Transcript: baby after the birth: fossa ovalis ligamentum teres ligamentum venosum medical umbilical ligaments superior vesicular artey ligamentum arteriosum In fetal circulation the umbilical cord contains one vein that sends oxygenated blood into a baby's body. There are two arteries that remove the deoxygenated blood. In the circulation of baby after birth, the gas exchange takes place in the lungs. When cutting the umbilical cord, the placental circulation system is switched off and the fetal heart shunts close. how are nutrients absorbed? In fetal circulation waste travels out of the fetus through the umbilical cord, into smaller vessels that lie within the villi of the placenta. Maternal blood fills the spaces that surround the villi waste, and can diffuse through the villi tissues. It also can transfer between the mothers blood and the blood of the vessels of the baby. In circulation of baby after birth waste is removed, digestion of food is eliminated through the anus in the form of feces. fetal circulation how are gases exchanged? In fetal circulation the blood of the umbilical cord moves into smaller blood vessels, which lie within the villi of the placenta. Since the placenta is attached to the mother, the maternal blood can fill the spaces surrounding the villi. Nutrients can diffuse through villi tissues and transfer between the mothers blood and the blood vessels of the baby. In circulation of the baby after birth partially digested food, known as chyme, moves through the small intestines where nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream. how is waste removed? by: Mary Albitz what main structures are involved? fetal structure: foramen ovale umbilical vein intra abdominal part umbilical arteries abdominal ligaments ductus arteriosum how does blood flow through the heart and lungs In fetal circulation, the shunt that bypass the lungs is called the foreman oval. It moves blood from the right atrium of the heart to the left atrium. The ductus arteriosus moves blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. Oxygen and nutrients from the mothers blood is transferred across the placenta to the fetus. In Circulation of baby after birth blood enters the heart through two large veins. The inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen poor blood from the body into the right atrium. As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve. Logo
Transcript: Lungs: - full of fluid - not site of gas exchange -> mainly nonfunctional Fetal circulation by Tara Bröker 3. Mixed blood enters R.A. 4. Some enters R.V. & exits via pulmonary trunk 5. Can pass through ductus arteriosus to aorta 6. Majority passes through foramen ovale into the L.A. 7. Exits via aorta to the tissue 8. Blood returns to placenta via umbilical arteries 2. Majority bypasses the liver via Ductus venosus Sources: - 1. Oxygen + nutrient rich blood enters the umbilical vein
Transcript: Fetal circulation There are many differences between regular circulation in an adult and in a fetus. In an adult, arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry the blood back to the heart where in a fetus the arteries carry non-oxygenated blood back to the heart and veins carry oxygenated blood away from the heart In an adult or child there is more pressure on the left side of heart but in a fetus the increased pressure is on the right side of the heart. there are two main structural differences. A fetus has a Foramen Ovale and ductus arteriosus to help reroute the blood. For most of it's time in the womb the fetuses lungs are collapsed and not functional. Blood flow to the placenta is provided by a pair of umbilical arteries which arise from the internal iliac arteries and enter the umbilical cord. Blood returns from the placenta in the single umbilical vein, bringing oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Fetal circulation sequence Exchange of gases occurs in the placenta. Oxygenated blood is carried by the umbilical vein towards the fetal heart. The ductus venosus directs part of the blood flow from the umbilical vein away from the fetal liver (filtration of the blood by the liver is unnecessary during the fetal life) and directly to the inferior vena cava. Blood from the ductus venosus enters to the inferior vena cava. Increase levels of oxygenated blood flows into the right atrium. In adults, the increase pressure of the