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Forensic Anthropology

Transcript: By: Amber Beltran Denise Tijerina Brandon Hernandez Education and Training Requirements A Doctoral Degree in Anthropology Major in Anthropology in college It usually takes at least eight years of full-time study beyond high school to get a doctoral degree in anthropology Individuals with a bachelor's or master's degree sometimes qualify for research or administrative positions in government or private firms. Forensic Anthropology What is Forensic Anthropology Citations -is the application of the science of physical anthropology & human osteology (the study of the human skeleton) in a legal setting most often in criminal cases where the cases where the victim's remains are in the advanced stage of decomposition. On March 9,!971 Randell Lee Harvey whent missing, two years after he whent missing Two and a half years later, his skeletal remains turned up in a southwest Houston boat shed, among the many victims of notorious serial killer Dean Corll — the man who went on a sadistic sexual rampage targeting teenage boys from 1970 until 1973. In the Casey Anthony Case peice of duct taopr found neaer the toddler's skull was large enough to siultaneosly cover the girls mouth and nose. Related Cases

Forensic Anthropology

Transcript: Bone fusion Suture closures Joint mobility Bone deterioration Teeth Hip bones Teeth can give idea of biological markers- shovel shaped incisors indicate mongoloid. Every object use to inflict damage to the skeleton leaves a unique signature on the bones that can be traced back to the weapon, knives, saws and ballistics, even two knives made by the same manufacture will have different wear patterns that can be detected using microscopes. though matching can be difficult unless some of the weapon becomes lodged, gather more of idea of type of weapon and how it was used. - slice, stab, carving etc. also sometimes intent or skill level from false starts. Caucasoid female (2.90) (tibia length in centimeters) + 61.53 Weathering Rodent gnawing Discoloration flaking of bone porosity Cracking Burning regression equation using the Femur. More accurate measurements are achieved when you add the lengths of the Tibula, fibula, radius, humerus and ulna. Sex Life Environment, occupation and teeth Quality of dental care Muscular attachments Diet Bone injuries skull markers such as supra-orbital, mental eminence or prognathic facial Hip bones subpubic concavity indicates female, flat or concave typically indicates male. Taphonomy Mongoloid male(2.39) (tibia length in centimeters) + 81.45 Caucasoid male(2.42) (tibia length in centimeters) + 81.93 Overall health and exposure to Bone spurs caused by diseases such as syphilis or rickets which cause permanent bone scaring Age Muscle attachments Tissue depth markers Fat deposits Muscular attachments can indicate level of activity, strength, build, job, how much someone works out. Also shown in bone attachments are repetitive motion or stress leaves marks on the skeleton - Someone whom is obese will show bowing of long bones in the legs and deformation in ankles. Height Cause of Death What is it and what do we use it for? Injuries sustained antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem have distinct bone reaction. A bone can start to remodel after 6 hours. Injuries inflicted perimortem will stain the bone with blood and bone marrow. Even slight impression from blunt force trauma can be detected with use of dyes. You can even trace the progression of injuries through micro fractures as a fracture will not cross an existing one Reading Bones delebrate modifaction of the skull through binding, head dress or other rituals causing deformation of the vertical occipital and frontal bones or elongation of entire head. Rated on either the Suchey-Brooks or Todd scoring system 1-5. 1 being most female The analysis and interpenetration of human remains. By learning to read bones one can deduce Ethnicity and culture - what happened postmortem Minerals found in bones and teeth can be traced to levels found in drinking water and food. Tool Marks Skull attributes Facial Reconstruction MALES (height in inches) Height equals (length of radius x 3.3) plus 34 Height equals (length of humerus x 2.9) plus 27.8 FEMALES (height in inches) Height equals (length of radius x 3.3) plus 32 Height equals (length of humerus x 2.8) plus 28.1 eye sockets - Round being characteristic of mongoloid Age, sex, height and ethnicity where one grew up and anywhere they spent a substantial amount of time. Occupation Level of activity General body type, slim, athletic, obese, etc. Pitting on the pelvic bone normally indicated vaginal birth, except in rare cases where markers are trauma inflicted Negroid male (2.19)(tibia length in centimeters) + 85.36 Negroid female (2.45) (tibia length in centimeters) + 72.56 Forensic Anthropology Skull size shape Shape of pelvis & oscoxae Bones within the pelvis

Forensic Anthropology

Transcript: Douglas H. Ubelaker (born 1946) is an American forensic anthropologist. He works as a curator for the Smithsonian Institution, and has published numerous papers and monographs that have helped establish modern procedures in forensic anthropology. He has also done work in Latin America, with Native Americans, and assists the FBI in forensic cases. The FIS laboratory is responsible for conducting specialized examinations of items brought to the Unit by FIS personnel as well as field personnel and investigators He became interested in Anthropology after working with Dr. Bill Bass on an American Indian project in the Dakotas. He received his B.A. at the University of Kansas in 1968. Contributions to Forensic Anthropology Douglas H. Ubelaker Hugh Berryman is a U.S. forensic anthropologist with areas of expertise in blunt force trauma, skeletal remains, and osteology. He is one of only three forensic anthropologists in the state of Tennessee and seventy-four in the nation certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology Hugh Berryman Forensic Identification Services In 1973 Ubelaker received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas; he is also board certified in forensic anthropology by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. He then returned to Washington to work in the position formerly held by T. Dale Stewart at the National Museum of Natural History. He also teaches a forensic anthropology course at The George Washington University. Forensic Anthropology Berryman has made significant academic contributions through his applied research in areas including blunt force trauma such as cranial gunshot wounds, archeology, and history. The Laboratory is staffed by Forensic Identification Officers and provides the following specialized examinations utilizing chemical and alternate light sources to detect fingerprints: •Laser/dye staining - rifles, handguns, ammunition, drug packaging and other smooth, non-porous items •Laser/fluorescent powder - rife stocks and other porous surfaces •Specialized dye staining techniques - adhesive tape, drugs, etc. Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology (scientific study of bones)in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victim's remains are in the advanced stages of decomposition. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable. Key Forensic Anthropologists What is Forensic Anthropology ?


