Transcript: Brazos Bend State Park Grey Fox mostly eat eastern cottontail rabbits will hunt for other species if needed though Eastern Cottontail ~ eat vegetation almost exclusively although there have been some reports of arthropods in their pellets Minks are carnivores The End! Thanks for watching! Gray Foxes: Climb trees to avoid predators more energy taken The kits are blind at birth, weigh six grams and possess a short coat of fine, silver-white hairs. Gray Fox Adaptations The nest is a slanting hole dug in soft soil and lined with vegetation and fur. About the Biome less energy taken Mink The Eastern Cottontail The spurge is an invasive plant that uses toxins to prevent the growth of other plants Plant species: Noseburn: was used as medicine back when Native Americans had control of the land; may have a burning or tingling effect on the skin Spurge: Breeding season for the Gray Fox in Texas starts in December and continues until March. Pups are born in April or May, in a litter of 3 - 6. In the wild, the Gray Foxes' life span is 6 - 10 years. Main cause of change in the traits of organisms Traits change so that the organism is better adapted to its environment and has a better chance at survival Altered traits inherited by subsequent generations The forest environment of Brazos Bend consists of live oak gallery forests and mixed bottomland hardwood forests. Birds rest in the many trees to evade predators. There is also mixed hardwood vegetation such as pecans, sugar huckleberries, and various species of shrubs and vines. The elimination of Coyotes in Brazos Bend has allowed for an increase in the Gray Fox population. For the eastern cottontail, the breeding season is year-long. Environmental Changes General Environment Population http://tpwd.texas.gov/state-parks/brazos-bend http://runtrails.net/2010/mar26d.htm http://www.brazosbend.org/florafauna/mammals/grayfox.shtml http://www.brazosbend.org/florafauna/trees/liveoak.shtml http://www.augustaga.gov/1626/Post-Oak http://www.urbancarnivores.com/grey-foxes/ Post Oak Trees: Are relatively small so they can grow in the open at poor sites Eastern Cottontail Eastern cottontail young are born with a very fine coat of hair and are blind. The Mink! Temperate forest hot in summer, cool in winter broadleaf forests precipitation spaces evenly throughout the year Noseburn Post Oak Spurge The Gray Fox Post Oak Tree: Broadleaf; part of the gallery forests; serves as a home and shelter to many birds during their spring migration The young are born either in April or June, with litters of an average of four kits.
Transcript: Kassidy Landrum Every level of life starts with a species. When a lot of the same species come together, it forms a population. A community is made of different populations that come together and eventually an ecosystem is made by different communities coming together. A biome is ecosystems that can survive the same aspects of weather. Tundra can be found at mountain tops. It’s frigid and has a population of only 26,000 people. There are animals such as bison, wolves, whales, and birds in the Tundra area. Taiga takes up a large part of Canada. It’s temperature ranges from -26-14 degrees celcius. Mediterranean California has about 30 million in population. Its dry, weakly developed soil covers 198,975 km2, filled with sagebrush, trees, hills and mountains. Mediterranean California is located in North America on the Pacific Tectonic plates. The ground is covered with silt, sand, and gravel, but the wine that comes from California's vineyards is said to taste very good. The population is about 4 million is 80% forests. It has long winters and long summer and contains animals such as deer, moose, and marten. Working together or Hurting each other? Carnivore- the species only eats other species Herbivore- the species only eats plants Omnivore- the species eats both plants and other species Resource Use Land abuse Pollution Loss of Biodiversity Ozone Depletion Greenhouse Effect Global Warming Soil Erosion Desertification – farming and drought turn dry grasslands into desert Deforestation – cutting down tree’s for things such as housing or paper. heat is retained by the layer of gases (CO2, CH4, etc) forming the atmosphere. This is a Natural Process! Increase in average temperature of biosphere CAUSES – human activities have caused global warming by adding carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere RESULT – greenhouse gases retain more heat and average temp rises. Renewable resources can be renewed by nature, includes energy sources that do not consume fuel Renewable resources are not unlimited, they can be abused Plants, animals prevents much of UV light emitted by sun from reaching Earth’s surface Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – in polar atmosphere, CFCs act as catalyst that enable UV light to break apart ozone materials Ecological Succession • Succession- changes which increase the community complexity over time • Primary succession- succession which takes place when bare, lifeless substrate