right atrium causes the tricuspid valve to open thus, draining the blood into the right ventricle. However, in fetal circulation most of the blood in the right atrium is directed by the foramen ovale (opening between the two atria) to the left atrium. The blood then flows to the left atrium to the left ventricle going to the aorta. Majority of the blood in the ascending aorta goes to the brain, heart, head and upper body. The portion of the blood that drained into the right ventricle passes to the pulmonary artery. As blood enters the pulmonary artery (carries blood to the lungs), an opening called ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. Hence, most of the blood will bypass the non-functioning fetal lungs and will be distributed to the different parts of the body. A small portion of the oxygenated blood that enters the lungs remains there for fetal lung maturity. What is a blue baby A 'blue baby' happens when a baby is born but the foramen ovale or the ductus arteriosus has not closed and the baby is not getting any oxygen because the blood is still bypassing the lungs. Prompt treatment is required and the foramen ovale or ductus arteriosus is surgically closed and blood flow is corrected. When the baby is born it takes a breath and starts regular circulation. It is also known as the fetoplacental circulation, which includes the umbilical cord Another difference is that a fetus does not get oxygen from inhaling it like we do and gas exchange does not happens in the lungs, instead it gets oxygen from the umbilical cored that is attached to the mother and the gas exchange happens in the placenta. A fetal hear beats anywhere from 120 beats to 160 beats per minute Fetal circulation: The transportation of blood containing wastes and nutrients around the body in a fetus (an unborn baby). The umbilical arteries then carry the non-oxygenated blood away from the heart to the placenta for oxygenation.
Transcript: Fossa Ovalis BYPASSES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE BYPASS THE LUNGS Ductus Arteriosus During Second Trimester Usually stays open for a couple days after birth. BYPASS TO THE LEFT ATRIUM Chermaine & Harleen & Josh Thursday, April 07, 2016 FETAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEM FORAMEN OVALE ADULT DUCTUS VENOSUS & LIVER CIRCULATION High Pressure to Low Pressure BYPASSING THREE MAIN ORGANS TORVIN KISERUD Shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava. Allowing oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver. BYPASS THE LUNGS FORAMEN OVALE DUCTUS VENOSUS Blood flow in the Ductus Arterious REDUCES BLOOD FLOW TO THE FETAL LIVER If not the the new born child has intrabdominal problems Right Atrium to Left Atrium Pathway of the Blood What happens after birth? DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS ADULT vs. FETAL FETAL After birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and the pulmonary circuit is established, constricting the Ductus Venosus and becomes the ligamentum venosum. FOREMAN OVULE DIFFERENCES BYPASS TO THE HEART Before Birth, it carries high oxygenated blood from the placenta, via the umbilical cord, to the Inferior Vena Cava. PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOS DUCTUS VENOSUS DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS DUCTUS ARTERIOUS BYPASSES THE LIVER INCREASES BLOOD FLOW IN THE IVC SO MORE BLOOD CAN GO INTO THE FORAMEN OVALE [FO] Third Trimester DUCTUS VENOSUS PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FETAL CIRCULATION Patent Duct Condition FORAMEN OVALE CONNECTS THE INTRA-ABDOMINAL UMBILICAL VEIN TO THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA [IVC] TO BYPASS THE LIVER
Transcript: How does the fetal circulatory system work? What if those shunts don't follow the blueprints after birth?... If you remember nothing else.... Normally closes due to increased O2 tension. Acetylcholine, bradykinins, and prostaglandin are the chemical mediators which assist in closure of the ductus arteriosus. Aortic blood is shunted into the pulmonary artery. 