Transcript: Forensic Anthropology $alary Lecturer or Assistant Professor at a university: $35,000-50,000 Full Time Professor: $90,000-100,000 Hired by a public sector or a federal public health service: $95,000+ There is great potential in being a paid consultant ot expert witness for law firms, police departments, and for various law enforcement branched of the federal government for additional income 1st step: Bachelor's Degree -Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry, Physiology, or Anthropology 2nd step: Graduate Degree -Human Biology or Anthropology 3rd step: Master's Degree (not necessary) -can qualify you to begin your investigative career -most Forensic Anthropologists have a Ph.D What is Forensic Anthropology you may ask? Oh Where, oh where can I work? Now how can I get smart? State, FBI, or private laboratory National or global facilities together with a Medical Examiner Consultant for law firms, law enforcement & federal agencies, or an expert witness in court The most common initial career path: professor Being a professor allows you to: pursue consulting and research, have the status of a university to apply for grants for that research. Publishing research results in scientific journals that enhances your academic standing which in turm increases your status as an expert in forensic anthropology. For more information: aka Temperance "Bones" Brennan's occupation Analysis of skeletal, badly decomposed, or otherwise unidentified human remains -Important in both legal and humanitarian contexts Application of standard scientific techniquers developed in physical anthropology to analyze human remains and to aid in the detection of crime Assist in locating and recovering human skeletal remains Asses the age, sex, ancestry, stature, and unique features of a decedent from the skeleton -American Board of Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology

Transcript: Forensic Anthropology Salary: In general forensic anthropologist make $54000 a year. A FA with one to four years of experience earn between $39,600 and $58,262 per year. Forensic anthropologists who possess five to nine years of experience earn $30,000 to $73,698 per year. Type Complete-broken all the way through Incomplete-crack, not complete break Comminuted- Piece not with bone Linear-pressure on skull, soft blunt weapon Stellate- Star shaped piece missing, hard, blunt weapon Depressed- associated with stellate Broken Hyoid- if not adult, not fused, may indicate strangulation Timing-Linear cracks do not cross prior cracks, indicate attack order By looking at the fracture marks, it will help a forensic scientist deterimne COD and can help with building a case. There are factor that help determine death that they look at: Some environmental factors from Tennessee for example include: 3 weeks -- articulated bones 5 weeks -- some scatter, some articulated 4 months -- disarticulated, within 10' circle 7 to 8 months -- most bones w/in 10' circle and all w/in 20' 1 year -- small bones missing, complete disarticulation 2 to 4 years -- some bones broken, scatterd 40', some large bones missing 12+ years -- bone rot; partial burial* 15 to 20 years -- no surface evidence * partial burial from leaves, storms, erosion from shallow burial Forensic anthropology By Bradley J. Adams What to look for in figuring gender The American board of Forensic Anthropologist has a certification program that will help a Forensic Anthropologist is certified it will open up more job opportunities. To be certified the board looks at experience, training, education, and achievements. The candidate must also pass an exam that covers theory and practice. Once certified the Anthropologist must stay current and keep earning education units. Environmental Factors Male Female General Size: Large Small Architecture: Rugged Smooth Supraorbital Margin: Rounded Sharp Mastoid Process: Large Small Occipital Bone: Muscle Lines and Protuberance Marked Lines not marked Glabella: Bony Flat Gonial Angle: Squared Wide Angle Palate: Larger, Broader, Small Occipital Condyles: Large Small Excavation Over View Forensic Anthropologist are often called to help identify bodies after natural disasters and recovering evidence at crime scenes because of their knowledge and techniques in which can help recover evidence. They can determine how a person died, and get a variety of information from the human remains. They are divided into two categories; those in the academic field and those in the applied field. Academic forensic anthropologists work in universities. They teach classes regarding forensic anthropology. Those who work in the applied field work with law enforcement, coroners, or medical examiners. Sources A forensic Anthropologist uses standard archaeology procedures and tools when they are recovering bones or other human remains from a crime scene. A forensic anthropologist also has developed techniques in excavation that help them recover remain without disturbing any possible evidence. Certification Fracture Chart Education Education: Entry Level-The first step is to obtain a bachelor’s degree in anthropology. Undergraduates should get a non-specialized anthropology degree. Undergrads should also take a variety of classes including: archaeology, cultural and physical anthropology, and others such as genetics, chemistry and anatomy. Advanced position- AS well as obtaining education in the paragraph above a great forensic anthropologist also should have a good grasp on osteology (bones), dentition (teeth), and ethnobotany (plant remains and pollen). They will have also acquired a master’s/ Ph.D. in forensic anthropology. Salary

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