein is not passive. The wonder of nature's majesty is used as a supernatural being almost that can control and affect the beings living in it. Nature is shown to be a calming power, most often, for Frankenstein. After the monster begins his rampage, any peace Frankenstein feels is only felt when he is surrounded by the natural elements. Nature is not only a calming presence in Frankenstein but also a powerful law that cannot be crossed with out devastating consquences. When Frankenstein brings his monster to life from the dead, he crosses a fundimental law of nature and the unnatural creation is the cause of his pain. Nature versus Science Nature versus Science In Frankenstein, Victor choice to ignore the warnings of his professors and to continue in his experiment, brings punishment upon him. His choices result in the death of four people he loves and in the end, the ruining of his own life. His choice also brings punishment upon his creation who lives in freakish misery and shattering loneliness because of Frankenstein. Consequences of Choices Consequences of Choices Victor Frankenstein Victor Frankenstein
Transcript: 1 WHAT DID VICTOR AND WHAT ARE HIS INTERESTS? During his period at the university, he makes the experiments but he also isolates himself from society, devoting all his time to the desire of knowledge. Firstly he lived with his parents in a ‘perfect’ family, then he adopts a fascination for science and eagerly begins to educate himself. “I was [...] self taught with regard to my favourite studies. My father was not scientific ...” Victor leaves his family in his younger years for studies in a different town,Ingolstadt ,and this does not seem to have any effect on him at all. He does not have any contact with his family, not even by letter. Victor’s total attention goes to his scientific studies: he does not have many friends but he is not tempting to find any. He is not bothered about being alone. The Future of Science Shelley wrote Frankenstein during an age where scientific progress was exploding rapidly. The discovery of such concepts, as electricity, shaked the foundations of previously established constructs of natural world. It is interesting to note, however, that these issues, considered very "modern" in Shelley's day, continue to resound within our present age. Our society currently fights against such issues as artificial intelligence, DNA cloning, genetics, neuroscience and stem cells, which ultimately leads to controversy regarding the roles, uses, and limitations of science. The book exists not as a static representation of a period in history, but as continued fodder for timeless questions on the role of science in human progress, technology, and evolution. P 2 p Curiosity and Discovery Victor’s speech effectively becomes representative of mankind, that supposed to learn beyond “what nature will allow”, finding this irresistible. In this language of double meanings, Victor, and even Shelley through him, created a situation where the fundamental nature of human experience may push beyond the natural limits. In Shelley’s time, with a series of spectacular scientific inventions, this mode of thought is certainly much evident. Even if Victor chooses isolation, he many times insists that the only reason he is isolated, is because of the creature. At first Victor is alienated because of the creation of the monster and then because of keeping the secret of his creation. This finally leads to his downfall. Subsequently, the experiment forces Victor to alienate himself from society and his family as a means of protecting fellow creatures from the monster. At the end of the experiment, he understands the consequences: he is forced to alienate himself from the entire world while he is going to destroy his creation.The only communication Victor has is with Walton at the ship. He confesses to Walton the story of his life and about the creature he has created. Victor is also alienated from his surroundings because of his choice of scientific viewpoints. From his early years, Victor is fascinated by scientists but he still continued to study alone. The evidence is apparent; Victor chooses to alienate himself from others, friends, school, and family. Science in Frankenstein Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was inspired by the observation of 1781s,within the context of the industrial age, when the scientist Luigi Galvani observed the effect of electricity applied to animals. When he applied electricity to a dead frog, its legs quickly moved, so he supposed that this was just caused by the anatomy of the frog. However, it was later realized that when animals receive an electric shock, their muscles contract. Alienation is something Victor experiences during his entire life, from his childhood to his family, scientific works and society. Victor Frankenstein is a man of science and his goal in life is to follow his dream of understanding the miracles of the world. He spends almost his entire time recreating life in the form of a monster not being aware of the consequences. In the end, he spends his remaining time trying to destroy the same creation he hardly created. 5 Y g m The reader can understand from the novel that Victor has himself chosen this isolation from people: nobody has forced him to a life in solitude. The only true friend he has is Clerval, but Victor still does not confide to him about his troubles with the experiment. Victor set up his laboratory “in a solitary chamber at the top of the house” as a replacement for the school’s laboratory. It is a self imposed alienation due to his scientific experiments.Characters in the story thought that Victor had misused science. G Perversion of the Natural Order The creation of Frankenstein's monster is presented as an unsurpassed feat of scientific discovery. In a sense, the creation of the monster is a punishment inflicted upon Frankenstein for his uncontrolled hunt for knowledge. These ambitions of Frankenstein appear to be beyond the range of information available to mortal and are infringing Divine scheme. In the case of Frankenstein, he has usurped the
