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Transcript: What is Halloween? and What do people do on Halloween? Origins of Halloween Why we (as Ahmadi Muslims) should avoid celebrating halloween? What is Shirk? Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural things? What is Halloween? Celebrated on the night of October 31st Traditional activities include: Trick-or-treating Carving jack-o-lanterns Costume parties Visiting "haunted houses" Origin of Halloween celebration of the end of the harvest season Samhain was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and prepare for winter The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundaries between living and the dead overlapped and the deceased would come back to cause havoc such as sickness or damaged crops Masks and costumes were worn in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or appease them. Why we should avoid celebrating Halloween? Halloween is a harmful innovation among Christians which takes one closer to shirk. The Bible forbids witches, satanic practices etc. but Halloween is generally regarded as fun. Hudhur said it should always be remembered that any ‘fun’ that is based on shirk or any harmful way is to be avoided. We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Faith Matters These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” Agenda Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 ... small Conclusion Even a hint of shirk is unacceptable to God What is Shirk? Associate anyone in the name, action, or worship of Allah constitutes shirk Condition of Baiat number 6 says that we “shall refrain from following ______________ Ahmadi muslims do not believe in ghosts and other supernatural things (witches, goblins...) Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural being? Heaven is a better reward than the candy get from you get from trick or treat QUESTIONS? “Badness attracts and leads man to adopt it with intensity, while forgetting traditions and beliefs. Some Ahmadis, considering such matters trivial, also get inclined in this way, resulting in very bad consequences” Shirk causes man to sink morally and spiritually. Belief in Divine Unity is a seed out of which grows all virtues, and lack of which lies at the root of all sins Halloween and what do people do on halloween? What other holidays do we not celebrate? Originated from the ancient celtic festival known as Samhain It is extremely wrong to believe in things that are supernatural even if it is for fun We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Halloween is a tradition when many people celebrate it with extravagant parties, elaborate costumes and spending more $$$ Hudhur’s Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 Why should Ahmadi Muslims avoid celebrating Halloween? Bringing of dead spirits is WRONG and it goes against what we believe as Muslims


Transcript: For 23 cities, minimum distance is 1798.7 FUTURE WORK A number of genetic algorithm techniques have been analyzed and surveyed for solving TSP The research work can be extended for different hybrid selection, crossover and mutation operators Applications of GA include for advanced network models like logistic network, task scheduling models, vehicle navigation routing models etc. seed for the random number generator. Fixed - duplicate previous results CONCLUSIONS import city lists from XML files Special features: - Emphasizes combining information from good parents (crossover) - Many variants eg. reproduction models, operators Crossover Selects genes from parent chromosomes and generates new offspring Crossover point is chosen randomly On Solving Traveling Salesman Problems by Genetic Algorithms by Heinrich Braun no. of cities close by which greedy GA uses to link cities Chromosomes Representation (Encoding) of solution percentage that each child after crossover will undergo mutation A Genetic Algorithm for solving Travelling Salesman Problem by Adewole Philip, Akinwale Adio Taofiki and Otunbanowo Kehinde Parameters: A search technique used in computing to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. - Global search heuristics - Uses crossover and mutation operators using the principle GA Approach Good solutions for various problem sizes; depends on: For a good solution, a trade-off must be made between run-time and the solution quality initial number of random tours GA OPERATORS - the way the problem is encoded - which crossover and mutation methods are used EXPERIMENTAL RESULT a-genetic-algorithm-to-the-travelling-salesman-problem/5 Presented by, Sumithra Pandiaraj Yamini Papudesi Shubhalakshmi Shetty Hariharan Jayaraman Replace repeated city with nearest city Example Parent 1: F A B E C G D Developed: USA in the 1970s Typically applied to: Discrete optimization Attributed features: Good heuristic for combinatorial problems the no. of crossovers run before the algorithm is terminated GA Overview ECE 602 Performs a number of iterations, then the process is terminated and the best optimal tour is chosen. PROBLEM : You've got a number of cities to visit GIVEN : Distances between cities CONSTRAINTS : Visit every place exactly once Return to where you started OPTIMAL SOLUTION: Work out the shortest route HOW? GENETIC ALGORITHM EXAMPLE CASE percent chance the initial population will link to a nearby city Crossover Problem Parameters: Mutation Operation makes random, but small, changes to an encoded solution - all solutions into a local optimum - extends the search space of the algorithm Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) using Genetic Algorithm Number of cities = 23 Applying Genatic Algorithm for Travelling Salesman Problem Choose initial population Evaluate the fitness of each individual in the population Repeat Select best-ranking individuals to reproduce Breed new generation through cross over and mutation (Genetic Operation) and give birth to offspring Evaluate the individual fitness of the offspring Replace worst ranked part of population with offspring Until <terminating conditions> “Survival of the fittest” Optimal solution for different number of cities randomly placed “Traveling salesman is a busy man. So many places to go, so little time” REFERENCES GA Pseudo-Code GENETIC ALGORITHM To account that tour "A B C D E F G" is the same as "G F E D C B A", We can store the links in both directions for each tour. Population Size Mutation % Group Size Maximum Generations # Nearby cities Nearby city odds % Random Seed City list each generation, no. of tours randomly chosen from the population

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