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Transcript: Survivorship Curve Before and After Influenza Vaccine Cady Houghton Procedure Background Experimental Design Methods Research Question 1) A data base of cemeteries was looked up to find death dates and information. 2) From the data base information was put into a google drive document. 3) 40 people dying before the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into one chart showing the ages of death. 4) 40 people dying after the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into another chart also showing ages of death. 5) Both charts of groups of people were converted into a life history table. 6) From each life history table the data was put into another chart to make two survivorship curve charts. 7) The survivorship curve charts were put into one survivorship curve chart to show the difference in curves. A laptop was used for this lab. If the influenza vaccine works then if we compare the survivorship curve of before and after the vaccine it will show people living longer because the vaccine will be decreasing the death rate. The independent variable in this experiment is the influenza vaccine. The dependent variable is the death rate in this experiment. The exponential variables in this experiment are the other disease epidemics during the time period the data was chosen from. The control is the survivorship curve before the influenza vaccine and the experimental is the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine. The survivorship curves of before and after the influenza vaccine was created are both Type I survivorship curves. They also have the caracteristics for K-selected species. While they are both Type I and K-selected species, the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine was created had a decrease in death rates between 20 and 70 years of age of about .5 #/1,000 surviving. Then, towards the 75 and 90 years range, the #/1000 surviving leveled out and became extremely similar in curves. Did people die younger before the influenza vaccine was created? In comparing survivorship curves a Log10 scale is used for its ability to show you greater numbers in a more readable way and to show same mortality with the same curve when two scales are put together. In a Log10 scale there are three Types of information. The first, Type 1, are mainly humans. Type I survivorship curves are characterized by high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life. Type 2 is mainly birds and Type 3 is mainly reptiles. Within these Types are two categories of species, K-Selected, or Equilibrium, species and R-Selected, or Opportunist, species. K-Selected species usually have stable resources and a stable environment, and this is usually what humans are categorized as. R-Selected species are usually whose population size tends to fluctuate greatly in reaction to variations in the environment. Comparing the survivorship curves, defined as a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species or group cohort, before and after the influenza vaccine was created will show if the vaccine helped increase the population. Before the 1940s when the influenza vaccine was created, the epidemic was particularly deadly in US Army training camps, where the death rate was as high as 80% in some camps. Death rate is usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. The US military was getting hit with influenza the most forcing them to developed the first approved vaccine for influenza, which was used in the Second World War. Studying this specific survivorship curve will also help to tell if their were more survival rates in the US military during the time. Results With the original research question in mind, before the influenza vaccine was created people were dying younger. This question was answered by the survivorship curve graph comparing the curves before and after the influenza vaccine. As the graph shows between 20 and 70 years of age there is a significant difference in curves, meaning that the death rate before the vaccine in that time period was increased more than after the vaccine was created. From that specific area of the graph it can be concluded that people were dying younger before the influenza vaccine was created, thus the hypothesis was correct. For future study it would be interesting to see the survivorship curve in the US military before and after the vaccine not just the population in general. Because the US military was the one who invented it because they were the one being impacted with the death rate from the influenza epidemic the most, the survivorship curve would have a chance of being more predominant. Graph Clear Digital Media, Inc. (1997-2011). Cemetery Records Online. October 1, 2013, www.interment.net Genealogical Gleanings. (1997-2004). Plagues and Diseases. October 3, 2013, genealogical-gleanings.com/Plauges.htm Introduction

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Transcript: Focus on my own backyard Poverty, social exclusion and isolation are some of the main triggers for mental health problems We help children realise their full potential Skin colour Poor children grow up to become poor adults... or something at work? Help out at events By supporting TDC you can... Whitehawk = Take control over some of the problems our city faces East of Lewes Road Thank you Many areas fall into the bottom 20% of wards across England Change a child's future Which bring us neatly on to you They are often poor role models B&H clinical commissioning group study Mental health problems 0% LGBT people So they can become self-sufficient and take control 80% Isolation Bevendean Clothing Living standards It all helps Last year TDC... TDC build strong, healthy, inclusive communities Use your business skills to help educate community groups Do something sporty? Show your staff, customers and the people of the city, that you are taking action to support them Max and his mates were hanging out on Bevendean's streets Family We look at the research Help you reach new audiences 20% 60% Moulsecoombe and was even recognised by the Prime Minister for her work with young people Every £1 spent on youth services now And we will make sure we pull our weight What about the parents? Keep vital services available; 87% of youth funding is from the Council - budget cuts in April will mean a 100% reduction TDC tackle the root cause of the issues So how do you decide what to support? He is now a national champion We change children's futures Poverty Brighton & Hove may feel like an affluent city, but it is also one of the most deprived We also make a big impact on Brighton We know you want to do something We then encourage them to join like-minded groups, offering: Projected to increase by 11.5% (1,500) by 2024 TDC's Wild Park Youth Festival has engaged 1000's of Eastern Brighton's young people with physical exercise, group activities and healthy living An adult living in Moulsecoomb or Whitehawk, lives 10 years less than an adult in 'affluent' Brighton then go out into communities and speak to people about the challenges they face Match you with relevant groups And of course, Adults who have grown up in poverty are far more likely to commit crime, become homeless, struggle with drink or drugs and have mental or physical health problems... We use what we have learned to identify young people facing significant challenges Only 36% of Brighton & Hove residents are in full time work - most adults in deprived parts of the city have limited work opportunities Or just raise cash The world is a big place South Hangleton Have you thought about your own backyard? It's great that you want to help And for many people it is full of challenges Make a massive difference to hundreds of lives Talk about you on our website and newsletter Or mentor a young person 40% She joined us as a youth trustee We have listened Max started boxing - putting his energies into sport Institutional care leavers And it makes a massive difference Race so they need support themselves Kids feel they have no opportunities or support. They have nowhere to go and nothing to do. They can't change their lives as they aren't in control of them social value Disabilities Make a positive impact 100% Try and get you some good PR So think about Brighton when you decide who your company wants to support She became more and more involved in youth opportunities We help pre-empt problems before they escalate the cycle continues Unemployment is high, housing is limited, crime is on the increase and demand on food-banks is increasing Now it's time to act Most charities deal with pre-existing problems... How well do you know your city? Keep you up to date with our news Provide you with content for blogs We offer training and opportunities so that children aspire to more in life far more prevalent Invest in young people's futures Getting involved can mean anything So what do we know? Be an active part of the Brighton community Social class Social exclusion but most importantly, make sure your money goes where it is needed Government's indicies of deprivation firefighting the issues Display your info on community noticeboards Invite you to events link you to other partners Educational status TDC worked with Bevendean Boxing Club to secure a grant to expand the premises by 50% 46% of Brighton's children live in these areas Riz joined our Bevendean activities group We facilitate groups and activities that benefit their health and well-being Training Governance advice Information about services Introductions to other organisations Assistance with funding applications Volunteers Reduce homelessness Parts of Moulsecoomb and Whitehawk rated worse than Manchester's Moss Side and London's Tower Hamlets Provide opportunities for young people Policing NHS services Child Welfare Homeless Hostels Benefits Justice system But, with the combined efforts of businesses and TDC we can break that we

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