2-3 times more common in females than males, etiology is unknown. Most common congenital anomaly associated with maternal rubella infection during early pregnancy Premature infants often have a PDA related to hypoxia and immaturity. First line treatment is to use indomethacin to chemically close the PDA. If that is unsucessful, surgical closure of a PDA is achieved by ligation and division of the ductus arteriosus. *Adaptive fetal circulation. *Higher RBC levels. *Higher hemoglobin; up to and over 20 mg/dl. *Left-Shifted Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) p50 of 19 mm Hg compared to adult's p50 of 27 mm Hg. *Increased cardiac output (200 ml/kg/minute) FETAL CIRCULATION Josh Laack March 8, 2016 REFERENCES Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Normally closes due to increased SVR (due to separation from the placenta), increased alveolar and arterial oxygen tension with a resultant decreased PVR (due to lung expansion.) The decreased PVR leads to the decreased right heart pressures. A small, isolated patent foramen ovale essentially has no hemodynamic significance. However, if other defects are present (such as pulmonary stenosis), blood deficient in oxygen will be shunted through the foramen ovale. This hypoxemic blood will go straight into the left ventricle, producing readily identifiable cyanosis. A probe patent foramen ovale is present in up to 25% of people. Usually small enough to be considered clinically insignificant. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) PDA is considered more serious than PFO Thanks for your time, and enjoy the rest of your day! Fetal Circulatory Changes In a ....... "Cardiovascular System." Human Embryology Organogenesis. Universities of Fribourg, Lausanne, and Bern (Switzerland)., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2016 <http://www.embryology.ch/anglais/pcardio/umstellung02.html>. "Circulatory Changes at Birth." Fetal Circulation. University of California, Berkeley, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2016. <https://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb135e/fetal.html>. Brice, Glenn (2016). Advanced Human Physiology notes. University of Wisconsin La Crosse. Morgan, G.E., Mikhail, M.S. & Murray, M.J. (2013). Cliinical Anesthesiology, Fifth Editon. New York: McGraw-Hill. In the fetus, gas exchange occurs in the placenta. The fetal circulation is "shunt-dependent." The presence of fetal hemoglobin and a high combined ventricular output (CVO) help maintain oxygen delivery in the fetus despite low oxygen partial pressures. The transition from fetal to neonatal life involves closure of circulatory shunts and acute changes in pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. Overview of Fetal Circulatory Development The system begins to develop toward the end of the third week after conception. The heart starts to beat at the beginning of the fourth week. The most critical period of heart development is from day 20 to day 50 after conception (in a time frame where many women aren't even aware they are pregnant yet...) Many crucial steps occur during cardiac and pulmonary development, and any deviation from this "normal pattern" can cause congenital heart defects, as well as pulmonary complications. 1) Ductus Arteriosus Allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation, connects to the descending aorta. Acts to protect the lungs against circulatory overload. Closure starts approximately 10 hours after birth, and is usually complete roughly 3 weeks later. 2) Foramen ovale Shunts highly oxygenated blood from the right atrium to the left atrium. Should close within several hours after birth. 3) Ductus Venosus The fetal blood vessel connecting the umbilical vein to the IVC Carries mostly highly oxygenated blood. Closes mechanically with cord clamping at birth. A stressed newborn can quickly revert back to fetal circulation by reopening the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale, which can be detrimental to the neonate. Stress factors which anesthesia can help to control include: hypoxemia, hypotension, hypothermia...(3 hypos), as well as hypercapnea and hypervolemia...(2 hypers). Chronic Hypoxia - How Does the Fetus Cope? 3 Shunts in the Fetal Circulation The fetus is connected by the umbilical cord to the placenta, which is the organ that develops and implants in the mother's uterus during pregnancy. Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen (as fetal lungs do not pacipate in oxygen exchange), and life support from the mother through the placenta. Waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetus are sent back through the umbilical cord and placenta to the mother's circulation to be eliminated.