Transcript: The book ends with the last letter to Walton's sister, as the monster leaps off the boat to end his own life, now that his enemy's is gone. It All Depends on Perspective Frankenstein was the most agonized of all, mostly because he had so much more to lose. He had an entire lifetime of living and loving to store all these beautiful memories and emotions, and suddenly it was all stripped away by this demon that couldn't understand such things, because he'd never felt them. "... as I touched the shore I felt those cares and fears revive which soon were to clasp me and cling to me forever" ( 177). It All Depends on Perspective Frankenstein vs. The Demon Overall: The Maddest of them All Quick Review The novel Frankenstein provided me an intriguing, descriptive, and overall interesting read. It had multiple dimensions and levels throughout the story (just like a good cake), the plot line building on top of itself and creating this masterpiece. It All Depends on Perspective "Blasted as though wert, my agony was still superior to thine..." (205) "Farewell, my dear, excellent, Margaret... Your affectionate brother, R. Walton" (4). One issue I found intriguing throughout this novel was the constant competition between Victor and the monster of who's agony was the worst - who had the most of it, and who was the most deserving to feel it. I debated the topic throughout the book as I read, and came to these conclusions: "He [the demon] showed unparalleled malignity and selfishness in evil; he destroyed my friends; he devoted to destruction beings who possessed exquisite sensations, happiness, and wisdom..." (200) The Maddest of Them All * Frankenstein created the monster in the first place, therefore it was his fault that all this was brought upon him * He had family and friends to support him through his darkest times * He also had the advantage of not having people abhor his very presence * He was praised as knowledgeable and had a very good life unlike the "demon" As the tale spins on, Victor goes into a section where he runs into the monster he created, and the perspective switches yet again to the monster's as he tells his story from the moment he opened his eyes. (87-129) And Frankenstein... It All Depends on Perspective It all Depends on PERSPECTIVE. Horrified by what he created, he flees from the monster, not expecting to ever see it again. Later in the book, the creature (who has gained intelligence) entails him to create another like him, a female, that he might find some joy in his horrible existence, threatening that if he refuses, he will destroy everything he loves. Afraid, Victor complies, only to later realize that to release another of the demon's being would be to ask for the destruction of the world. But... THEN, it switched perspectives as he picked up a "passenger" on his boat (Victor Frankenstein), and started recording his hectic and depressing tale to instead Victor's perspective! (17-86) Frankenstein: Mary Shelley Frankenstein vs. the Demon i love quick review! Frankenstein vs. the Demon "I now hasten to the more moving part of my story. I shall relate events that impressed me with feelings which, from what i had been, have made me what I am" (101). Another element i absolutely loved about this novel was the different points of view that were constantly shifting throughout the book. * Victor had so much more to lose - a whole lifetime of living and loving stripped from him hurt much worse * He was still able to see the beauty in the world even in his dying moments - because he TRIED harder * He wrecked agony upon himself knowingly, to save his own species rather than just himself * He TRIED to help the monster, and also tried to destroy him * the "demon" (as Victor referred to him as), sincerely believed that his very creation gave him more lamentation, more agony than Frankenstein could ever have, no matter the fact that he had literally ruined Frankenstein's life, and left him in a state of almost complete madness where he finally died. * Because he believed no one could ever love him due to his form and outward appearance, he had more cause to feel agony * He was completely alone in the world "Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws had decreed my utter and terrible destruction" (27). "Frankenstein has daily declined in health; a feverish fire still glimmers in his eyes, but he is exhausted..." (196) I had to continually think about the perspective, which kept the book lively and interesting, almost a concept like inception. It was the tale of a decrepit demon roaming the earth, inside the awful destruction of a story of a crumbling man who had created him, inside the letters written by an adventurer traversing the North Pole. Absolutely amazing. Victor Frankenstein vs. the Demon But Let's Dig Deeper... The Maddest of Them All Quick Review It then moves back to Victor's point of view, until almost the very end of the book. (130-192) As the end of the book drew near, it again went to
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