becomes available for colonization (VERY slow) – retreating glaciers – emerging islands – formation of new lake • Secondary Succession- re-colonization following disturbance (much faster than primary succession) – fire, floods, bulldozers, etc Niche: an organism’s way of life Commensalism Abiotic factors – abiotic means “without oxygen”: species that are not alive Ecology Global Warming? Adaptation The hole in the Ozone Layer A food chain shows the energy flow starting with the main source of energy followed by a produce and consumers Mediterranean California Great Plains Mutalism Tundra Greenhouse Affect Commensalism is when the one species benefits and one species is not affected Ecology is the study of organisms and the way they interact with other organisms A food web shows all the different energy flows in an ecosystem Human Impact Taiga Energy Flow in an Ecosystem The Great Plains region is found in the central part of the continent and extends over the widest range of any single North America biome. What about land abuse? Parasitism North American Deserts Resource Use Food Web Primary Species- the species that starts the succession process Habitat: a specific home to an organism Northern Forests The population is about 8,000,000. It extends from eastern British Columbia to Baja California. Biotic factors – biotic means “with oxygen”: species that are alive Plants and Animals have to adapt to their surroundings because if they don’t they wont be “fit” enough to survive. Food Chain Mutalism is when the two species benefit each other Organizational Structure of Life Biomes of North America! Parasitism is when one species benefits and one is harmed.. Sad Face. Succession
Transcript: Introduction Mass Extinctions 1)The Ordovician-Silurian Extinction 2)The Late Devonian Extinction 3)The Permian-Triassic Extinction 4)The Triassic-Jurassic Extinction 5)The K-T Extinction Causes of Extinction Asteroid crashing Gradual processes Humans! Sea level changing climate change Tectonic Rearrangement Consequences of Extinction By: Jayde, Ken, Gabie, Calvin Extinctions
Transcript: ✳✱* While some debris, dirt, litter that get washed up to the catch basins are "trapped", there are some pollutants that are getting into our waterways that don't belong there. From Cars: oil, anti-freeze From lawns: pesticides, pet waste, foam containers, plastic bags Do not liter Do not hose down extra particles off the sidewalk Properly use hazardous items Fertilizers and pesticides should be used carefully Conserve water Dispose excess waste properly Make sure to not leak car fluids Catch basins can't remove soluable pollutants. How would the environment be affected if the catch basin overflow was contaminated by runoff from the parking lot? Harmful Attributes to a Catch Basin Environmental Affection By: Junia L., Abby S., and Peyton D. "A catch basin or storm drain is a curbside drain with the sole function of collecting rainwater from our properties and streets and transporting it to local waterways through a system of underground piping, culverts and/or drainage ditches. Storm drains can also be found in parking lots and serve the same purpose."—http://www.ci.eureka.ca.gov/ Ecology Presentation Essential Question: In the future, there probably be more people in this area, and there will be more pollutants and unneeded materials that are bad for the ecosystem. People affect ecosystems a lot by leaving trash and causing runoff in the water. Growth of plants and animal populations would most-likely decrease because the health of organisms living here will worsen to an unhealthy living area with pollutants. When there are unhealthy organisms, that means they cannot reproduce more and decrease the populations. So in 10, 50, or 100 years the ecosystem will most-likely be less healthy and less populated. If the catch basin overflow were to be contaiminated by the runoff, the environment around it would suffer. The grass and small creatures living near the basins will slowly deterioate in population, the water system will also be contaiminated, and the catch basin will be no longer pure to carry off the runoff. The animals living inside the water would also have to either learn to live with the new adaptations, or would die, not knowing how to survive. If those species of animals died off in the ecosystem, it would cause a hole in the food chain. This mean that whatever regularly eats this species would have to find something else to eat, which could also cause a decrease in population due to them not having their normal food. What are catch basins? Where are the catch basins located? How can you prevent harmful things from happening? What does a catch basin do? Biology PAP 1st Period "We are not your waste recepticle!" - Catch Basin IN THE FUTURE A catch basin "recharges" the underwater drinking systems by carrying water from rain and melting snow down to the storm drainage systems. Some of the water goes to bays and harbors. These drains also collect small debris and excess materials from getting into the water system.