Transcript: How are wastes removed? FETAL CIRCULATION In fetal circulation the The blood of the umbilical cord moves into smaller blood vessels that lie within the villi of the placenta. Since the placenta is attached to the mother, maternal blood can fill the spaces that surround the villi. Nutrients can diffuse through the villi tissues and transfer between the mother’s blood and the blood vessels of the baby. In circulation of Baby after Birth Partially digested food (chyme) moves through the small intestines where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. In fetal circulation the umbilical cord contains one vein that sends oxygenated blood into baby’s body, and two arteries that remove the deoxygenated blood. In Circulation of Baby after Birth ,The gas exchange takes place in the lungs.By cutting the umbilical cord, the placental circulation system is switched off and The fetal heart shunts become closed. http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb135e/fetal.html What main structures are involved? Fetal Structure: -Foramen Ovale -Umbilical Vein (intra-abdominal part) -Ductus Venosus -Umbilical Arteries and abdominal ligaments -Ductus Arteriosum In fetal circulation The shunt that bypass the lungs is called the foramen ovale. It moves blood from the right atrium of the heart to the left atrium. The ductus arteriosus moves blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. Oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood are transferred across the placenta to the fetus. In Circulation of Baby after Birth Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium. As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve. -http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/hypertension-working-heart References How does blood flow through the heart and lungs? -http://www.embryology.ch/anglais/pcardio/umstellung02.html -FLVS LESSON -https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/Encyclopedia/Content.aspx?ContentTypeID=90&ContentID=P02362 How are nutrients absorbed? Baby after Birth: -Fossa Ovalis -Ligamentum teres -Ligamentum venosum -Medial umbilical ligaments, superior vesicular artery (supplies bladder) -Ligamentum arteriosum How are gases exchanged? In fetal circulation waste travels out of the fetus through the umbilical cord, to smaller vessels that lie within the villi of the placenta. Maternal blood fills the spaces that surround the villi wastes can diffuse through the villi tissues and transfer between the mother’s blood and the blood vessels of the baby. In circulation of Baby after Birth waste is removed after the digestion of food and is eliminated through the anus in the form of feces.
Transcript: Importance of the Placenta Fetal Circulation Blood Flow Umbilical Arteries Umbilical Cord and Ducutus Venosus Second Shunt Includes large umbilical vein and two smaller umbilical arteries Umbilical vein carries nutrients and oxygen rich blood to the fetus Umbilical arteries carry carbon dioxide and debris laden blood from the fetus to the placenta The ductus venosus bypasses the immature liver and deposit blood through the inferior vena cava which then goes on to the right atrium. At Birth Two Shunts used to bypass lungs Foramen ovale: blood entering right atrium shunted into the left atrium through the opening in the interatrial septum Fetal Tissue A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation The fetal heart rate is approximately twice as fast as an adult's The human placenta is about nine inches long and one inch thick, and weighs around one pound In some cultures the placenta is incinerated, eaten, or buried (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Placenta Aorta Collapsed and nonfunctional lungs Foramen ovale closes Ductus arteriosus collapses and turns into fibrous ligamentum arteriosum When blood stops flowing through umbilical vessels they are obliterated Circulatory patterns becomes that of an adult Spark Nutrient, excretory, gas exchanges occur here Lungs and digestive system do not function Nutrients and oxygen move from the mother’s blood into the fetal blood Fetal wastes move in opposite direction Blood that accidently enters right ventricle is pumped out the pulmonary trunk and meets the second shunt: ductus arteriosus A short vessel that connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood enters the systemic circulation through shunt Fun Facts!!