Transcript: ECOSYSTEMS AND DRINKING WATER Perla Benitez Johnathon Poremba Importance Importance Aquatic ecosystems are extremely important; these ecosystems are in fact essential contributors to biodiversity and provide several benefits to the human population. One, if not the biggest benefit provided by aquatic ecosystems to humanity, is freshwater supply from where we get potable water. Quench Your Thirst Even though nearly 70 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of that water is fresh and drinkable. The remaining amount of water is saline and ocean-based. The amount of drinking water available for humans is extremely finite, and steps towards preservation and conservation need to be considered. Effect on drinking water Main Causes i. Domestic sewage ii. Population growth iii. Industrialization iv. Pesticides and fertilizers v. Plastics and polythene bags vi. Urbanization vii. Weak management system Domestic sewage contains toxicants, solid waste, plastic litters and bacterial contaminants. The toxic material and debris entering the water streams create large issues of water pollution. What is Domestic Sewage? Increasing population leads to increase in solid waste generation More People, More Problems! The sugar, textile, electroplating, pesticides, pulp and paper industries are major producers of waste that negatively impact freshwater ecosystems. " Industries are at Fault Why is this happening? Why is this happening? "According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States households lose over 1 trillion gallons in total each year. Ten percent of American homes squander 90 gallons of water on a daily basis." The Effect The Effect How is this happening? How is this happening The Solution The Solution The standard methods, procedures, techniques, field equipment and analytical instruments required to monitor water quality have been vigorously developed and field-tested in a wide range of situations over the last two decades. A "learning-curve" of experience has been accumulated and communicated through the production of guidebooks and reports on water quality. Let's Fix it! Let's Fix it Spread The World Spread the Word How you can help? Teach Restore Establish Support
Transcript: Ecology Presentation Ecology: The study of how organisms relate to each other Biome: A large community of organisms occupying a major habitat. Examples: Forest and Tundra 5 major biomes of the world Tundra: Coldest biome in the world. Average of -34 degrees Celsius in the winter. Animals adapt to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer. Niches of the Tundra There aren't many plants that grow in the arctic because of it's wild temperature, but the main producer is reindeer moss, a type of lichen. It is named reindeer moss because it is used for pastures for reindeer, moose, caribou, and musk oxen. Polar bears The polar bears niche is to eat walruses, fish,and seals. Desert: Arid deserts generally occur at low latitudes and can be found in North-America, South-America, Africa and Southern Asia. Rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. It's made up of mostly reptiles. Niches of the desert The main producer in a desert is the cactus. They can survive with little water and they store water inside of themselves. Animals try to find a way to get to the water without getting hurt by the castuses thorns. Rattlesnake A rattlesnake's niche is to eats rats, lizards, and birds. It lives among the low-lying bushes in a desert shrub habitat. It is active at dawn and dusk. Its predator is the roadrunner. Forest: There are 3 main types of forest. The Boreal, or Taiga forest, is commonly found in Europe, Asia, Siberia, and North-America, because of their short, warm summers and long winters. Niche of the Boreal Forest The main producers of the Boreal forest are oak trees which produce acorns that animals eat. Tropical Rainforest: The rainforest is the most ecologically rich of the world's biomes. Daylight lasts for 12 hours. There isn't winter because it is the same temperature all year long. It also hosts the largest variety of life forms in all of nature. Niches of the Rainforest There are many producer of the rainforest that range from avocados to shrubs to banana trees. Chimpanzees Niche A chimps niche is to eat fruits, stems, insects, small animals. They can also eat larger prey, such as pigs, baboons and other primates. Temperate Deciduous Forest: Temperate deciduous forest are a close relative of the Boreal biome and can be found in areas with a milder, shorter winter season. Evergreen, maple, elm, oak and ceder trees are in these types of forest. Racoon's Niche They are omnivorous and eat a variety of foods, including frogs, fish, amphibians, insects, eggs, mice, berries, nuts, vegetation and corn. Grassland: A grassland is a semi-arid area with little to no trees. The 3 types of grasslands are prairies, steppes and savannas. Prairies: Prairies are often humid and covered in tall grass. There are few trees, but the soil is very rich and great for plant growth. Steppe: A steppe grassland is usually found in areas of the world which are less prone to moisture. The grass is generally shorter than the prairie grassland. Most of the animals on a steppe grassland are grazing mammals like antelope. Savanna: The savanna is known for the warm and dry climates with long droughts. Plants in the savanna can store water for days because of the long droughts and shortages of water. Niches of the Grassland Most of the niches in the grassland include shrubs and grass. Elephant's Niche The elephants use their trunks as a tool to store water and take bark off of trees. As elephants travel they stir up small animals making it easier for birds to get food. Aquatic Biome: The final biome is the Aquatic Biome. It is also the largest biome. It is split up into two regions. The first is the freshwater region which includes lakes, ponds and rivers. The other region is the marine region which is coral reefs and oceans. Quiz Niches in the Temperate Deciduous Forest The main producers of the deciduous forest are the Oak tree, Eglantine which is a shrub that can grow up to 110 feet tall, and Birch Trees. Symbiotic Relationships: Long term relationship between 2 species in an ecosystem.
Transcript: Created by Tung Pham Presentation Ecology Harmful algal bloom in bottle-nose dolphins * Harmful Algal blooms (HABs) are dangerous to marine life What is investigated? * Adaptations to harmful algal bloom in bottle-nose dolphins Such as an evolved resistances to the toxins over a period of time * As well as the mortality rate of dolphins due to HAB's What are we going to be looking at today? I look at a sequenced pool of genomic DNA from dolphins samples from areas in coastal and estuarine populations that had HAB mortality rates. So given these data sets, we are going to be looking at how the allele frequencies in the polymorphic loci differed significantly in live and dead dolphins So this is a sample data from the fisherExactTest dataset, 1034/7431, in 1999 for PLC 1005/7431, in 2004 for PLC 955/7431, in 1999 for PLE 1101/7431, in 2004 in PLE Results BayeScan results There were 110/7431 cases for PLC in 1999, There were 101/7431 cases in PLC in 2004 For PLE in 1999, there were only 140/7431 For PLE in 2004, there were 73/7431 Final Results For PLC and PLE between 1999-2004 - Data suggests that there was an increased resistance in toxins from both Datasets and methods. While in 2004 for the Fisher's Exact tests had an increase of samples suggesting that the 2004 FisherExact tests would produces cases of false positives. Recommendation Barley Straw - Barley straw, when exposed to sunlight and in the presence of oxygen, produces a chemical that inhibits algae growth. Barley straw bales are broken apart and placed in a buoyant net deployed around the perimeter of the water body to facilitate the necessary chemical reactions and natural processes that prevents algae growth. (United States Enviornmental Protection agency) Works cited https://njaes.rutgers.edu/fs1171/ https://www.noaa.gov/what-is-harmful-algal-bloom https://www.epa.gov/nutrient-policy-data/control-and-treatment http://www.sarasotadolphin.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/2015-Cammen-et-al.-RAD.pdf
Transcript: 5-02-18 Teague & Cristian Temperate Coniferous Forest: Europe In biology, an organism is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organism Organism Cornflower, Grass, lynx, Brown bear, Goat, Grass, Reindeer, European Bison, Butterfly, Ferret, Frog, and Mushroom Organisms in Europe Some Organisms in European Carnivorous Forest Population Population A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses. Communities Community Ecosystem Ecosystem A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. The regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms. Biosphere Biosphere Trophic Level Organisms Cornflower, lynx, Brown bear, Goat, Grass, Reindeer, European Bison, Butterfly, Ferret, Frog, and Mushroom Producers Cornflower, Grass Primary Consumers Goat, Butterfly, European Bison, Reindeer Secondary Consumers Lynx, Brown Bear, Ferret Tertiary Consumers Brown Bear, Lynx Quaternary Consumers None Decomposer Mushrooms Organism Trophic Table Trophic Table
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