Transcript: Male cat, pelvic viscera exposed by cutting the pelvic symphysis. testis (1), spermatic cord (2), penis (3), pelvic urethra (4), prostate (asterisk), urinary bladder (5), median ligament (6) of the urinary bladder running to the reflected abdominal floor.following arteries: caudal mesenteric a. (7), deep circumflex iliac a. (8), external iliac a. (9), internal iliac a. (10), umbilical a. (11) continuing in the lateral ligament of the urinary bladder, internal pudendal a. (12), prostatic a. Coronary Arteries Ox Veins Human LUMBAR TRUNKS- extend from the medial iliac lymph nodes to the cisterna chyli. It receives lymph over the visceral, celiac, intestinal, jejunal, hepatic, and colic trunks. CISTERNA CHYLI- the dilation at the thoracolumbar junction receiving lymph from the lumbar and intestinal (visceral) trunks (draining the lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limb.) THORACIC DUCT- the major lymphatic vessel draining the entire body, except the right thoracic limb, right cranial thorax, and the right side of the neck. Right Lymphatic Duct- drains the right cranial thorax, right thoracic limb and the right side of the neck into the venous system where the caudal vena cava is formed. The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries Common carotid artery -external carotid -internal carotid Subclavian artery -Right subclavian artery -Left subclavian artery FUNCTION: Involved in lymphocyte and antibody production. Phagocytosis. Movement of fats from the digestive system to the circulation. Filtration of lymph and blood. Lymphatic Capillaries- blind-ended tubes located throughout the body. They pick up the excess interstitial fluid (lymph). Lymphatic Vessels- the larger vessels formed by the convergence of lymph capillaries. Lymph Nodes- the ovoid or bean-shaped encapsulated structures located along the course of the medium sized lymphatic vessels. Primitive cells- located in lymph nodes, they differentiate into lymphocytes or plasma cells. Macrophages- the phagocytic cells lining the wall of the sinuses. Lymphocenters- group of lymph nodes draining the same region of the body in all species. Lymphatic Organs – primary and secondary lymphatic organs. Primary Lymphatic organ- initially produce lymphocytes in the embryo and young animals. Secondary Lymphatic organ- contain activated lymphocytes. Arterial Supply Comparative Differences Pelvic Vessels Canine Horse Domestic birds do not have lymph nodes. Instead, there are nodules of lymphoid tissue in the bone marrow. If an infection is present in the body, the lymph nodes nearest the site of infection may become swollen or painful. This is caused by an accumulation of cells and fluids involved in the immune response. In 24 hours, approximately 50% of the lymphocytes in the blood pass through the spleen. In a human, the lymphatic system returns 2.83 liters (3 quarts) of lymph to the heart every 24 hours. That is about a ½ a cup per hour! Bovine Abdominal Aorta Heart Development Arteries and Veins of the PelvicLimb Arteries of the thorax Dog 1. Abdominal Aorta 2. Celiac a. 3. Cran. mesenteric a. 4. Renal a. 5. Gonadal a. 6. Caud. mesenteric a. 7. Int. iliac a. 8. Ext. iliac a. Ovine Interesting Facts Horse The essential difference between the bovine arterial system of the hindlimb and that of the dog is the supply to the distal hindlimb. Unlike horses and dogs the saphenous artery doesn't have cranial and caudal branches. Instead it continues down the plantar aspect of the foot and splits into the medial and lateral plantar digital arteries. The dorsal metatarsal artery III sits in the groove between metatarsal III andd IV and becomes the dorsal common digital artery III near the fetlock. An interdigital artery exists that connects the dorsal common digital artery III and the plantar common digital artery III by passing through the interdigital space. There are axial and abaxial digits that run on their respective sides of the digits. The cells from the secondary field populate the pharyngeal arches, the outflow tract, and the developing right ventricle and extend beyond the interventricular groove to enter the left ventricle. Horse Conclusion Oxygenated blood enters the umbilical vein from the placenta Enters ductus venosus Passes through inferior venacava Enters the right atrium Enters the foramen ovale Goes to the left atrium Passes through left ventricle Flows to ascending aorta to supply nourishment to the brain and upper extremities Aortic Arch a. Lt. gastric a. b. Hepatic a. c. Gastroduodenal a. d. Cran. pancreaticoduodenal a. e. Rt. gastric a. f. Splenic a. g. Lt. gastroepiploic a. h. Rt. gastroepiploic a. i. Lt. ruminal a. j. Reticular a. k. Rt. Ruminal a. Umbilical cord 2 umbilical arteries: return de- oxygenated blood, fecal waste, CO2 to placenta 1 umbilical vein: brings oxygenated blood and nutrients to the fetus LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; LYMPHOCENTERS CORONARY ARTERIES Horse also called
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